أناپولس، مريلاند

(تم التحويل من أناپوليس، مريلاند)
"أنابوليس" تحوّل إلى هنا. لمطالعة استخدامات أخرى، انظر أنابوليس (توضيح).
هذا المقال هو عن the state capital. إذا كنت تريد the unincorporated community in Howard County، انظر Annapolis Junction, Maryland.
Annapolis, Maryland
State capital
City of Annapolis
Annapolis, Maryland
Annapolis, Maryland
Flag of Annapolis, Maryland
Flag
Coat of arms of Annapolis, Maryland
Coat of arms
الكنية: "America's Sailing Capital," "Sailing Capital of the World," "Naptown," "Crabtown on the Bay"
الشعار الحادي: "Vixi Liber Et Moriar"
("I have lived, and I shall die, free")
Location in Anne Arundel County, Maryland
Location in Anne Arundel County, Maryland
Annapolis is located in مريلاند
Annapolis
Annapolis
Annapolis is located in الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
Annapolis
Annapolis
Annapolis is located in أمريكا الشمالية
Annapolis
Annapolis
Location in Maryland, United States & North America
الإحداثيات: خطأ: الوظيفة "الإحداثيات" غير موجودة.
Country  الولايات المتحدة
State  Maryland
County ملف:Flag of Anne Arundel County, Maryland.png Anne Arundel
Founded 1649
Incorporated 1708
السَمِيْ Princess Anne of Denmark & Norway
الحكم
 • Mayor Mike Pantelides (R)
 • City Council [1]
المساحة[2][3]
 • الإجمالية 8٫10 ميل² (20٫98 كم²)
 • البر 7٫18 ميل² (18٫60 كم²)
 • الماء 0٫92 ميل² (2٫38 كم²)
الارتفاع 39 ft (12 m)
التعداد(2010)[2]
 • الإجمالي 38٬394
 • تقدير (2016)[4] 39٬418
 • الكثافة 4٬700/sq mi (1٬800/km2)
صفة المواطن Annapolitan[5]
منطقة التوقيت EST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق-5)
 • Summer (التوقيت الصيفي) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP Codes 21401-21405, 21409, 21411-21412
مفتاح الهاتف 410, 443
FIPS code 24-01600
GNIS feature ID 0595031
Highways I-97, US 50, US 301, MD 2, MD 70, MD 178, MD 450, MD 665
الموقع الإلكتروني www.annapolis.gov

Annapolis ( /əˈnæpəls/) is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County. Situated on the Chesapeake Bay at the mouth of the Severn River, 25 miles (40 km) south of Baltimore and about 30 miles (50 km) east of Washington, D.C., Annapolis is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. Its population was measured at 38,394 by the 2010 census.

The city served as the seat of the Confederation Congress (former Second Continental Congress) and temporary national capital of the United States in 1783–1784. At that time, General George Washington came before the body convened in the new Maryland State House and resigned his commission as commander of the Continental Army. A month later, the Congress ratified the Treaty of Paris of 1783, ending the American Revolutionary War, with Great Britain recognizing the independence of the United States. The city and state capitol was also the site of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which issued a call to the states to send delegates for the Constitutional Convention to be held the following year in Philadelphia. Over 220 years later, the Annapolis Peace Conference, was held in 2007. Annapolis is the home of St. John's College, founded 1696, as well as the United States Naval Academy, established 1845.

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History

Colonial and early United States (1649–1808)

The"Old Treasury Building" on State Circle (adjacent to the Maryland State House) was built in 1735 and is the oldest standing government building in Annapolis

A settlement in the Province of Maryland named "Providence" was founded on the north shore of the Severn River on the middle Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in 1649 by Puritan exiles from the Province/Dominion of Virginia led by third Proprietary Governor William Stone (1603–1660). The settlers later moved to a better-protected harbor on the south shore. The settlement on the south shore was initially named "Town at Proctor's," then "Town at the Severn," and later "Anne Arundel's Towne" (after Lady Ann Arundell (1616-1649), the wife of Cecilus Calvert, second Lord Baltimore, who died soon afterwards).[6]

In 1654, after the Third English Civil War, Parliamentary forces assumed control of the Maryland colony and Stone went into exile further south across the Potomac River in Virginia. Per orders from Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, Stone returned the following spring at the head of a Cavalier royalist force, loyal to the King of England. On March 25, 1655, in what is known as the Battle of the Severn (first colonial naval battle in North America), Stone was defeated, taken prisoner, and replaced by Lt. Gen. Josias Fendall (1628–1687) as fifth Proprietary Governor. Fendall governed Maryland during the latter half of the Commonwealth period in England. In 1660, he was replaced by Phillip Calvert (1626–1682) as fifth/sixth Governor of Maryland, after the restoration of Charles II (1630–1685) as King in England.

