نيويورك (مدينة)

(تم التحويل من مدينة نيويورك)
نيويورك
New York
تجاه عقارب الساعة، من أعلى: وسط مدينة منهاتن، ميدان التايمز، اليونيسفير، جسر بروكلن، منهاتن السفلى ومركز التجارة العالمي، سنترال پارك، مقر الأمم المتحدة، وتمثال الحرية.
Flag of نيويورك New York
Flag
Official seal of نيويورك New York
Seal
Official logo of نيويورك New York
اسم التدليل
Nickname(s): 
خريطة تفاعلية لمدينة نيويورك.
نيويورك is located in نيويورك
نيويورك
نيويورك
نيويورك is located in الولايات المتحدة
نيويورك
نيويورك
نيويورك is located in أمريكا الشمالية
نيويورك
نيويورك
موقع مدينة نيويورك بولاية نيويورك.
الإحداثيات: 40°42′46″N 74°00′21″W / 40.7127°N 74.0059°W / 40.7127; -74.0059Coordinates: 40°42′46″N 74°00′21″W / 40.7127°N 74.0059°W / 40.7127; -74.0059[1]
البلد  الولايات المتحدة
الولاية

 نيويورك


المنطقة وسط الأطلسي
المقاطعات / (الأقسام)

برونكس
بروكلين
منهاتن
كوينز
جزيرة ستاتن


المستعمرات التاريخية هولندا الجديدة
مقاطعة نيويورك
Settled 1624
الدمج 1898
السَمِيْ جيمس، دوق يورك
الحكم[2]
 • النوع المجلس-العمدة
 • الهيئة مجلس مدينة نيويورك
 • العمدة بيل دي بلازيو (د)
المساحة[1]
 • Total 468٫484 ميل² (1٬213٫37 كم²)
 • البر 302٫643 ميل² (783٫84 كم²)
 • الماء 165٫841 ميل² (429٫53 كم²)
 • العمران 13٬318 ميل² (34٬490 كم²)
الارتفاع[3] 33 ft (10 m)
التعداد(2010)[6]
 • Total 8٬175٬133
 • تقدير (2018)[7] 8٬398٬748
 • الترتيب رقم 1، الولايات المتحدة
 • الكثافة 27٬751/sq mi (10٬715/km2)
 • MSA (2018) 19٫979٫477[4] (رقم 1)
 • CSA (2018) 22٫679٫948 [5] (1st)
صفة المواطن New Yorker
منطقة التوقيت EST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق−05:00)
 • الصيفي EDT (UTC−04:00)
الرموز البريدية 100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx
مفتاح الهاتف 212/646/332, 718/347/929, 917
رمز FIPS 36-51000
GNIS feature ID 975772
المطارات الرئيسية مطار جون كندي الدولي، مطار نيوارك ليبرتي الدولي، مطار لاگوارديا
Commuter rail LIRR, Metro-North, NJ Transit
نظام النقل السريع Subway, Staten Island Railway, PATH
ن.م.إ. (المدينة، 2015) 807 بليون دولار [8]
ن.ح.إ. (الكبرى، 2017) 1.7 تريليون دولار [9]
أكبر قسم حسب المساحة كوينز – 280 كم²
أكبر قسم حسب السكان بروكلين (2.636.735 – تقديرات 2015)[10]
أكبر قسم حسب ن.م.إ. (2015) منهاتن – 630 بليون دولار [8]
الموقع الإلكتروني NYC.gov

مدينة نيويورك، أو اختصاراً نيويورك، هي أكثر المدن اكتظاظاً بالسكان في الولايات المتحدة.[11] بتعداد سكان وصل في تقديرات 2018 إلى 8.398.748 نسمة[7] تحتل مدينة نيويورك مساحة مقدارها 1.213.37 كم²،[12][13] كما تعتبر نيويورك المدينة الكبرى الأكثر كثافة في الولايات المتحدة.[14] تقع المدينة على الطرف الجنوبي لولاية نيويورك، وهي مركز منطقة نيويورك الحضرية، أكبر تجمع حضري في العالم حسب مساحة اليابسة الحضرية[15] ومن أكثر المدن الكبرى اكتظاظاً بالسكان في العالم،[16][17] بتعداد سكان بلغ 19.979.477 نسمة في منطقتها الإحصائية الحضرية، و22.679.948 نسمة في منطقتها الإحصائية المجمعة عام 2018.[4][5] كمدينة عالمية،[18] توصف مدينة نيويورك كعاصمة ثقافية،[19][20][21][22][23] مالية،[24][25] وإعلامية للعالم،[26][27] وتتمتع بتأثير كبير على التجارة،[25] الترفيه، الأبحاث، التكنولوجيا، التعليم، السياسة، السياحة، الفن، الموضة، والرياضة. إيقاع المدينة السريع[28][29][30] أوحى بمصطلح دقيقة نيويورك.[31] كونها تضم مقرات الأمم المتحدة،[32] تعتبر مدينة نيويورك مركزاً هاماً للدبلوماسية الدولية.[33][34]

