نيويورك (ولاية)

ولاية نيويورك
Flag of ولاية نيويورك
[[علم نيويورك|Flag]]
Official seal of ولاية نيويورك
Seal
Nickname(s): 
الولاية الامبراطورية The Empire State
الشعار الحادي: 
Excelsior (in لاتينية)[1]
Ever upward
النشيد: "I Love New York"
Map of the United States with highlighted
Map of the United States with highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New York
Admitted to the UnionJuly 26, 1788 (11th)
Capitalألباني
Largest cityمدينة نيويورك
Largest metroNew York metropolitan area
الحكم
 • GovernorAndrew Cuomo (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorKathy Hochul (D)
المساحة
 • الإجمالية54٬555[2] ميل² (141٬300 كم²)
ترتيب المساحة27th
الأبعاد
 • الطول330 mi (530 km)
 • العرض285 mi (455 km)
الارتفاع1٬000 ft (300 m)
أعلى ارتفاع (Mount Marcy[3][4][5])5٬344 ft (1٬629 m)
أوطى ارتفاع (Atlantic Ocean[4][5])0 ft (0 m)
التعداد(2019)
 • الإجمالي19٬453٬561[6]
 • الترتيب4th
 • الكثافة416٫42/sq mi (159/km2)
 • ترتيب الكثافة7th
 • Median household income$64٬894 (2٬017)[7]
 • Income rank15th
صفة المواطنNew Yorker
Language
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken language
منطقة التوقيتEastern (التوقيت العالمي المنسق−05:00)
 • الصيفيEDT (UTC−04:00)
USPS abbreviationNY
ISO 3166 codeUS-NY
Latitude40° 30′ N to 45° 1′ N
Longitude71° 51′ W to 79° 46′ W
الموقع الإلكترونيny.gov
نيويورك state symbols
Living insignia
Birdطائر أزرق شرقي
FishBrook trout; وفي الماء المالح: Striped bass
Flowerالوردة
InsectNine-spotted ladybug
Mammalالقندس
ReptileCommon snapping turtle
TreeSugar maple
Inanimate insignia
Colorsأزرق & ذهبي
Food
  • Fruit: Apple
  • Muffin: Apple
FossilSea scorpion
GemstoneGarnet
MottoExcelsior (Ever upward)
Nicknameولاية الامبراطورية The Empire State
ShellBay scallop
SloganI Love New York
OtherBush: Lilac bush
State route marker
نيويورك state route marker
State quarter
نيويورك quarter dollar coin
Released in 2001
Lists of United States state symbols

نيويورك New York هي احدى ولايات الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية تقع في شمال شرق الولايات المتحدة الامريكية عاصمتها ألباني. وتُعد هذه الولاية الرائدة في أمريكا في مجالات المصارف والاتصالات، والمعاملات المالية، بينما تفوقها كاليفورنيا في مجالي التجارة والصناعة فقط.

تُعَدُّ مدينة نيويورك كبرى المدن في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية من حيث السكان، وتعتبر سادسة المدن الكبرى في العالم في هذا المضمار، وهي إحدى المراكز الرائدة في العالم للمشاريع التجارية. وتحتوي على العديد من المسارح، والمتاحف، والفرق الموسيقية، والمؤسسات الأخرى التي تجعلها من أشهر المراكز الثقافية. مدينة نيويورك هي إحدى المدن الكبرى في العالم التي تضم أكثر الموانئ البحرية ازدحامًا. ويشمخ في مرفئها تمثال الحرية، وهي المقر الرئيسي لهيئة الأمم المتحدة.

تغطي أرض ولاية نيويورك وديان نهرية خصبة ومرتفعات مليئة بالغابات، وجبال عالية وبحيرات متلألئة. ومعالم نيويورك المشهورة تجذب الملايين من السائحين سنويًا، وتعتبر شلالات نياجارا من العجائب الطبيعية الرائعة في الولاية، وواحدة من عوامل الجذب الرئيسية للسياحة.

ولاية نيويورك هي إحدى الولايات الثلاث عشرة الأساسية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. ولقد وقع حوالي ثلث مجموع المعارك الحربية التي قادها الثوار الأمريكيون في هذه الولاية. كانت مدينة نيويورك أول عاصمة للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وأعلن فيها جورج واشنطن القَسَم الدستوري كأول رئيس للأمة. وتعتبر مدينة ألْباني عاصمة ولاية نيويورك.


Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area (nearly 40% on Long Island).[9] The state and city were both named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.39 million in 2018,[9] New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States.[10][11][12] The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world.[13][14] New York City is a global city,[15] home to the United Nations Headquarters,[16] and has been described as the cultural,[17][18][19] financial,[20] and media capital[21][22] of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.[23][19][24] The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany.

The 27th largest U.S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley. The large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, and the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. The north–south Hudson River Valley and the east–west Mohawk River Valley bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination.

