اللغة الصينية

الصينية
汉语/漢語 Hànyǔ أو 中文 Zhōngwén
Chineselanguage.svg
Hànyǔ (صينية) مكتوبة بالحروف التقليدية (أعلى)، والمبسطة (وسط) واسم بديل (أسفل)
موطنهاجمهورية الصين الشعبية وجمهورية الصين (تايوان) وسنغافورة
العرقصينيو الهان
الناطقون الأصليون
1٫2 بليون (2004)[1]
الصيغ المبكرة
الصيغ الفصحى
اللهجات
الصينية المبسطة
الصينية التقليدية

Transcriptions:
ژوين
پن‌ين (لاتينية)
شاورجن (العربية)
دونگان (Cyrillic)
بريل الصينية
'Phags-pa script (تاريخية)
الوضع الرسمي
لغة رسمية في
ينظمهاNational Commission on Language and Script Work (Mainland China)[2]
National Languages Committee (Taiwan)
Civil Service Bureau (Hong Kong)
Promote Mandarin Council (Singapore)
Chinese Language Standardisation Council (ماليزيا)
أكواد اللغات
ISO 639-1zh
ISO 639-2chi (B)
zho (T)
ISO 639-3zhoinclusive code
Individual codes:
cdo – Min Dong
cjy – Jinyu
cmn – مندرين
cpx – Pu Xian
czh – Huizhou
czo – Min Zhong
gan – گان
hak – هاكـّا
hsn – شيانگ
mnp – مين بـِيْ
nan – مين نان
wuu – وو
yue – يوى
och – الصينية القديمة
ltc – الصينية الوسطى المتأخرة
lzh – الصينية التقليدية
Glottologsini1245
Linguasphere79-AAA
Map-Sinophone World.png
خريطة العالم الناطق بالصينية

██ Countries and regions with a native Chinese-speaking majority. ██ Countries and regions where Chinese is not native but an official or educational language.

██ Countries with significant Chinese-speaking minorities.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
اللغات الصينية (العامة/المحكية)
صينية مبسطة 汉语
صينية تقليدية 漢語
المعني الحرفي لغة الهان
Chinese language (written)
الصينية 中文
المعنى الحرفي Middle/Central/Chinese text

الصينية (الصينية المبسطة: 汉语الصينية التقليدية: 漢語پن‌ين: Hànyǔ[أ] أو أيضاً بالصينية: 中文; صينية مبسطة: 申文; پن‌ين: Zhōngwén، [ب] خصوصاً للغة المكتوبة) هي مجموعة من اللغات التي تشكل الفرع الصينوي من اللغات الصينية-التبتية، التي تتكلمها الغالبية التي هي من عرق صينيي الهان والعديد من الجماعات العرقية الأقلية في الصين الكبرى. عدد الناطقين 1.3 مليار (أي نحو 16% من سكان العالم) يتكلمون تنويعة من الصينية كلغة أولى.[3]

تكتب الصينية بنظام كتابة فكرية تسمى "漢字/汉字 هاندزُ"، التي اخترعت قبل 4000 عام. يحتاج التلميذ إلى 6000 حرفا ليقرأ جريدة عادية، وأكثر من ذالك ليقرأ الكتب القديمة. في الصين وسنغافورة يستعملون "الحروف المبسطة" التي لها أشكال مبسطة، لكن في هونغ كونغ وتايوان لا يزال يستعملون الحروف التقليدية. تكتب أيضا أحيانا بنظام بينيين اللاتيني للتعليم وللأجانب.

اللغة الصينية لا تحتوي علي أبجدية، وإنما تحتوي علي كلمات. فالرمز الواحد عبارة عن كلمة مستقلة. ويكتب الرمز من اليسار لليمين، ومن أعلى لأسفل، وما يخالف ذلك يعتبر خطأ.

والقواميس والمعاجم الصينية إنما تعتمد علي نظام عدد الخطوط في الرمز الواحد فتجرد الكلمة من الخطوط الزائدة، وما تبقي بعدئذ تعد خطوطه ويأخذ مكانه في القاموس.

أهم اللهجات (أو اللغات) الصينية هي المندارينية، وذالك اللهجة الرسمية. ومن أهم اللهجات الأخرى الكانتونية والتايوانية والدونگان. كلها لغات نغمية.