تقع مدينة نيويورك على أحد أكبر الموانئ الطبيعية في العالم،[35][36] وتتألف المدينة من خمس أقسام إدارية، يمثل كل منها مقاطعة منفصلة تابعة لولاية نيويورك.[37] الأقسام الخمسة هي: بروكلين، كوينز، منهاتن، برونكس، وجزيرة ستاتن - التي تم دمجها ضمن مدينة واحدة عام 1898.[38] تمثل المدينة ومنطقتها الحضرية البوابة الرئيسية الهجرة القانونية للولايات المتحدة.[39] بأكثر من 800 لغة مستخدمة في نيويورك،[40][41][42] تعتبر المدينة الأكثر تنوعاً من الناحية اللغوية في العالم.[41][43][44] تضم مدينة نيويورك أكثر من 3.2 مليون شخص مولودين خارج الولايات المتحدة،[45] أكبر عدد من السكان المولودين بالخارج عن أي مدينة في العالم.[46] عام 2017، كان الناتج المحلي الحضري الإجمالي لمنطقة نيويورك الحضرية 1.73 تريليون دولار.[9] إذا كانت مدينة نيويورك الكبرى دولة سيادية، فمن شأنها أن تحتل الترتيب 12 في العالم من حيث الناتج المحلي الإجمالي.[47] تضمن نيويورك أكبر عدد من البليونيرات عن أي مدينة في العالم.[48]


يمكن تتبع تاريخ مدينة نيويورك وصولاً إلى المركز التجاري الذي أسسه المستعمرين القادمين من الجمهورية الهولندية عام 1624 في منهاتن السفلى؛ المركز الذي سُمي عام 1626 بأمستردام الجديدة.[49] أصبحت المدينة والمناطق المحيطة بها تحت السيطرة الإنگليزية عام 1664[49] وأُعيد تسميتها بنيويورك على اسم الملك تشارلز الثاني من إنگلترة الذي منح الأراضي لشقيقه، جيمس الثاني من إنگلترة.[50] كانت نيويورك عاصمة للولايات المتحدة من عام 1785 حتى 1790.[51] وكانت أكبر مدن المقاطعة منذ عام 1790.[52] كان يرحب تمثال الحرية بملايين المهاجرين عند قدومهم للولايات المتحدة على ظهر السفن في أواخر القرن 19 وأوائل القرن 20[53] وهو رمز دولي للولايات المتحدة ومثلها العليا للحرية والسلام.[54] في القرن 21، ظهرت نيويورك كمركز دولي للإبداع وريادة الأعمال،[55] التسامح الاجتماعي،[56] والاستدامة البيئية،[57][58] ورمزاً للحرية والتنوع الثقافي.[59] عام 2019، اختيرت نيويورك كأكبر مدينة في العالم من خلال مسح أُجري بين أكثر من 30.000 شخص من 48 مدينة في العالم، مستشهداً بالتنوع الثقافي للمدينة.[19]

تضم المدينة الكثير من المعالم الرئيسية الشهيرة، حيث تحتوي مدينة نيويورك على ثلاثة من أكثر المعالم السياحية زيارة في العالم عام 2013،[60] وفي 2017 زارها 62.8 مليون سائح.[61] وحسب عدة مصادر تعتبر نيويورك المدينة الأكثر ظهوراً في العالم.[62][63] ميدان التايمز، الذي يوصف بـ"قلب" العالم[64] و"طرقه المتقاطعة"،[65] هو المعلم الرئيسي لمنطقة مسرح برودواي،[66] من أكثر المماشي ازدحاماً في العالم،[67][68] وأكبر مركز لصناعة الترفيه في العالم.[69] حازت الكثير من معالم المدينة، ناطحات السحاب،[70] والمنتزهات شهرة عالمية. ويعتبر السوق العقاري في منهاتن الأعلى سعراً في العالم.[71][72] تضمن نيويورك أكبر جالية صينية خارج آسيا،[73][74] مع العديد من البلدات الصينية البارزة في أنحاء المدينة.[75][76][77] بخدمة 24 ساعة على مدار الأسبوع،[78] يعتبر مترو نيويورك أكبر نظام نقل سريع في العالم، بإجمالي 472 محطة.[79][80][81] تضم مدين نيويورك أكثر من 120 جامعة وكلية، من بينها جامعة كلومبيا، جامعة روكفلر، والتي تقع ضمن أفضل جامعات العالم.[82][83] مع وال ستريت في الحي المالي بمنهاتن السفلى، سُميت نيويورك المدينة الأقوى اقتصادياً والمركز المالي الرائد في العالم،[25][84][85][86] وتضم مدينة نيويورك اثنين من أكبر البورصات في العالم، من حيث إجمالي رأس المال السوقي، بورصة نيويورك ونازداك.[87][88]


فهرست

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التاريخ


التسمية

عام 1664، سُميت الميدنة تكريماً لدوق يورك، الذي أصبح الملك جيمس الثاني من إنگلترة. شقيق جيمس الأكبر، الملك تشارلز الثاني، عُين الدوق المالك لأراضي هولندا الجديدة السابقة، والتي تشمل مدينة أمستردام الجديدة، التي استحوذت عليها إنگلترة مؤخراً من هولندا.