New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed. The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of the interior, beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the east coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy.[25]

Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, and Grand Central Terminal.[26] New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[27] In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[28] social tolerance,[29] and environmental sustainability.[30][31] New York's higher education network comprises approximately 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world.[32][33][34]

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التاريخ


تاريخ الأمريكان الأصليين

Map of New York showing Algonquian tribes in the eastern and southern portions and Iroquoian tribes to the western and northern portions.
New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) Indian tribes.

كانت قبيلتان من أكبر وأقوى القبائل الهندية في أمريكا الشمالية تعيشان في منطقة نيويورك قبل وصول الأوروبيين إليها. كانت إحداهما تتألف من قبائل من أسرة الجونغيان الهندية. أما الجماعة الأخرى فكانت تُعرف باسم قبيلة الأروكيوس أو مجموعة العشائر الخمس.

أبحر هنري هدسون، وهو رجل إنجليزي كان يعمل لحساب هولندا ـ سنة 1609م في اتجاه أعالي النهر الذي يحمل اسم هدسون حاليًا.وقد أعطت هذه الرحلة الحق لهولندا في ادعاء ملكية معظم نيويورك وبعض الولايات الشرقية الأخرى، وسميت هذه المنطقة بعد ذلك باسم هولندا الجديدة (نيونذرلاند).

أسس الهولنديون البريد التجاري في وادي نهر هدسون بعد زيارة هدسون بنفسه مباشرة، وفي عام 1624م، أسس الهولنديون المستوطنون فورت أورانج (تعرف حاليًا باسم ألباني) وهي تعتبر أول مستعمرة دائمة للمستوطنين البيض. اشترى الهولنديون منطقة مانهاتن من الهنود عام 1625م، ثم بدأوا العمل ببناء ما عرف بمدينة نيوأمستردام التي تعرف الآن بمدينة نيويورك.

ظهر العديد من المستعمرات الإنجليزية على طول البحيرة التي بدأت بالظهور تدريجيًا مقابلة للهولنديين، وفي عام 1664 استولى الإنجليز على هولندا الجديدة، ثم أعادوا تسمية هذه المنطقة من جديد وسميت نيويورك على اسم دوق يورك.

بعد نجاح الإنجليز في الاستيلاء على جنوبي نيويورك، بدأ الفرنسيون في الاستيلاء على أجزاء مهمة من الجزء الشمالي لها، وفي خلال هذا الوقت من عام 1689م بدأت الحرب في أوروبا بين إنجلترا وفرنسا، ولذلك أصبحت نيويورك مباشرة أرض معركة بين هاتين الدولتين، ومن عام 1689م إلى 1763م عانت هذه المنطقة بصورة سيئة من اندلاع أربع حروب، تُعرف بالحروب الفرنسية الهندية. أفقدت هذه الحروب فرنسا معظم سيطرتها على جميع أمريكا الشمالية.

كانت نيويورك مسرحًا لكثير من المعارك خلال حرب الثورة الأمريكية (1775 ـ 1783م). ففي عام 1777م انتصرت القوات الوطنية الأمريكية في نيويورك في موقعتين مهمتين. وفي عام 1779م، سحقت حملة عسكرية مسلحة قبيلة الأروكيوس الجبارين تاركة المقاطعات الهندية مفتوحة أمام البيض للاستيطان فيها. وأصبحت نيويورك إحدى الولايات الأمريكية في عام 1788.

The creation of the Erie Canal led to rapid industrialization in New York.
The Woolworth Building, in مدينة نيويورك, was one of the world's first skyscrapers (1913).

في عام 1825م اكتمل بناء قنال إيري وساعد ربط نهر هدسون بالبحيرات العظمى على توسيع التجارة مع الغرب، وتم تطوير السكك الحديدية، وفي عام 1850م أصبحت نيويورك رائدة البلاد من حيث أعداد السكان، والتصنيع والتبادل التجاري.

بعد نهاية الحرب الأمريكية الأهلية (1861 - 1865)، بدأ الكثير من المراكز الصناعية الجديدة في الظهور والنمو في مختلف أجزاء نيويورك. وأصبحت هذه المدينة عاصمة البلاد صناعيًا وماليًا، وأصبحت كذلك مركزًا ثقافيًا. وأغرت فرص التوظيف التي توافرت في نيويورك موجات المهاجرين ليحطوا رحالهم في ربوعها. في عام 1901م استؤجر سفَّاك لقتل الرئيس وليم ماكنلي في بفلو، وأصبح تيودور روزفلت الحاكم السابق لنيويورك رئيسًا للدولة.

في منتصف القرن العشرين أصبحت ولاية نيويورك مركزًا صناعيًا للقوات المسلحة الأمريكية. في عام 1959م افتُتح طريق سانت لورنس المائي، الذي سمح للسفن القادمة من المحيط بالإبحار إلى موانئ البحيرات العظمى. أُغلِق كثير من المصانع في نيويورك أوائل السبعينيات، ولكن بعد منتصف السبعينيات بدأ اقتصاد نيويورك ينهض من كبوته بسبب النمو المتزايد والكبير في الخدمات وصناعة الآلات الكهربائية. وفي عام 1986م وافق الناخبون في نيويورك على تمويل المشاريع البيئية، خاصة تلك المشاريع الرامية إلى تنظيف أماكن المخلفات الخطيرة.