The spoken varieties of Chinese are usually considered by native speakers to be variants of a single language. Due to their lack of mutual intelligibility, however, they are classified as separate languages in a family by linguists, who note that the varieties are as divergent as the Romance languages.[ت] Investigation of the historical relationships among the varieties of Chinese is just starting. Currently, most classifications posit 7 to 13 main regional groups based on phonetic developments from Middle Chinese, of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin (with about 800 million speakers, or 66%), followed by Min (75 million, e.g. Southern Min), Wu (74 million, e.g. Shanghainese), and Yue (68 million, e.g. Cantonese).[5] These branches are unintelligible to each other, and many of their subgroups are unintelligible with the other varieties within the same branch (e.g. Southern Min). There are, however, transitional areas where varieties from different branches share enough features for some limited intelligibility, including New Xiang with Southwest Mandarin, Xuanzhou Wu with Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Jin with Central Plains Mandarin and certain divergent dialects of Hakka with Gan (though these are unintelligible with mainstream Hakka). All varieties of Chinese are tonal to at least some degree, and are largely analytic.

The earliest Chinese written records are Shang dynasty-era oracle bone inscriptions, which can be dated to 1250 BCE. The phonetic categories of Old Chinese can be reconstructed from the rhymes of ancient poetry. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went through several sound changes and split into several varieties following prolonged geographic and political separation. Qieyun, a rime dictionary, recorded a compromise between the pronunciations of different regions. The royal courts of the Ming and early Qing dynasties operated using a koiné language (Guanhua) based on Nanjing dialect of Lower Yangtze Mandarin.

Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin), based on the Beijing dialect of Mandarin, was adopted in the 1930s and is now an official language of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan), one of the four official languages of Singapore, and one of the six official languages of the United Nations. The written form, using the logograms known as Chinese characters, is shared by literate speakers of mutually unintelligible dialects. Since the 1950s, simplified Chinese characters have been promoted for use by the government of the People's Republic of China, while Singapore officially adopted simplified characters in 1976. Traditional characters remain in use in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and other countries with significant overseas Chinese speaking communities such as Malaysia (which although adopted simplified characters as the de facto standard in the 1980s, traditional characters still remain in widespread use).

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التبويب

يبوِّب اللغويون كل تنويعات الصينية كجزء من شجرة عائلة اللغات الصينو-تبتية, together with Burmese, Tibetan and many other languages spoken in the Himalayas and the Southeast Asian Massif.[6] Although the relationship was first proposed in the early 19th century and is now broadly accepted, reconstruction of Sino-Tibetan is much less developed than that of families such as Indo-European or Austroasiatic. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, and the effects of language contact. In addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to reach and are often also sensitive border zones.[7] Without a secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear.[8] A top-level branching into Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, but has not been convincingly demonstrated.[9]


التاريخ

The first written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty. As the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. In reaction, central governments have repeatedly sought to promulgate a unified standard.[10]

الصينية القديمة والوسيطة

The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BCE in the late Shang dynasty.[11] Old Chinese was the language of the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE), recorded in inscriptions on bronze artifacts, the Classic of Poetry and portions of the Book of Documents and I Ching.[12] Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese by comparing later varieties of Chinese with the rhyming practice of the Classic of Poetry and the phonetic elements found in the majority of Chinese characters.[13] Although many of the finer details remain unclear, most scholars agree that Old Chinese differs from Middle Chinese in lacking retroflex and palatal obstruents but having initial consonant clusters of some sort, and in having voiceless nasals and liquids.[14] Most recent reconstructions also describe an atonal language with consonant clusters at the end of the syllable, developing into tone distinctions in Middle Chinese.[15] Several derivational affixes have also been identified, but the language lacks inflection, and indicated grammatical relationships using word order and grammatical particles.[16]

Middle Chinese was the language used during Northern and Southern dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th through 10th centuries CE). It can be divided into an early period, reflected by the Qieyun rime book (601 CE), and a late period in the 10th century, reflected by rhyme tables such as the Yunjing constructed by ancient Chinese philologists as a guide to the Qieyun system.[17] These works define phonological categories, but with little hint of what sounds they represent.[18] Linguists have identified these sounds by comparing the categories with pronunciations in modern varieties of Chinese, borrowed Chinese words in Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean, and transcription evidence.[19] The resulting system is very complex, with a large number of consonants and vowels, but they are probably not all distinguished in any single dialect. Most linguists now believe it represents a diasystem encompassing 6th-century northern and southern standards for reading the classics.[20]

الصيغ الكلاسيكية والأدبية

The relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex ("diglossia"). Its spoken varieties have evolved at different rates, while written Chinese itself has changed much less. Classical Chinese literature began in the Spring and Autumn period.