التاريخ المبكر

أثناء مثلجة ويسكنسن، 75.000-11.000 سنة مضت، كانت منطقة مدينة نيويورك تقع على حافة صفيحة جليدية ضخمة بعمق 300 متر. ساهمت الحركة الأمامية التآكلية (وتراجعها اللاحق) في فصل ما يُعرف اليوم بلونگ آيلاند وستيتن آيلاند. كما ترك هذا التحرك صخر الأساس على عمق ضحل نسبياً، مما وفر الأساس المتين لمعظم ناطحات سحاب مانهاتن.[89]

في الفترة ما قبل الاستعمارية، كانت المنطقة المعروفة اليوم بمدينة نيويورك مأهولة بالأمريكان الأصليين الألگونكيانيين، ومنهم اللناپ، الذي يُعرف وطنهم الأم بلناپهوكنگ، ويتضمن ستيتن آيلاند؛ الجزء الغربي من لونگ آيلاند، ويشمل منطقة بروكلين وكوينز الحاليتين؛ منهاتن؛ برونكس؛ ووادي هدسون السفلي.[90]

كانت أول زيارة موثقة يقوم بها أوروپيون لميناء نيويورك عام 1524 بواسطة [[جوڤاني دى ڤرازانو]، مستكشف فلورنسي في خدمة التاج الفرنسي. أعلنها منطقة فرنسية وأطلق عليها اسم Nouvelle Angoulême (أنگوليم الجديدة).[91] أبحرت تجريدة إسپانية تحت قيادة الكاپتن إستيبانو گوميز، بحار پرتغالي يعمل تحت امرأة الامبراطور شارل الخامس، ووصلت ميناء نيويورك في يناير 1525 واستأجرت منبع نهر هدسون، الذي أطلق عليه Río de San Antonio (نهر سان أنطونيو). پادرون ريال، اطلعت بعثة گوميز على أول خريطة علمية توضح الساحل الشرقي لأمريكا الشمالية متصلاً، وأطلقت على شمال شرق الولايات المتحدة اسم Tierra de Esteban Gómez (أراضي إستبان گوميز) تكريماً له.[92]

يعود الفضل لپيتر مينويت في شراء جزيرة منهاتن عام 1626.

عام 1609، أعاد المستكشف الإنگليزي هنري هدسون اكتشاف ميناء نيويورك أثناء بحثه عن الممر الشمالي الغربي المؤدي إلى أورينت لصالح شركة الهند الشرقية الهولندية. وشرع في الإبحار إلى ما يطلق عليه الهولنديون نهر الشمال (نهر هدسون حالياً)، ليسمى على اسم هدسون كما سميت مورشيوس على اسم موريس، أمير أورانج. وصف نائب ربان هدسون الميناء بأنه: "ميناء جيد للغية لجميع أنواع الرياح" ووصف النهر بأنه "بعرض ميل" ومليء بالأسماك".[93] أبحر هدسون لمسافة تقارب 240 متر،[94] متجاوزاً منطقة عاصمة ولاية نيويورك الحالية [[ألباني، نيويورك|ألبانيي]، معتقداً أنها قد تكون أحد الروافد الأطلسية التي يصبح النهر قبلها شديد الضحالة لا يمكن الإبحار فيه.[93] قام باستكشاف المنطقة لمدة عشرة أيام ولعلن المنطقة ملكأً لشركة الهند الشرقية الهولندية. في عام 1614، تم أعغلنت بالمنطقة الواقعة بين كيپ كد و ديلاوير باي الذي طالبت به هولندا وأطلقت عليه Nieuw-Nederland (هولندا الجديدة).

كان أول السكان من غير الأمريكان الأصليين لمدينة نيويورك هو خوان رودريگز (يترجم اسمه في للهولندية Jan Rodrigues)، تاجر من سانتو دومينگو. وُلد في سانتو دومينگو من أصل پرتغالي وأفريقي، وصل منهاتن في شتاء 1613-14، وكان يعمل في صيد الحيوانات من أجل الفراء ويتجار مع السكان المحليين كممثلاً لهولندا. برودواي، من شارع 159 حتى شارع 218 في منهاتن العليا، سُمي على شرفه بطريق خوان رودريگز.[95][96]

أمستردام الجديدة، كانت تقع في وسط منهاتن السفلة، عام 1664، العام الذي استولى عليها إنگلترة وأعادت تسميتها "نيويورك".


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الحكم الهولندي

بدأ التواجد الأوروپي الدائم في هولندا الجديدة عام 1624 - مما يجعل نيويورك تحتل الترتيب 12 كأقدم مستوطنة محتلة بصفة مستمرة أسسها الأوروپيون في الولايات المتحدة القارية[97] – مع تأسيس تجارة الفراء الهولندية على جزيرة گڤرنرز. عام 1625، بدأ إنشاء قلعة وحصن أمستردام، الذي سُمي لاحقاً Nieuw Amsterdam (أمستردام الجديدة)، على جزيرة منهاتن المعاصرة.[98][99] تمركزت مستعمرة أمستردام الجديدة في المكان الذي أصبح يعُرف في النهاية بمنهاتن السفلى. كانت تمتد من الحافة السفلة لمنهاتن حتى وال ستريت حالياً، حيث بُني عام 1653 حصن مسور بعرض 12 قدم للحماية من هجمات الأمريكان الأصليين والبريطانيين.[100] عام 1626، قام الحاكم العام الاستعماري پيتر مينويتن بصفتة مسئول شركة الهند الغربية الهولندية، بشراء جزيرة منهاتن من كانارسي، وهي مجموعة لناپى صغيرة،[101] مقابل 60 گيلدر[102] (حوالي 1.000 دولار عام 2006).[103] وتزعم أحد الروايات التي تم دحضها أن شراء منهاتن كان مقابل خرز قيمته 24 دولار.[104][105]