المناخ

درجات الحرارة الشهرية المعتادة العظمى والصغرى لمختلف مدن نيويورك
المدينة يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر
ألباني 31/13 34/16 44/25 57/36 70/46 78/55 82/60 80/58 71/50 60/39 48/31 36/20
بنگامتون 28/15 31/17 41/25 53/35 66/46 73/54 78/59 76/57 68/50 57/40 44/31 33/21
بفالو 31/18 33/19 42/26 54/36 66/48 75/57 80/62 78/60 70/53 59/43 47/34 36/24
لونگ بيتش 39/23 40/24 48/31 58/40 69/49 77/60 83/66 82/64 75/57 64/45 54/36 44/28
نيويورك 38/26 41/28 50/35 61/44 71/54 79/63 84/69 82/68 75/60 64/50 53/41 43/32
روتشستر 31/17 33/17 43/25 55/35 68/46 77/55 81/60 79/59 71/51 60/41 47/33 36/23
سيراكيوز 31/14 34/16 43/24 56/35 68/46 77/55 82/60 80/59 71/51 60/40 47/32 36/21
درجات الحرارة معطاة على مقياس فهرنهايت
Source: [1]


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Flora and fauna

Flora

Some species that can be found in this state are american ginseng, starry stonewort, waterthyme, water chestnut, eastern poison ivy, poison sumac, giant hogweed, cow parsnip and common nettle.[35]

Fauna

There are more than 20 mammal species, more than 20 bird species, some species of amphibians, and several reptile species.

Species of mammals that are part of New York are white-footed mouse, North America least shrew, little brown bat, muskrat, eastern gray squirrel, eastern cottontail, stoat, groundhog, striped skunk, fisher, North American river otter, raccoon, bobcat, coyote, red fox, white-tailed deer, moose and American black bear.[36]

Some species of birds in New Yok are the ring-necked pheasant, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, wild turkey, blue jay, eastern bluebird, American robin and lack-capped chickadee. Birds of prey that are present in the state are great horned owls, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, American kestrels and northern harriers. Waterfowls like mallards, wood ducks, canvasbacks, American black ducks, Canada gooses and blue-winged teals can be found in the region. Maritime or shore birds of New York are great blue herons, killdeers, Northern cardinals, American herring gulls and common terns.[37]

Reptiles species that can be seen in land areas of New York are queen snake, massasauga, hellbender, diamondback terrapin, spotted turle, malaclemys terrapin and Blanding's turtle. Species of turtles that can be found in the sea are green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, leatherback sea turlte and Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle.[38]


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السطح

غطت طبقة كثيفة من الجليد، خلال العصر الجليدي الذي انتهى قبل 10,000 سنة تقريبًا كل المساحة التي تُعرف الآن بنيويورك، ولقد ساعد الجليد على تشكيل عدد من الملامح الطبيعية الجميلة في هذه الولاية. تمتاز مدينة نيويورك بوجود أكبر مرفأ طبيعي في العالم. ومن أهم أنهارها، نهر هدسون وموهوك وهما من الطرق التجارية المائية المهمة في الدولة. تقع معظم البحيرات في ولاية نيويورك في منطقة أديرونداك في الشمال الشرقي من الولاية، وتُعَد بحيرة إيري وبحيرة أونتاريو اللتان تقعان على الحدود الأمريكية الكندية من أكبر بحيرات نيويورك.

الأقاليم

Economic regions
Tourism regions

تتألف ولاية نيويورك من ثمانية أقاليم أرضية متميزة. ويغطي إقليم منطقة سهول الساحل الأطلسي الجزيرة الطويلة وجزيرة ستاتن والمناطق السكنية لمدينة نيويورك التي تقع في نهاية الجنوب الشرقي للبر الرئيسي للولاية. وتُزاول حرفة صيد الأسماك والزراعة في هذه المنطقة. كما تعتبر لونج آيلاند من المنتجعات الصغيرة المشهورة.

إقليم مرتفعات نيو إنجلاند منطقة هضاب وجبال قليلة الارتفاع تمتد على طول النصف السفلي من الحدود الشرقية لنيويورك. وتوجد في هذا الإقليم جزيرة مانهاتن التي تقع في قلب مدينة نيويورك. إقليم منخفضات هدسون ـ موهوك يغطي معظم وادي نهر هدسون ووادي نهر موهوك. وتعتبر هذه الأراضي المنخفضة الطرق الوحيدة الصالحة للحركة عبر سلسلة جبال الأبلاش.

إقليم أديرونداك هضاب دائرية ومنطقة جبال واقعة في الشمال الشرقي لنيويورك، وربما تعتبر أيضًا جبال أديرونداك أقدم الجبال في أمريكا الشمالية. ويتميز هذا الإقليم بوجود الأماكن المشهورة للاستجمام والترويح.