صعود اللهجات الشمالية

After the fall of the Northern Song dynasty and subsequent reign of the Jin (Jurchen) and Yuan (Mongol) dynasties in northern China, a common speech (now called Old Mandarin) developed based on the dialects of the North China Plain around the capital.[21] The Zhongyuan Yinyun (1324) was a dictionary that codified the rhyming conventions of new sanqu verse form in this language.[22] Together with the slightly later Menggu Ziyun, this dictionary describes a language with many of the features characteristic of modern Mandarin dialects.[23]

Up to the early 20th century, most Chinese people only spoke their local variety.[24] Thus, as a practical measure, officials of the Ming and Qing dynasties carried out the administration of the empire using a common language based on Mandarin varieties, known as Guānhuà (الصينية المبسطة: 官话/الصينية التقليدية: 官話, literally "language of officials").[25] For most of this period, this language was a koiné based on dialects spoken in the Nanjing area, though not identical to any single dialect.[26] By the middle of the 19th century, the Beijing dialect had become dominant and was essential for any business with the imperial court.[27]

In the 1930s, a standard national language, Guóyǔ (国语/國語 ; "national language") was adopted. After much dispute between proponents of northern and southern dialects and an abortive attempt at an artificial pronunciation, the National Language Unification Commission finally settled on the Beijing dialect in 1932. The People's Republic founded in 1949 retained this standard but renamed it pǔtōnghuà (普通话/普通話; "common speech").[28] The national language is now used in education, the media, and formal situations in both Mainland China and Taiwan.[29] Because of their colonial and linguistic history, the language used in education, the media, formal speech, and everyday life in Hong Kong and Macau is the local Cantonese, although the standard language, Mandarin, has become very influential and is being taught in schools.[30]


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التأثير

The Tripitaka Koreana, a Korean collection of the Chinese Buddhist canon

Historically, the Chinese language has spread to its neighbors through a variety of means. Northern Vietnam was incorporated into the Han empire in 111 BCE, marking the beginning of a period of Chinese control that ran almost continuously for a millennium. The Four Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the first century BCE, but disintegrated in the following centuries.[31] Chinese Buddhism spread over East Asia between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE, and with it the study of scriptures and literature in Literary Chinese.[32] Later Korea, Japan, and Vietnam developed strong central governments modeled on Chinese institutions, with Literary Chinese as the language of administration and scholarship, a position it would retain until the late 19th century in Korea and (to a lesser extent) Japan, and the early 20th century in Vietnam.[33] Scholars from different lands could communicate, albeit only in writing, using Literary Chinese.[34]

Although they used Chinese solely for written communication, each country had its own tradition of reading texts aloud, the so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations. Chinese words with these pronunciations were also extensively imported into the Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese languages, and today comprise over half of their vocabularies.[35] This massive influx led to changes in the phonological structure of the languages, contributing to the development of moraic structure in Japanese[36] and the disruption of vowel harmony in Korean.[37]

Borrowed Chinese morphemes have been used extensively in all these languages to coin compound words for new concepts, in a similar way to the use of Latin and Ancient Greek roots in European languages.[38] Many new compounds, or new meanings for old phrases, were created in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to name Western concepts and artifacts. These coinages, written in shared Chinese characters, have then been borrowed freely between languages. They have even been accepted into Chinese, a language usually resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form. Often different compounds for the same concept were in circulation for some time before a winner emerged, and sometimes the final choice differed between countries.[39] The proportion of vocabulary of Chinese origin thus tends to be greater in technical, abstract, or formal language. For example, in Japan, Sino-Japanese words account for about 35% of the words in entertainment magazines, over half the words in newspapers, and 60% of the words in science magazines.[40]

Vietnam, Korea, and Japan each developed writing systems for their own languages, initially based on Chinese characters, but later replaced with the Hangul alphabet for Korean and supplemented with kana syllabaries for Japanese, while Vietnamese continued to be written with the complex Chữ nôm script. However, these were limited to popular literature until the late 19th century. Today Japanese is written with a composite script using both Chinese characters (Kanji) and kana. Korean is written exclusively with Hangul in North Korea, and supplementary Chinese characters (Hanja) are increasingly rarely used in South Korea. As a result of former French colonization, Vietnamese switched to a Latin-based alphabet.

Examples of loan words in English include "tea", from Hokkien (Min Nan) پخ-اوه-جي: (), "dim sum", from Cantonese dim2 sam1 (點心) and "kumquat", from Cantonese gam1gwat1 (金橘).