In 1694, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of second Royal Governor Thomas Lawrence (1645-1714), then third Royal Governor Francis Nicholson (1655-1727/28, served 1694-1698), moved the capital of the royal colony, the Province of Maryland to Anne Arundel's Towne and renamed the town Annapolis after Princess Anne of Denmark and Norway, soon to be the Queen Anne of Great Britain (1665-1714, reigned 1702-1714). Annapolis was incorporated as a city in 1708.[7]

17th century Annapolis was little more than a village, but it grew rapidly for most of the 18th century until the American Revolutionary War as a political and administrative capital, a port of entry, and a major center of the Atlantic slave trade.[8] The Maryland Gazette, which became an important weekly journal, was founded there by Jonas Green[9][10] in 1745; in 1769 a theatre was opened; during this period also the commerce was considerable, but declined rapidly after Baltimore, with its deeper harbor, was made a port of entry in 1780.[11] Water trades such as oyster-packing, boatbuilding and sailmaking became the city's chief industries. Annapolis is home to a large number of recreational boats that have largely replaced the seafood industry in the city.

Dr. Alexander Hamilton (1712–1756) was a Scottish-born doctor and writer who lived and worked in Annapolis. Leo Lemay says his 1744 travel diary Gentleman's Progress: The Itinerarium of Dr. Alexander Hamilton is "the best single portrait of men and manners, of rural and urban life, of the wide range of society and scenery in colonial America." [12]

ملف:John Shaw Flag (Red First).svg
John Shaw Flag (red first variation)
ملف:John Shaw Flag (White First).svg
John Shaw Flag (white first variation)

Annapolis became the temporary capital of the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Congress was in session in the state house from November 26, 1783 to June 3, 1784, and it was in Annapolis on December 23, 1783, that General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.[11]

For the 1783 Congress, the Governor of Maryland commissioned John Shaw, a local cabinet maker, to create an American flag. The flag is slightly different from other designs of the time. The blue field extends over the entire height of the hoist. Shaw created two versions of the flag: one which started with a red stripe and another that started with a white one.[13][14]

In 1786, delegates from all states of the Union were invited to meet in Annapolis to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce. Delegates from only five states—New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Delaware—actually attended the convention, known afterward as the "Annapolis Convention." Without proceeding to the business for which they had met, the delegates passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Philadelphia convention drafted and approved the Constitution of the United States, which is still in force.[11]

Civil War era (1849 – late 1800s)

During this period, a prisoner of war parole camp, Camp Parole, was set up in Annapolis. As the war continued, the camp expanded to a larger location just west of the city. The area is still referred to as Parole. Wounded Union soldiers and Confederate prisoners were brought by sea to a major hospital in Annapolis.[15]

Contemporary (1900s–present)

View of Annapolis from the State House dome, 1911

In 1900, Annapolis had a population of 8,585.[16]

To the north of the state house is a monument to Thurgood Marshall, the first black justice of the US Supreme Court and formerly a Maryland lawyer who won many important civil rights cases.

ملف:USPS Annapolis Main post office.JPG
Former USPS Annapolis Main post office

Close by are the state treasury building, erected late in the 17th century for the House of Delegates; Saint Anne's Protestant Episcopal church, in later colonial days a state church; a statue of Roger B. Taney (by W.H. Rinehart); and a statue of Baron Johann de Kalb.[11]

On December 21, 1906, Henry Davis was lynched in the city. He was suspected of assaulting a local woman. Nobody was ever tried for the crime.[17]

Annapolis has many 18th-century houses. The names of several of the streets—King George's, Prince George's, Hanover, and Duke of Gloucester, etc.—date from colonial days.[11]

The United States Naval Academy was founded here in 1845. During World War II, shipyards in Annapolis built a number of PT Boats, and military vessels such as minesweepers and patrol boats were built in Annapolis during the Korean and Vietnam wars.[18] It was at Annapolis in July 1940 that Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg arrived in exile during World War II.[19]

In the summer of 1984, the Navy Marine Corps Memorial Stadium in Annapolis hosted soccer games as part of the XXIII Olympiad.

During September 18–19, 2003, Hurricane Isabel created the largest storm surge known in Annapolis's history, cresting at 7.58 ft (2.31 m). Much of downtown Annapolis was flooded and many businesses and homes in outlying areas were damaged.[20] The previous record was 6.35 feet (1.94 m) during a hurricane in 1933, and 5.5 ft (1.7 m) during Hurricane Hazel in 1954.