بعد الشراء، شهدت أمستردام الجديدة نمواً بطيئاً.[106] لجذب المستوطنين، وضع الهولنديون نظام المستفيدين في عام 1628، حيث سيتم منح الهولنديين الأثرياء (الرعاة، أو الرعاة) الذين أحضروا 50 مستعمراً إلى هولندا الجديدة، مساحات واسعة من الأرض، بالإضافة إلى الاستقلال السياسي المحلي وحقوق المشاركة في تجارة الفراء المربحة. حقق هذا البرنامج نجاحاً محدودا.[107]

منذ عام 1621، كانت شركة الهند الغربية الهولندية تعمل في هولندا الجديدة بنظام الاحتكار، بسلطة خولها إياها جنرال الولايات الهولندية. عام 1639-1640، في محاولة لتعزيز النمو الاقتصادي، تخلت شركة الهند الغربية الهولندية عن احتكارها لتجارة الفراء، مما أدى إلى نمو في إنتاج وتجارة الأغذية والأخشاب والتبغ والعبيد (خاصةً مع جزر الهند الغربية الهولندية).[106][108]

عام 1647، بدأ پيتر ستايڤسانت ولايته كآخر مدير-عام لهولندا الجديدة. أثناء ولايته، كان عدد سكان هولندا الجديدة قد ارتفع من 2.000 إلى 8.000 نسمة.[109][110] وكان ستايڤسانت صاحب الفضل في تعزيز القانون والنظام في المستعمرة؛ إلا أنه اشتهر أيضاً بكونه زعيماً مستبداً. وضع اللوائح على مبيعات الخمور، وحاول تأكيد السيطرة على كنيسة الإصلاح الهولندية، ومنع الجماعات الدينية الأخرى (ومنها الكويكرز، اليهودية، واللوثرية) من بناء دور عبادة.[111] وفي النهاية حاولت شركة الهند الغربة الهولندية تهدئة التوترات بين ستايڤسانت وسكان أمستردام الجديدة.[112]

الحكم الإنگليزي

Fort George and the city of New York c. 1731

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed.[111][112] The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom.[113] The English promptly renamed the fledgling city "New York" after the Duke of York (the future King James II of England).[114] The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War.[115]

On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from England at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III, the Prince of Orange. The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674.[116][117]

Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670.[118] By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200.[119] New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.[120][121]

New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina.[122] Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years.

The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America.[123] In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[124]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الثورة الأمريكية

Colonial era soldiers stand and kneel while firing muskets at and advancing enemy. Behind them is a mounted soldier with a bayonet and behind them is a large flag.
The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.

The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean.

The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.[125]

In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.[126] By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia to become the largest city in the United States, but by the end of that year, pursuant to the Residence Act, the national capital was moved to Philadelphia.[127][128]

القرن التاسع عشر

A painting of a snowy city street with horse-drawn sleds and a 19th-century fire truck under blue sky
Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.[129]

Under New York State's gradual abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties.[130][131] Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children.[132] It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population reached more than 16,000 in 1840.[133]

In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a trading center, as well as by European immigration.[134] The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass almost all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes.[135] Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.[136]

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city.

Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.

The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, of whom over 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population.[137] There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.[138]

Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on.[132] Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (5663) commutation fee to hire a substitute,[139] led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class.[132]

The situation deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants.[138] At least 120 people were killed.[140] Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of Blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. The black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The white working class had established dominance.[138][140] Violence by longshoremen against Black men was especially fierce in the docks area.[138] It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.[141]

التاريخ الحديث

A man working on a steel girder high about a city skyline.
A construction worker atop the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is behind him.

In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.[142] The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.

In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.[143]

UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld in front of the United Nations Headquarters building, completed in 1952

New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890.[144] New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline.

New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early 1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history.[145] The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.[146]

Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.[147]

A two-story building with brick on the first floor, with two arched doorways, and gray stucco on the second floor off of which hang numerous rainbow flags.
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern gay rights movement.[148][149][150]

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement[148][151][152][153] and the modern fight for LGBT rights.[154][155] Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. "None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement."[156] Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter.[156]

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.[157] While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[158] By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.

Two tall, gray, rectangular buildings spewing black smoke and flames, particularly from the left of the two.
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

New York suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. Two of the four airliners highjacked that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. The North Tower became the tallest building ever to be destroyed anywhere then or subsequently.[159]

The rebuilding of the area has created a new One World Trade Center, and a 9/11 memorial and museum along with other new buildings and infrastructure. The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An 800,000-قدم-مربع (74,000 م2) permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016.[160] The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere[161] and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 قدم (541.3 م) in reference to the year of U.S. independence.[162][163][164][165]

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.[166]

الجغرافيا

تقع مدينة نيويورك في شمال شرق الولايات المتحدة، في جنوب شرق ولاية نيويورك، تقريباً في منتصف المسافة بين واشنطن العاصمة وبوسطن.[167] الموقع عند فم نهر هدسن، الذي يصب في ميناء محمي طبيعياً، ثم في المحيط الأطلسي، ساعد المدينة على أن تزداد أهميتها كمدينة تجارية. معظم نيويورك مبنية على ثلاث جزر منهاتن وستاتن أيلاند ولونگ أيلاند، مما يجعل الأراضي قليلة ويشجع ارتفاع الكثافة السكانية.