إقليم هضبة تج هل جزء منعزل من هضبة الأبلاش وأراضيه شبه مستوية وصخرية الطابع وهو ذو مناخ قاسٍ، إذ تسقط عليه الثلوج بكميات أكثر من أي مكان آخر في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية إلى الشرق من جبال روكي.

إقليم منخفض سانت لورنس يقع على طول جنوبي منحدر نهر سانت لورنس وشمالي أديرونداك أبلاند. وأراضي هذا الإقليم إما مستوية وإما متموجة.

إقليم إيري ـ منخفضات أونتاريو ـ سهول منخفضة تقع في جنوبي وشرقي بحيرة إيري وبحيرة أونتاريو. ويحتوي الإقليم على العديد من المستنقعات والهضاب البيضية الشكل. ويتميز هذا الإقليم بمزارع الفاكهة ذات التربة الخصبة. ويشكل نهر نياجارا أشهر شلالات مائية في المنطقة وهي شلالات نياجارا.

إقليم هضبة الأبلاش الذي يُعرف أيضًا بهضبة أليغني يغطي معظم النصف الجنوبي للولاية. وفي الأجزاء الغربية والوسطى لهذه الهضبة توجد الوديان الثلجية المنخفضة التي تعتبر الفاصل لحدود الأراضي المرتفعة، وعند بحيرات فنجر توجد أكثر الأودية عمقًا والتي تقع فيها بحيرات طويلة عميقة. وتعتبر جبال كاتسكل الواقعة في الجنوب والشرق منطقة سياحية طوال السنة.

متنزهات الولاية

Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).

New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United States[39] and the first to be created via eminent domain.[40] In 1892, Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermont and the largest state park in the United States,[41] was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon national parks combined.[41] It is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined.[42] The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885,[43] which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of 700,000 أكرs (2,800 kم2) of land,[43] the park is a habitat for deer, minks, and fishers. There are some 400 black bears living in the region.[44] The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over 300 ميلs (480 kم) of multi-use trails in the Park.

The 1797 Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President George Washington, is a major tourist attraction in Montauk State Park at the easternmost tip of Long Island. Hither Hills State Park, also on the South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.

National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks

The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.[45]

The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are four National Heritage Areas, 27 National Natural Landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places.

Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).

New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. Niagara Falls State Park, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United States[39] and the first to be created via eminent domain.[40] In 1892, Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermont and the largest state park in the United States,[41] was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. The park is larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon national parks combined.[41] It is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined.[50] The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885,[43] which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. Consisting of 700,000 أكرs (2,800 kم2) of land,[43] the park is a habitat for deer, minks, and fishers. There are some 400 black bears living in the region.[51] The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over 300 ميلs (480 kم) of multi-use trails in the Park.

The 1797 Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President George Washington, is a major tourist attraction in Montauk State Park at the easternmost tip of Long Island. Hither Hills State Park, also on the South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen.

National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks

The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.[52]

The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. In addition, there are four National Heritage Areas, 27 National Natural Landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places.


المدن والبلدات

There are 62 cities in New York. The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough): Bronx, New York County (Manhattan), Queens, Kings County (Brooklyn), and Richmond County (Staten Island). New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. Albany, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. The smallest city is Sherrill, New York, in Oneida County. Hempstead is the most populous town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with more than 700,000 residents.

New York contains 13 metropolitan areas, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.[53] Major metro areas include New York City, Buffalo, Rochester, the Capital District (Albany, Schenectady, and Troy), Poughkeepsie, Syracuse, Utica, and Binghamton.

Demographics

Population

التعداد التاريخي
التعداد Pop.
1790340٬120
1800589٬05173٫2%
1810959٬04962٫8%
18201٬372٬81243٫1%
18301٬918٬60839٫8%
18402٬428٬92126٫6%
18503٬097٬39427٫5%
18603٬880٬73525٫3%
18704٬382٬75912٫9%
18805٬082٬87116�0%
18906٬003٬17418٫1%
19007٬268٬89421٫1%
19109٬113٬61425٫4%
192010٬385٬22714�0%
193012٬588٬06621٫2%
194013٬479٬1427٫1%
195014٬830٬19210�0%
196016٬782٬30413٫2%
197018٬236٬9678٫7%
198017٬558٬072−3٫7%
199017٬990٬4552٫5%
200018٬976٬4575٫5%
201019٬378٬1022٫1%
تقدير 201919٬453٬5610٫4%
Sources: 1910–2010 1790–1900[55]
2019 Estimate[6]
New York population distribution map

The nation's most populous state until the 1960s, New York is now the fourth most-populous state. The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City metropolitan area is growing, along with Saratoga County, while cities such as Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse and several others having been losing population for decades.[56] New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2018 (223,615) than any other U.S. city.[57] Conversely, outside of the Ithaca area, population growth in much of Western New York is nearly stagnant.[56] According to immigration statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. Between 2000 and 2005, immigration failed to surpass out-migration to other parts of the United States, a trend that has been reversing since 2006. New York State lost two House seats in the 2011 congressional reapportionment, secondary to relatively slow growth when compared to the rest of the United States. In 2000 and 2005, more people moved from New York to Florida than from any one state to another, contributing to New York's becoming the fourth most populous state in 2015 behind Florida, Texas, and California.[58] However, New York State has the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among the American states, at 4.2 million اعتبارا من 2008; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitan culture. New York has a pro-sanctuary city law.[59]

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New York was 19,453,561 on July 1, 2019, a 0.39% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[6] Despite the open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area,[60] predominantly in the New York City metropolitan area.