The 1998 Comprehensive Plan will soon[when?] be replaced with a new document, containing initiatives and directives of the city government on development and infrastructure. This process was mandated by Maryland state law in the Economic Growth, Resource Protection, and Planning Act of 1992.[21] Annapolis Charter 300 and EnVISIONing Annapolis co-sponsored a public lecture series from September 2007 through June 2008 exploring these issues.

From mid-2007 through December 2008, the city celebrated the 300th anniversary of its 1708 Royal Charter, which established democratic self-governance. The many cultural events of this celebration were organized by Annapolis Charter 300.

أبرز المؤسسات

ملف:Maryland State House from Church Circle.JPG
Maryland State House as seen from Church Circle

مجلس نواب الولاية

The Maryland State House is the oldest in continuous legislative use in the United States. Construction started in 1772, and the Maryland legislature first met there in 1779. It is topped by the largest wooden dome built without nails in the country. The Maryland State House housed the workings of the United States government from November 26, 1783, to August 13, 1784, and the Treaty of Paris was ratified there on January 14, 1784, so Annapolis became the first peacetime capital of the U.S.[22][23]

It was in the Maryland State House that George Washington famously resigned his commission before the Continental Congress on December 23, 1783.[23]

الأكاديمية البحرية للولايات المتحدة

The United States Naval Academy was founded in 1845 on the site of Fort Severn, and now occupies an area of land reclaimed from the Severn River next to the Chesapeake Bay.

St. John's College

Annapolis is the seat of St. John's College, a non-sectarian private college that was once supported by the state; it was opened in 1789 as the successor of King William's School, which was founded by an act of the Maryland legislature in 1696 and was opened in 1701. Its principal building, McDowell Hall, was originally to be the governor's mansion; although £4,000 was appropriated to build it in 1742, it was not completed until after the War of Independence.[11][24]

المسرح

Annapolis has a thriving community theater scene which includes two venues in the historic district.

المتاحف

Kunta Kinte-Alex Haley memorial, located at the head of the city's harbor, commemorates the arrival point of Alex Haley's African ancestor, Kunta Kinte, whose story is related in Haley's book Roots. A sculpture group at the memorial site portrays Alex Haley seated, reading from a book to three children. The final phase of the memorial's construction was completed in 2002.[25]

Geography and climate

ملف:Annapolis Maryland.jpg
Early-March 2002 astronaut photography of Annapolis Maryland taken from the International Space Station (ISS)

Located 25 miles (40 km) south of Baltimore and 30 miles (48 km) east of Washington D.C., Annapolis is the closest state capital to the national capital.[26]


بيانات مناخ Annapolis, Maryland (1981–2010 normals)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °ف (°س) 77
(25)
75
(23.9)
85
(29.4)
91
(32.8)
91
(32.8)
100
(37.8)
103
(39.4)
102
(38.9)
93
(33.9)
90
(32.2)
78
(25.6)
72
(22.2)
103
(39٫4)
العظمى المتوسطة °ف (°س) 42.7
(5.94)
45.5
(7.5)
53.2
(11.78)
63.9
(17.72)
72.9
(22.72)
81.6
(27.56)
85.8
(29.89)
84.0
(28.89)
76.9
(24.94)
66.3
(19.06)
56.9
(13.83)
46.8
(8.22)
64٫8
(18٫22)
الصغرى المتوسطة °ف (°س) 29.1
(-1.61)
30.7
(-0.72)
36.9
(2.72)
45.8
(7.67)
55.6
(13.11)
66.4
(19.11)
71.2
(21.78)
69.1
(20.61)
62.8
(17.11)
50.5
(10.28)
41.8
(5.44)
31.9
(-0.06)
49٫4
(9٫67)
الصغرى القياسية °ف (°س) 5
(-15)
3
(-16.1)
14
(-10)
24
(-4.4)
38
(3.3)
49
(9.4)
59
(15)
56
(13.3)
44
(6.7)
30
(-1.1)
18
(-7.8)
9
(-12.8)
3
هطول inches (mm) 3.32
(84.3)
2.94
(74.7)
4.53
(115.1)
3.66
(93)
4.20
(106.7)
4.17
(105.9)
4.56
(115.8)
3.88
(98.6)
4.76
(120.9)
3.89
(98.8)
3.80
(96.5)
3.56
(90.4)
47٫27
(1٬200٫7)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.4 9.2 11.2 11.2 11.0 9.5 10.3 8.8 7.8 7.8 9.1 9.8 115٫1
Source: NOAA: Temperature data at the Naval Academy 1945–61 and 2004–present,[27][28] precipitation data[29]