ينساب نهر هدسن عبر وادي هدسن ليصب في خليج نيويورك. بين مدينة نيويورك وتروي، نيويورك، يكون النهر مصب.[168] ويفصل نهر هدسن المدينة عن نيوجرزي. أما النهر الشرقي، الذي هو في الواقع مضيق مد آخر، فينساب من مضيق لونگ أيلاند ويفصل برونكس ومنهاتن عن لونگ أيلاند. نهر هارلم، وهو مضيق مد آخر بين نهري إيست وهدسن، ويفصل منهاتن عن برونكس.

أراضي المدينة تغير بشكل كبير بسبب التدخل البشري، مثل استصلاح الأراضي على نطاق واسع على طول الواجهات المائية منذ زمن الاستعمار الهولندي. ويتجلى الاستصلاح في أوضح صوره في منهاتن السفلى، في تجمعات مثل مدينة باتري پارك في عقدي 1970 و1980.[169] بعض التغيرات الطبيعية في الطبوغرافيا قد وازنت بعضها البعض، وخصوصاً في منهاتن.[170]

مساحة أراضي المدينة تقدر بنحو 789 كم2.[171][172] المساحة الإجمالية لمدينة نيويورك هي 1,214 كم2. 425 كم2 منها ماء، و 789 كم2 أرض. أعلى نقطة في المدينة هي توت هيل في ستاتن أيلاند، بارتفاع 124.9 م فوق سطح البحر وهي أعلى نقطة على الساحل الشرقي للولايات المتحدة جنوب مين.[173]قمة النتوء مغطاة في معظمها بالغابات كجزء من الحزام الأخضر لجزيرة ستاتن.[174]



أفق المدينة

وسط مدينة بروكلين، عند الطرف الغربي للونگ آيلاند (أقصى اليسار) وجسر بروكلين (أدنى اليسار) كما يظهر عبر نهر إيست من منهاتن السفلى في يونيو 2013.
أفق لونگ آيلاند سيتي، كوينز،[175] أمام نهر إيست عند بلو أور في مايو 2015. على اليسار يوجد جسر كوينزبورو، الذي يصل كوينز بمنهاتن.
گراند كونكورس في برونكس، تظهر منهاتن في الخلفية، فبراير 2018
جسر ڤرازانو-ناروز، من أكبر الجسور المعلقة في العالم، يصل بين ستيتن آيلاند، وبروكلين، في الخلفية، عبر ذا ناروز.

العمارة

العمارة الحديثة جنباً إلى جنب مع عمارة الإحياء القوطية والتي تغلب على مباني مدينة نيويورك.
مبنى كرايسلر، أعلى الصورة، بُني عام 1930، مثال على طراز الآرت ديكو.
A view down a street with rowhouses in brown, white, and various shades of red.
Landmark 19th-century rowhouses, including brownstones, on tree-lined Kent Street in the Greenpoint Historic District, Brooklyn.


الضواحي

alt= خريطة ضواحي نيويورك الخمسة.
نظرة سريعة على أقسام نيويورك الخمسة
الدائرة التعداد المساحة
قسم مقاطعة تقدير
1 يوليو 2008
ميل
مربع
كم2
منهاتن نيويورك 1,634,795 23 59
برونكس برونكس 1,391,903 42 109
بروكلين كينگس 2,556,598 71 183
كوينز كوينز 2,293,007 109 283
ستاتن أيلاند ريتشموند 487,407 58 151
8,363,710 303 786
19,490,297 47,214 122,284
المصدر: مكتب إحصاء الولايات المتحدة[176][14][177]

تنقسم المدينة إلى خمس ضواحي، هي: منهاتن، وبرونكس، وكوينز، وبروكلين، وستيتن آيلاند. وتعد منهاتن أقدم محافظة بالولاية وأصغرها وأهمها؛ إذ تبلغ مساحتها 88 كم²، ويبلغ عدد سكانها نحو مليون ونصف المليون نسمة. وهي تضم أشهر المدارس والجامعات، وبها أكبر المتاجر والمؤسسات المالية في شارعي وول وبرود. ومن أشهر مبانيها إمباير ستيت، الذي أنشيء عام 1931م بارتفاع 381م، ومبنى مركز التجارة العالمية الذي أنشئ عام 1972 بارتفاع 417م. وكان البرجان من أعلى ناطحات السحاب في العالم، وقد انهار مركز التجارة العالمي في 11 سبتمبر 2001م. وتبلغ مساحة محافظة بروكلين 288كم²، وسكانها نحو مليونين وربع المليون نسمة، وهي ميناء ومركز صناعي. أما برونكس، فتبلغ مساحتها نحو 143كم² ويبلغ عدد سكانها مليونًا ونصف المليون نسمة، وهي منطقة سكنية بالدرجة الأولى. أما كوينـز، فهي أكبر محافظة بالمدينة، حيث تبلغ مساحتها 326كم²، ويبلغ عدد سكانها نحو مليوني نسمة، وبها مطار لاگوارديا ومطار كندي الدولي. وتعد جزيرة ستاتن أقل المحافظات تطوراً، ومساحتها 168 كم² وسكانها 352,000 نسمة.

ويعد السكن من أهم المشاكل في نيويورك. إذ يسكن نحو 65% من سكان المدينة في شقق أو فنادق مؤجرة خلافـًا لما يوجد في الولايات الأخرى، حيث تسكن غالبية الأسر في منازل منفردة ومملوكة. كما أن غالبية منازل المدينة قديمة بنيت قبل عام 1940م، وتحتاج إلى التجديد.