Two-thirds of New York State's population resides in New York City metropolitan area. New York City is the most populous city in the United States,[61] with an estimated record high population of 8,622,698 in 2017,[9] incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States Census.[62] At least twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles),[63] and within a smaller area. Long Island alone accounted for a Census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population.[9][64][65][66][67]

6.5% of New York's population were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older.

Race and ethnicity

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.6% of the population in 2010: 2.4% were of Mexican, 5.5% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 9.4% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were Italian (13.0%), Irish (12.1%), German (10.3%), American (5.4%), and English (5.2%).[68][69]

The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, has declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010.[70][71] اعتبارا من 2011, 55.6% of New York's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[72] New York's robustly increasing Jewish population, the largest outside of Israel,[73] was the highest among states both by percentage and by absolute number in 2012.[74] It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Jewish families,[75] particularly in Brooklyn and communities of the Hudson Valley.

New York is home to the largest African American population and the second largest Asian-American population (after California) in the United States. New York's uniracial Black population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800.[76] The Black population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa,[77] while established African Americans are migrating out of New York to the southern United States.[78] The New York City neighborhood of Harlem has historically been a major cultural capital for African-Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn has the largest such population in the United States. Meanwhile, New York's uniracial Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244.[76] Queens, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population and is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States; it is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.[79][80]

New York's growing uniracial Hispanic-or-Latino population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010,[81] a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000.[82] Queens is home to the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States. In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Jamaican American populations in the continental United States. The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State, which is the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into the state.[77][83][84][85][86] Multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County,[87] on Long Island .[88] Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Little Indias (लघु भारत) and a large Koreatown (롱 아일랜드 코리아타운), with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans and Korean Americans, respectively. Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants. The annual New York City India Day Parade, held on or approximately every August 15 since 1981, is the world's largest Indian Independence Day parade outside of India.[89]

In the 2000 Census, New York had the largest Italian American population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. Albany and the Mohawk Valley also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. According to the American Community Survey, New York had the largest Greek American population too, which counts 148,637 people (0.7% of the state).[69] In Buffalo and western New York, German Americans comprise the largest ancestry. In the North Country of New York, French Canadians represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to Quebec. Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants.

Racial composition 1950[71] 1970[71] 1990[71] 2000[90] 2010[91] Largest ancestry by county (2017)[92]
White 93.5% 86.8% 74.4% 67.9% 65.7% Largest ancestry of each New York county (en).svg ██ American

██ English ██ French/French Canadian ██ German ██ Irish ██ Italian ██ West Indian

Black or
African American
6.2% 11.9% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9%
American Indian and Alaska Native 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6%
Asian 0.2% 0.7% 3.9% 5.5% 7.3%
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0.1% 0.0%
Other race 0.4% 5.5% 7.1% 7.4%
Two or more races 3.1% 3.0%

Languages

Most common non-English languages (2010)[93]
Language Population
Spanish 14.44%
Chinese (incl. Cantonese and Mandarin) 2.61%
Russian 1.20%
Italian 1.18%
French Creole 0.79%
French 0.75%
Yiddish 0.67%
Korean 0.63%
Polish 0.53%
Bengali 0.43%

In 2010, the most common American English dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York City area dialect (including New York Latino English and North Jersey English), the Western New England accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City,[94][95][96] making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[97]

اعتبارا من 2010, 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian, 0.79% (142,169) French Creole, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English.[93]

Religion

Orthodox Cathedral St Nicholas

In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) reported that the largest denominations were the Catholic Church with 6,286,916; Orthodox Judaism with 588,500; Islam with 392,953; and the United Methodist Church with 328,315 adherents.[98]

Religious affiliation (2014)[99]
Affiliation % of New York population
Christian 60 60
 
Catholic 31 31
 
Protestant 26 26
 
Evangelical Protestant 10 10
 
Mainline Protestant 11 11
 
Black church 5 5
 
Other Christian 3 3
 
Unaffiliated 27 27
 
Nothing in particular 17 17
 
Agnostic 5 5
 
Atheist 5 5
 
Jewish 7 7
 
Muslim 2 2
 
Buddhist 1 1
 
Hindu 1 1
 
Other faiths 0.5 0.5
 
Don't know/refused answer 1 1
 

Before the 1800s, Protestant sects dominated the religious life of New York, although religion did not play as large a role in the public life of New Netherland as it did in New England, with its Puritan population.[100]

Religious revivals and the formation of new religious movements of the Second Great Awakening took place in the burned-over district of western and central regions of New York in the early 19th century.