الديمغرافيا

Downtown Annapolis's Main Street in September 2004
التعداد التاريخي
التعداد Pop.
1820 2٬260
1830 2٬623 16٫1%
1840 2٬792 6٫4%
1850 3٬011 7٫8%
1860 4٬529 50٫4%
1870 5٬744 26٫8%
1880 6٬642 15٫6%
1890 7٬604 14٫5%
1900 7٬657 0٫7%
1910 8٬262 7٫9%
1920 8٬518 3٫1%
1930 9٬803 15٫1%
1940 9٬542 −2٫7%
1950 10٬047 5٫3%
1960 23٬385 132٫8%
1970 30٬095 28٫7%
1980 31٬740 5٫5%
1990 33٬187 4٫6%
2000 35٬838 8�0%
2010 38٬394 7٫1%
تقدير 2016 39٬418 [4] 2٫7%
U.S. Decennial Census
Annapolis, Maryland


الاقتصاد

# Employer # of Employees
1 Anne Arundel Medical Center 2,800
2 United States Naval Academy 2,052
3 ARINC 1,100
4 The Home Depot 852
5 Verizon Maryland 844
6 TeleCommunication Systems 500
7 Constellation Energy 412
8 Northrop Grumman Mission Systems 200
9 AT&T Inc. 365
10 MedAssurant 300


Sister cities

Annapolis is a sister city of these municipalities:[30]

سبقه
Princeton
Capital of the United States
1783–1784
تبعه
Trenton

See also

References

  1. ^ "Municipalities: Annapolis". Maryland Manual On-Line. Maryland State Archives. January 9, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  2. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة QuickFacts
  3. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة USA
  4. ^ أ ب "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  5. ^ Garner, Bryan (2009). Garner's Modern American Usage (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 238. ISBN 9780195382754. 
  6. ^ David Ridgely, ed. (1841). Annals of Annapolis. Cushing & Brother. pp. 34, 35. 
  7. ^ Huston, John W. (1977). "Annapolis: an eighteenth-century analysis". Conspectus of History. 1 (4): 49. 
  8. ^ McWilliams, Jane W. (2011). Annapolis, City on the Severn: A History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  9. ^ William J. Cochran (2001). "Green Print Shop". Archaeology in Annapolis. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. 
  10. ^ "Eighteenth-Century American Newspapers in the Library of Congress". The Library of Congress. July 1, 2005. 
  11. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Endnotes:
    • D. Ridgely, Annals of Annapolis from 1649 until the War of 1812 (Baltimore, 1841)
    • S. A. Shafer, "Annapolis, Ye Ancient City," in L. P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 1900)
    • W. Eddis, Letters from America (London, 1792).
  12. ^ J.A. Leo Lemay, Men of Letters in Colonial Maryland (1972) p 229.
  13. ^ Mike Peed (June 13, 2009). "A Corrected Replica of the Flag From Maryland's 1783 State House Will Be Raised". The Washington Post. 
  14. ^ "A John Shaw Flag for the Maryland State House" (PDF). Maryland State Archives. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Camp Parole". The Historical Marker Database. July 1, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  16. ^ Gannett, Henry (1979). "A Gazetteer of Maryland and Delaware". Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-8063-0703-9. 
  17. ^ "Archives of Maryland (Biographical Series)". Henry Davis. Archives of Maryland. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  18. ^ Annapolis Maritime Museum – Discovery: Eastport Walking Tour Archived March 1, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ "Grand Duchess Charlotte's US Good-Will-Tours". Wort. 
  20. ^ Maryland Historical Trust[dead link]
  21. ^ "Maryland Department of Planning". 
  22. ^ "The State House and its Dome". Capital Gazette Communications, Inc. 2008. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008. 
  23. ^ أ ب "History of the State House and Its Dome". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  24. ^ "A Brief History of St. John’s College". St. John's College. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 
  25. ^ "The Kunta Kinte-Alex Haley Memorial". Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Annapolis". Maryland Manual On-Line. Maryland State Archives. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  27. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2015-08-10. 
  28. ^ "Station Name: MD ANNAPOLIS NAF". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Station Name: MD ANNAPOLIS POLICE BRKS". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Sister City Program". City of Annapolis. 2002. Retrieved September 2, 2009. [dead link]قالب:Cbignore

Further reading

  • Eric L. Goldstein, Traders and Transports: The Jews of Colonial Maryland (Baltimore: Jewish Historical Society of Maryland, 1993);

External links

قالب:Geographic Location 2

قالب:Annapolis

قالب:Anne Arundel County, Maryland قالب:County Seats of Maryland

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).