تعمل مدينة نيويورك للخروج من الأزمة التي أصابتها بعد تعرضها للهجوم الإرهابي الكبير الذي دمر برجي مركز التجارة العالمي في يوم 11 سبتمبر 2001م. فقد قامت طائرتان مدنيتان مخطوفتان صبيحة ذلك اليوم بالتوجه والارتطام بالبرجين مما أدى إلى انهيارهما. لقي نحو 3 آلاف شخص كانوا بالبرجين مصرعهم.


المناخ

الجادة C في منهاتن بعد الفيضان الذي سببه الإعصار ساندي في 29 أكتوبر 2012.[178]
متوسطات الطقس لمدينة نيويورك (سنترال پارك)
شهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر السنة
العظمى القياسية °F (°C) 72 (22) 75 (24) 86 (30) 96 (36) 99 (37) 101 (38) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 94 (34) 84 (29) 75 (24) 106 (41)
متوسط العظمى °ف (°م) 38 (3) 41 (5) 50 (10) 61 (16) 71 (22) 79 (26) 84 (29) 82 (28) 75 (24) 64 (18) 53 (12) 43 (6) 61٫8 (17)
متوسط الصغرى °ف (°م) 26 (-3) 28 (-2) 35 (2) 44 (7) 54 (12) 63 (17) 69 (21) 68 (20) 60 (16) 50 (10) 41 (5) 32 (0) 47٫5 (9)
الصغرى القياسية °ف (°C) -6 (-21) -15 (-26) 3 (-16) 12 (-11) 28 (-2) 44 (7) 52 (11) 50 (10) 39 (4) 28 (-2) 7 (-14) -13 (-25) -15 (-26)
هطول الأمطار بوصة (mm) 4.13 (104.9) 3.15 (80) 4.37 (111) 4.28 (108.7) 4.69 (119.1) 3.84 (97.5) 4.62 (117.3) 4.22 (107.2) 4.23 (107.4) 3.85 (97.8) 4.36 (110.7) 3.95 (100.3) 49٫69 (1٬262٫1)
المصدر: The Weather Channel[179] Weatherbase.com[180] August 2009

See or edit raw graph data.


المنتزهات

A spherical sculpture and several attractions line a park during a World's Fair.
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park hosted both the 1939 New York World's Fair and 1964 New York World's Fair, with the Unisphere as the centerpiece of the latter.


المنتزهات الوطنية

The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[181]


المنتزهات الولائية

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-أكر (110,000 م2) facility that rises 69 قدم (21 م) over the Hudson River.[182]

منتزهات المدينة

Reindeer at the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo.[183]


A large rectangular park stretches to the horizon behind a city skyline.
Central Park, as seen from Rockefeller Center, is the most visited city park in the United States.

المنشآت العسكرية

الديموغرافيا

Racial composition 2010[184] 1990[186] 1970[186] 1940[186]
White 44.0% 52.3% 76.6% 93.6%
—Non-Hispanic 33.3% 43.2% 62.9%[187] 92.0%
Black or African American 25.5% 28.7% 21.1% 6.1%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 28.6% 24.4% 16.2%[187] 1.6%
Asian 12.7% 7.0% 1.2%
New York City had an estimated population density of 28,491 people per square mile (11,000/km²) in 2017, with Manhattan alone at 72,918/sq mi (28,154/km²).
التعداد التاريخي
YearPop.±%
16984٬937—    
17125٬840+18.3%
17237٬248+24.1%
173710٬664+47.1%
174611٬717+9.9%
175613٬046+11.3%
177121٬863+67.6%
179049٬401+126.0%
180079٬216+60.4%
1810119٬734+51.1%
1820152٬056+27.0%
1830242٬278+59.3%
1840391٬114+61.4%
1850696٬115+78.0%
18601٬174٬779+68.8%
18701٬478٬103+25.8%
18801٬911٬698+29.3%
18902٬507٬414+31.2%
19003٬437٬202+37.1%
19104٬766٬883+38.7%
19205٬620٬048+17.9%
19306٬930٬446+23.3%
19407٬454٬995+7.6%
19507٬891٬957+5.9%
19607٬781٬984−1.4%
19707٬894٬862+1.5%
19807٬071٬639−10.4%
19907٬322٬564+3.5%
20008٬008٬278+9.4%
20108٬175٬133+2.1%
20188٬398٬748[7]+2.7%
Note: Census figures (1790–2010) cover the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. For New York City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics.[188] Sources: 1698–1771,[189][190] 1790–1890,[188][191] 1900–1990,[192] 2000 and 2010,[193][194][195]
المصدر: U.S. Decennial Census[196]

يبلغ المجموع الكلي لسكان مدينة نيويورك نحو 7,322,564 نسمة، يمثلون معظم الأعراق والقوميات في العالم؛ فقد هاجر إليها الآلاف من كل أنحاء العالم طلباً للعمل والتعليم والنشاط الثقافي. توجد في المدينة خمس مجموعات عرقية هي: السود، الأيرلنديون، الإيطاليون، اليهود، البورتوريكيون. وهؤلاء يمثلون 75% من سكان المدينة، ويُعدّ السود أكبر مجموعة فهم 25%، وقد جاءوا من جنوبي أمريكا ومن جزر الهند الغربية. ويمثل اليهود 20% من جملة السكان، وقد أتوا من أقطار عديدة، وهم أصحاب أعمال كبيرة. أما الإيطاليون، فيمثلون 14% من السكان، ويعملون بتجارة الأغذية والمطاعم. وتبلغ نسبة البورتوريكيـين 12%، وهم أقل المجموعات مكانة، فأغلبهم عمال غير مهرة. وقد كان الأيرلنديون يحكمون المدينة في أواخر القرن التاسع عشر وأوائل القرن العشرين، ولكن عددهم انخفض من 30% إلى 9%، ولذلك فقدوا الكثير من قوتهم. وبالإضافة إلى هـذه المجمـوعات الرئيسيـة، توجـد مجموعات، عرقية صغيرة ممـثـلة في الإنجليز والألمان والروس والصينيين واليونانيين.