الاقتصاد

New York quarter, reverse side, 2001.jpg
Midtown Manhattan in مدينة نيويورك is home to the greatest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the world.
A dairy farm near Oxford, New York.

مدينة نيويورك ذات اقتصاد متنوع، وموقع ممتاز، وأعداد سكانية كبيرة، ووسائل نقل ميسرة، مما ساعدها على أن تصبح رائدة للأعمال التجارية والصناعية. تشغل ولاية نيويورك مركز القمة بين ولايات أمريكا في معظم المجالات الاقتصادية، فهي تزود الدولة بنحو 8% من وظائفها.

تشغل صناعة الخدمات مجتمعة أربع أخماس “إجمالي منتجات ولاية نيويورك” -أي إجمالي قيمة البضائع والخدمات المنتجة سنويًا- وتشكل كل من الشؤون المالية، والتأمينات والأملاك أهم الأنشطة في الولاية، وتعد مدينة نيويورك مركزًا ماليًا رئيسيًا في الولايات المتحدة، إذ تضم أكبر المصارف وسوق الأوراق المالية. تستقطب الخدمات الاجتماعية والشخصية والخدمات الصناعية معظم سكان الولاية موظفين وعاملين أكثر من أي قطاع اقتصادي آخر. وتنشط في الولاية أعمال مختلفة ومتنوعة بشكل كبير وتضم هذه الأعمال: المكاتب الطبية، والمستشفيات والخاصة، والاستشارات القانونية، ووكالات الإعلانات، وشركات التسلية والترويح.

تحتل تجارة البيع بالجملة والتجزئة في نيويورك المرتبة الثالثة من حيث الأهمية بالنسبة لصناعة الخدمات في الولاية. فتجارة البيع بالجملة للملابس، والحبوب، والخضراوات، والنفط تعتبر من الأساسيات في الولاية. وتوجد معظم شركات البيع بالجملة في مدينة نيويورك. ويساعد ميناء المدينة التجارة الخارجية كثيرًا. ويشمل بيع التجزئة عدة أنواع رئيسية مثل: محلات بيع السيارات، والمخازن الغذائية، والمطاعم. تحتل نيويورك المركز الثاني بعد ولاية كاليفورنيا من ناحية الصناعات الرئيسية، وهي الرائدة في الطباعة والنشر بين جميع ولايات أمريكا، ولذا تعتبر مدينة نيويورك مركز الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية للنشر والتأليف. وتنتج منطقة روشيستر معظم الآلات والأجهزة العلمية المصنعة في ولاية نيويورك، ومن المنتجات المهمة على وجه الخصوص صناعة أجهزة التصوير الضوئي. ومن المراكز الرئيسية لصناعة الأجهزة الكهربائية بينها متون، بفلو، ونيويورك، وروشيستر ومنطقة ناساو ـ سفولك وسكينيكتادي، ويوتيكا.

وتعد ولاية نيويورك الرائدة بين جميع الولايات الأمريكية في إنتاج الملابس وما يتعلق بها، وتعد كذلك المركز الرئيسي لمنتجات الملابس النسائية وكثير من الملابس الرجالية.

يغطي الدخل الزراعي في ولاية نيويورك معظم المستلزمات المعيشية، إذ يبلغ حوالي 70%. والحليب والأعلاف والذرة الشامية هي المنتجات الرئيسية للولاية، وتعتبر نيويورك أيضًا مركزًا رائدًا في إنتاج الفواكه والخضراوات لشرقي الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية.

تقع نيويورك في قلب الأماكن المزدحمة بالسكان في الولاية، وتعتبر البوابة الرئيسية لدخول الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية. وهي لا تحتوي على الموانئ المائية وحدها، لكنها تملك أيضًا أنظمة ممتازة في طرقها المائية الداخلية. كل هذه العوامل ساعدت نيويورك لتصبح اليوم رائدة عالمية في النقل، فكل الموانئ البحرية الكبيرة، والجسور العظيمة، والسكك الحديدية تحت الأرض تمثل بعض الإمكانيات المهمة للنقل لمدينة نيويورك.

Wall Street

The New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies[101]

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world.[19][23][102][103][104] Lower Manhattan is the third-largest central business district in the United States and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, as measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[101][105] Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012,[106] while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually.[107] In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.[108] New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. economy.[109]:31–32[110] New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.[109]:34–35 New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States.[111]

Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m2) of office space in 2013,[112] making it the largest office market in the United States,[113] while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation.[114]

Silicon Alley

Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem; in 2015, Silicon Alley generated over $7.3 billion in venture capital investment.[28] High tech industries including digital media, biotechnology, software development, game design, and other fields in information technology are growing, bolstered by New York City's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines,[115] its intellectual capital, as well as its growing outdoor wireless connectivity.[116] In December 2014, New York State announced a $50 million venture-capital fund to encourage enterprises working in biotechnology and advanced materials; according to Governor Andrew Cuomo, the seed money would facilitate entrepreneurs in bringing their research into the marketplace.[117] On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a two billion dollar graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.[118][119]