الكثافة السكانية

العرقيات


A map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)


التوجه الجنسي والهوية النوعية


الديانات

Religious affiliations in New York City
The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic St. Patrick's Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan
Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.[198]
The Islamic Cultural Center of New York in Upper Manhattan, the first mosque built in New York City.
Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens, the oldest Hindu temple in the U.S.
A significant proportion of New Yorkers hold atheistic views, promoted on this electronic billboard in Times Square.

الصحة وتفاوت الدخل

الاقتصاد

نظرة عامة على اقتصاد المدينة

Top publicly traded companies
in New York City

(ranked by 2015 revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
NYC corporation US
1 Verizon Communications 13
2 JPMorgan Chase 23
3 Citigroup 29
4 MetLife 40
5 American International Group 49
6 Pfizer (pharmaceuticals) 55
7 New York Life 61
8 Goldman Sachs 74
9 Morgan Stanley 78
10 TIAA (Teachers Ins. & Annuity) 82
11 INTL FCStone 83
12 American Express 85
Every firm's revenue exceeded $30 billion
Financial services firms in green
Full table at Economy of New York City
Source: Fortune 500[199]

New York City is a global hub of business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs.[200] New York City's unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.[201]

Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City,[202] as are a large number of multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.[203] New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists.[204][205] New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue".[206] The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.[207]

Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn.[208] Food processing is a US$5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.

Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with up to US$234 million worth of exports each year.[209] Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn اعتبارا من 2014,[210] while Godiva, one of the world's largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.[211]

وال ستريت

A large flag is stretched over Roman style columns on the front of a large building.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, by a significant margin the world's largest stock exchange per market capitalization of its listed companies,[212][213] at US$23.1 trillion as of April 2018.[214]

New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700.[215] Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies.

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[87][88] Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,[216] while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.[217] In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.[218]

New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.[219]:31–32[220] New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.[219]:34–35 New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.[221]

Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018,[222] making it the largest office market in the United States,[223] while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018,[222] is the largest central business district in the world.[224]

التكنولوجيا والتكنولوجيا الحيوية

Silicon Alley, once centered around the Flatiron District, is now metonymous for New York's high tech sector, which has since expanded beyond the area.[225]

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries[226] involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, game design, financial technology ("FinTech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises,[55] most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region.

High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,[227] New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.[228] Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.[229] اعتبارا من 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector.[230][231] The technology sector has been claiming a greater share of New York City's economy since 2010.[232] Tech:NYC, founded in 2016, is a non-profit organization which represents New York City's technology industry with government, civic institutions, in business, and in the media, and whose primary goals are to further augment New York's substantial tech talent base and to advocate for policies that will nurture tech companies to grow in the city.[233]

The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.[234][235] By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 قدم مربعs (65,000 م2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology.[236]

العقارات

Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year, with 89% of the increase coming from market effects.[237] The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at US$1.1 billion in 2006.[237] New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for US$510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.[238]

In 2014 Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP Codes in the United States by median housing price.[239] Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per قدم مربع ([convert: unit mismatch]) in 2017.[240] In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States achieved completion in Manhattan, at a selling price of US$238 million, for a 24,000 قدم مربعs (2,200 م2) penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park.[241]

السياحة

Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.[60]
The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977

Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017.[61] Tourism had generated an all-time high US$61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014,[61] pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China.

I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City,[242] and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development,[243] appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song of New York.

Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage.[244] Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015,[245] overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline.[246]

Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013.[247] In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.[248]

الإعلام والترفيه

New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there.[249] اعتبارا من 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly US$9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015.[250] By volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production[251] – one-third of all American independent films are produced in New York City.[252] The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York.[253] In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013,[254] with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013/2014 cycle.[255]

New York City is also a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America.[256] Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York.[257] Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.

More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city,[252] and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.[258] Two of the three national daily newspapers with the largest circulations in the United States are published in New York: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson,[259] and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton.[260] The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.[261] El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.[262] The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.[263]

The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media,[264] that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States.

New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971.[265] WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.[266]

التعليم والنشاط البحثي

The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood.

The city's public school system, managed by the وزارة التعليم، مدينة نيويورك, is the largest in the United States. About 1.1 million students are taught in more than 1,200 separate primary and secondary schools.[267] There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.[268] وبالرغم من أن الناس لا تفكر في نيويورك على أنها بلدة جامعية، فهناك نحو 594,000 طالب جامعي في مدينة نيويورك، وهو أعلى رقم في أي مدينة في الولايات المتحدة.[269] In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates and one out of four had advanced degrees, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city.[270] Public postsecondary education is provided by the جامعة مدينة نيويورك, the nation's third-largest public university system, and the معهد تكنولوجيا الموضة، جزء من جامعة ولاية نيويورك. وتضم مدينة نيويورك كذلك عدداً من الجامعات الخاصة البارزة مثل كلية برنارد، جامعة كلومبيا، كوپر يونيون, جامعة فوردم، جامعة نيويورك، المدرسة الجديدة، وجامعة يشيڤا. The city has dozens of other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John's University, مدرسة جوليارد, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, and The School of Visual Arts.

مكتبة لو التذكارية في جامعة كلومبيا

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, 40,000 licensed physicians, and 127 Nobel laureates with roots in local institutions.[271] وتتلقى المدينة ثاني أعلى تمويل سنوي من معاهد الصحة الوطنية بين كل مدن الولايات المتحدة.[272] Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine وكلية طب وايل كورنل.

مكتبة نيويورك العامة، التي تضم أكبر مجموعة في أي نظام مكتبات عامة في الولايات المتحدة، تخدم منهاتن وبرونكس وستاتن أيلاند.[273] Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, which is the nation's second largest public library system, and Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.[273] The New York Public Library has several research libraries, including the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

المدارس الخاصة في مدينة نيويورك تضم مدرسة بريرلي، مدرسة دالتن، مدرسة سپنس، مدرسة براوننگ، مدرسة تشاپن، Nightingale-Bamford School, وConvent of the Sacred Heart on the الجانب الشرقي العلوي من منهاتن; Collegiate School and Trinity School on the الجانب الغربي العلوي من منهاتن؛ مدرسة هوراس مان، Ethical Culture Fieldston School, ومدرسة ريڤرديل كنتري في ريڤرديل، برونكس; وThe Packer Collegiate Institute وSaint Ann's School في بروكلين هايتس، بروكلين.

New York City's public secondary schools include: Bard High School Early College, Bronx High School of Science, Brooklyn Technical High School, Hunter College High School, LaGuardia High School, مدرسة ستايڤسانت الثانوية، and Townsend Harris High School. The city is home to the largest Roman Catholic high school in the U.S., St. Francis Preparatory School in Fresh Meadows, Queens,[بحاجة لمصدر] and the only official Italian-American school in the country, La Scuola d'Italia on the Upper East Side of Manhattan.

الموارد البشرية

الصحة العامة

New York-Presbyterian Hospital, white complex at center, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City[274] and one of the world's busiest.


السلامة العامة

الشرطة وإنفاذ القانون

The New York Police Department (NYPD) represents the largest police force in the United States.



المطافي

The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.


نظام المكتبات العامة

The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.

The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island.[273] Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn.[273]

الثقافة والحياة المعاصرة

New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland[20] and Latvia[21] and by New York's Baruch College.[22] A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia.[23] In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."[275]


New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor.[276]

إيقاع الحياة

One of the most common traits attributed to New York City is its fast pace,[28] which spawned the term New York minute.[31] Journalist Walt Whitman characterized New York's streets as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds".[30]

الفنون

New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes.[277] The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts.[277] Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals.

الفنون التطبيقية

Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square,[278] also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way".[279][280][281] Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.[282] Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park.[283]

A very ornate multi-story stone façade rises over steps and a plaza at night.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.[284]

الفنون المرئية

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known. Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan,[285] in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill.[286] The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue.[287] The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959,[288] opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation.[289] Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City.[290][291]

المطبخ

People crowd around white tents in the foreground next to a red brick wall with arched windows. Above and to the left is a towering stone bridge.
Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.[292]

New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs[293] examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin.[294] The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's restaurants based upon their inspection results.[295] As of 2019, there were 27,043 restaurants in the city, up from 24,865 in 2017.[296]

Clockwise, from upper left: the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the world's largest parade;[297] the annual Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the annual Philippine Independence Day Parade; and the ticker-tape parade for the Apollo 11 astronauts

المسيرات

New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,[297] beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;[298] the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.[297] Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan.

اللهجات


الرياضة

Three runners in a race down a street where onlookers are cheering behind barriers.
The New York Marathon is the largest marathon in the world.[299]
A tennis stadium pack with fans watching a grass court.
The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens.
A baseball stadium from behind home plate in the evening.
Citi Field, also in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, has been home to the New York Mets since 2009.



النقل

A row of yellow taxis in front of a multi-story ornate stone building with three huge arched windows.
New York City is home to the two busiest rail stations in the US, including Grand Central Terminal.

النقل السريع

السكك الحديدية

The front end of a subway train, with a red E on a LED display on the top. To the left of the train is a platform with a person walking away.
The New York City Subway is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.


الحافلات

The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world's busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street.[300]


النقل الجوي


العبارات

The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.

التاكسي والترام

Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city

الشوارع والطرق السريعة

8th Avenue, looking northward ("uptown"). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan's grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.


المعابر النهرية

البيئة

Two yellow taxis on a narrow street lined with shops.
As of July 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number of any city in North America.


الحكومة والسياسة

الحكومة

A wide white building in a colonial style with a cupola in the center.
New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.


The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices.


السياسة


مشاهير نيويورك

الصدارة العالمية

انظر أيضاً


مرئيات

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إعلان عمدة نيويورك بيل دي بلازيو عيدي الفطر والأضحى عطلة رسمية في مدارس نيويورك، مارس 2015.


الهوامش

المصادر

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قراءات إضافية

وصلات خارجية

سبقه
ترنتون، نيوجرزي
عاصمة الولايات
المتحدة الأمريكية

1785–1791
تبعه
فلادلفيا، پنسلڤانيا