Tech Valley

Albany,[120] Saratoga County,[121][122] Rensselaer County, and the Hudson Valley, collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley, have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing,[121] involving companies including IBM and its Thomas J. Watson Research Center,[123] and the three foreign-owned firms, GlobalFoundries, Samsung, and Taiwan Semiconductor, among others.[120][124] The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the SUNY Polytechnic Institute.[120] In 2015, Tech Valley, straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, generated over $163 million in venture capital investment.[28] The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, similarly in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University.[125] Westchester County has developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over a billion dollars in planned private investment as of 2016,[126][127]

التعليم

The University of the State of New York accredits and sets standards for primary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state, while the New York State Education Department oversees public schools and controls their standardized tests. The New York City Department of Education manages the New York City Public Schools system. In 1894, reflecting general racial discrimination then, the state passed a law that allowed communities to set up separate schools for children of African-American descent. In 1900, the state passed another law requiring integrated schools.[128]

At the level of post-secondary education, the statewide public university system is the State University of New York (SUNY). The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, technical colleges, undergraduate colleges, and doctoral-granting institutions, including several universities. New York's largest public university is the State University of New York at Buffalo, which was founded by U.S. President Millard Fillmore.[129][130] The four SUNY University Centers, offering a wide array of academic programs, are the University at Albany, Binghamton University, Stony Brook University, and the University at Buffalo. New York City has its own City University of New York (CUNY) system, which is funded by the city.

Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, and the University of Rochester are among the most prominent of the larger higher education institutions in New York, all of them leading, world-renowned private universities and members of the Association of American Universities, the pre-eminent group of research universities in the United States. Other notable large private universities include Syracuse University and Fordham University. Smaller notable private institutions of higher education include Rockefeller University, Mercy College, New York Institute of Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Yeshiva University, and Hofstra University. There are also a multitude of postgraduate-level schools in New York State, including medical, law, and engineering schools.

West Point, the service academy of the U.S. Army, is located just south of Newburgh, on the west bank of the Hudson River. The federal Merchant Marine Academy is at Kings Point on Long Island.

A number of selective private liberal arts institutions are located in New York. Among them are Bard College, Barnard College, Colgate University, Hamilton College, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Marist College, Sarah Lawrence College, Skidmore College, Union College, and Vassar College. Two of these schools, Barnard and Vassar, are members of the elite Seven Sisters, originally all women's colleges with ties to the Ivy League. Barnard is affiliated with Columbia University, its Manhattan neighbor, and Vassar became coeducational in 1969 after declining an offer to merge with Yale University.

New York is also home to what are widely regarded as the best performing arts schools in the world. The Juilliard School, located in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is one of the world's leading music and dance schools.[131][132][133] The Eastman School of Music, a professional school within the University of Rochester, was ranked first among U.S. music schools by U.S. News & World Report for five consecutive years.[134]

During the 2013 fiscal year, New York spent more on public education per pupil than any other state, according to U.S. Census Bureau statistics.[135]

المواصلات

The New York City subway is the largest mass transit system in the world by number of stations.
The Bear Mountain Bridge crossing the Hudson River.

الحكومة

The Government of New York embodies the governmental structure of the State of New York as established by the New York State Constitution. It is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.

The Governor is the State's chief executive and is assisted by the Lieutenant Governor. Both are elected on the same ticket. Additional elected officers include the Attorney General, and the Comptroller. The Secretary of State, formerly an elected officer, is currently appointed by the Governor.

The New York State Legislature is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The Assembly consists of 150 members, while the Senate varies in its number of members, currently having 63. The Legislature is empowered to make laws, subject to the Governor's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York.

The highest court of appeal in the Unified Court System is the Court of Appeals whereas the primary felony trial court is the County Court (or the Supreme Court in New York City). The Supreme Court also acts as the intermediate appellate court for many cases, and the local courts handle a variety of other matters including small claims, traffic ticket cases, and local zoning matters, and are the starting point for all criminal cases. The New York City courts make up the largest local court system.

The state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, all of which are municipal corporations with respect to their own governments, as well as various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school districts, fire districts, and New York state public-benefit corporations, frequently known as authorities or development corporations. Each municipal corporation is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. The state also has 10 Indian reservations. There have been several movements regarding secession from the state of New York. Proposals have included a state of Long Island, consisting of everything on the island outside New York City; a state called Niagara, the western counties of New York state; the northern counties of New York state called Upstate New York; making the city of New York a state; a proposal for a new Peconic County on eastern Long Island; and for the borough of Staten Island to secede from New York City.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Capital punishment

Capital punishment was reintroduced in 1995 under the Pataki administration, but the statute was declared unconstitutional in 2004, when the New York Court of Appeals ruled in People v. LaValle that it violated the state constitution. The remaining death sentence was commuted by the court to life imprisonment in 2007, in People v. John Taylor, and the death row was disestablished in 2008, under executive order from Governor Paterson. No execution has taken place in New York since 1963. Legislative efforts to amend the statute have failed, and death sentences are no longer sought at the state level, though certain crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the federal government are subject to the federal death penalty.[136][137][138]

Federal representation

Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer are seen giving a speech promoting universal healthcare.
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators

New York is represented by Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand in the United States Senate. There are twenty-seven congressional districts , the nation's third equal highest number of congressional districts, equal with Florida and behind California's 53 and Texas's 36.[139] As of 2019, twenty-one districts are represented by members of the Democratic Party, while six are represented by Republicans. Representation was reduced from 29 in 2013 due to the state's slower overall population growth relative to the overall national population growth.[140] New York has 29 electoral votes in national presidential elections, a drop from its peak of 47 votes from 1933 to 1953.

The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. According to the Office of the New York State Comptroller, New York State received 91 cents in services for every $1 it sent in taxes to the U.S. federal government in the 2013 fiscal year; New York ranked in 46th place in the federal balance of payments to the state on a per capita basis.[141]

Politics

As of April 2016, Democrats represented a plurality of voters in New York State, constituting more than twice as many registered voters as any other political party affiliation or lack thereof.[142] Since the second half of the 20th century, New York has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama won New York State by over 25 percentage points in both 2012 and 2008. New York City, as well as the state's other major urban locales, including Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, are significant Democratic strongholds, with liberal politics. Rural portions of upstate New York, however, are generally more conservative than the cities and tend to favor Republicans. Heavily populated suburban areas downstate, such as Westchester County and Long Island, have swung between the major parties since the 1980s, but more often than not support Democrats.

New York City is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States for both major parties. Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2000 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and Al Gore.[143]

The state of New York has the distinction of being the home state for both major-party nominees in three presidential elections. The 1904 presidential election saw former New York Governor and incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt face Alton B. Parker, chief judge of the New York Court of Appeals. The 1944 presidential election had Franklin D. Roosevelt, following in his cousin Theodore's footsteps as former New York Governor and incumbent president running for re-election against then-current New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. In the 2016 presidential election, former United States Senator from New York Hillary Clinton, a resident of Chappaqua, was the Democratic Party nominee. The Republican Party nominee was businessman Donald Trump, a resident of Manhattan and a native of Queens.[144]

New York City is an important center for international diplomacy.[145] The United Nations Headquarters has been situated on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan since 1952.

Sports

New York State is geographically home to one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills, based in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park. Although the New York Giants and New York Jets represent the New York metropolitan area and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey. New York also has two Major League Baseball teams, the New York Yankees (based in the Bronx) and the New York Mets (based in Queens). Minor league baseball teams also play in the State of New York, including the Long Island Ducks, the Brooklyn Cyclones, and the Staten Island Yankees downstate, and the Rochester Red Wings, the Binghamton Rumble Ponies, the Syracuse Mets, the Auburn Doubledays, the Batavia Muckdogs, the Hudson Valley Renegades and the Buffalo Bisons upstate. New York is home to three National Hockey League franchises: the New York Rangers in Manhattan, the New York Islanders in Brooklyn, and the Buffalo Sabres in Buffalo. New York has two National Basketball Association teams, the New York Knicks in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn Nets in Brooklyn. New York is the home of a Major League Soccer franchise, New York City FC, currently playing in the Bronx. Although the New York Red Bulls represent the New York metropolitan area, they play in Red Bull Arena in Harrison, New Jersey.

New York hosted the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid. The 1980 Games are known for the USA–USSR ice hockey match dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", in which a group of American college students and amateurs defeated the heavily favored Soviet national ice hockey team 4–3 and went on to win the gold medal against Finland. Along with St. Moritz, Switzerland and Innsbruck, Austria, Lake Placid is one of the three cities to have hosted the Winter Olympic Games twice. New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics but lost to London.

Several U.S. national sports halls of fame are or have been situated in New York. The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is located in Cooperstown, Otsego County. The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, honors achievements in the sport of thoroughbred horse racing. The physical facility of the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta, also in Otsego County, closed in 2010, although the organization itself has continued inductions. The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in the New York City borough of Queens.[146]

New York State major league professional sports teams
Club Sport League
Buffalo Bills Football National Football League
Brooklyn Nets Basketball National Basketball Association
New York Knicks Basketball National Basketball Association
New York City FC Soccer Major League Soccer
Buffalo Sabres Ice hockey National Hockey League
New York Islanders Ice hockey National Hockey League
New York Rangers Ice hockey National Hockey League
New York Mets Baseball Major League Baseball
New York Yankees Baseball Major League Baseball
New York Giants Football National Football League
New York Jets Football National Football League
New York Red Bulls Soccer Major League Soccer

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وصلات خارجية

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Subject_bar على السطر 1: Please use mw.html instead of Module:HtmlBuilder.


سبقه
Virginia
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on July 26, 1788 (11th)
تبعه
North Carolina

Coordinates: 43°N 75°W / 43°N 75°W / 43; -75 (New York (state))