اللغة الصينية ولهجاتها

أما إذا عدنا مرة ثانية للحديث عن اللغة الصينية فإننا سنجد أنه بجانب استخدام اللغة الصينية كلغة رسمية في الدول المشار إليها أعلاه فإنه تستخدم أيضًا اللغة الإنجليزية في هونج كونج واللغة البرتغالية في مكاو. وتعتبر اللغة الصينية نظرًا لأعداد المتكلمين بها أكبر لغة يتم التواصل بها في العالم. أما من حيث الأهمية والثقل السياسي والاقتصادي فتحتل اللغة الإنجليزية المرتبة الأولى. وتعتبر اللغة الصينية إحدى اللغات المعترف بها في الأمم المتحدة، ويتنبأ لها الكثيرون بأن تكون واحدة من أهم اللغات الأجنبية على المستوى الدولي في المستقبل القريب.

وبرغم أن اللغة الصينية بها لهجات مختلفة وعديدة، إلا أن كل الصينيين يتحدثون تقريبًا اللغة الصينية الفصحى، وهي عبارة عن لهجة قياسية (ويطلق عليها Putonghua والتي كانت تسمى في الماضي أيضًا Mandarin). وتقوم هذه اللغة أساسًا على لهجة أهل بكين. وبجانب هذه اللهجة التي أصبحت لغة فصحى تنقسم اللغة الصينية بالفعل إلى سلسلة من اللهجات، والتي يمكن تقسيمها بشكل أولي إلى لهجات شمال الصين ولهجات جنوب الصين. وتقترب لهجات جنوب الصين من اللغة الصينية الكلاسيكية، أما لهجات شمال الصين فتقترب من اللغة الصينية المعاصرة.

وتختلف اللهجات الصينية فيما بينها اختلافًا كبيرًا في طريقة نطقها (الأصوات) وفي بنيتها النحوية (القواعد) وفي مفرداتها (الثروة اللغوية)، لدرجة أن التواصل الشفوي بين متحدث إحدى اللهجات الموجودة في شمال الصين سيجد صعوبة بالغة أو لن يتمكن على الإطلاق من إجراء محادثة شفوية مع أحد متحدثي لهجة جنوب الصين، وعليهم في هذه الحالة إما أن يلجؤوا للغة المكتوبة أو للغة الصينية الفصحى (Putonghua) لكي يتفاهموا ويتواصلوا مع بعضهم. ومن اللافت للنظر أن متحدثي أي لهجة صينية يقدر أعدادهم بالملايين، فلهجة وو التي يتم التحدث بها في مناحي شنغهاي يبلغ عدد المتحدثين بها أكثر من 77 مليون نسمة، وهو رقم يزيد على متحدثي اللغة الإيطالية (حوالي 70 مليونًا) أو الهولندية (حوالي 25 مليونًا). وبهذا القياس والمقارنة مع كثير من اللغات الأوربية فيمكننا أن نعتبر أن أي لهجة صينية كبرى يجب النظر إليها على أنها لغة قائمة بذاتها وليست لهجة من اللهجات.

ويوجد في اللغة الصينية عدد مختلف من المصطلحات للإشارة للغة الصينية. فهناك المصطلح «تشونجوين»، وهو مصطلح عام للغة الصينية، ويشير في المقام الأول للغة المستخدمة في الكتابة. ولأن لغة الكتابة هي لغة مستقلة بشكل أو بآخر عن اللهجة، فإن هذا المصطلح يشمل أيضًا معظم اللهجات الصينية. أما مصطلح «هان يو» فيطلق على اللغة المنطوقة، وتلك هي اللغة المقصودة عندما يريد المرء أن يقول: «أنا أتكلم اللغة الصينية». كما يطلق المصطلح «هان»- والذي يشير في الأساس «لقومية أهل هان» – على كل اللهجات التي يتحدث بها الصينيون من قومية هان. أما في اللغة العامية فيستخدم المرء المصطلح «هان يو» للدلالة على الانتساب للغة الصينية الفصحى. وبالنسبة للغة الصينية الفصحى يوجد مصطلح خاص يطلق عليها وهو Putonghua .

وغالبًا ما ينظر المرء للغات الصينية المختلفة، وكما سبق ذكره عاليه، على أنها لهجات، على الرغم أن متحدثي اللغات الصينية المختلفة لا يمكنهم التفاهم بهذه اللغات المختلفة, والتي تنتشر كل واحدة منها في منطقة معينة. ويضاف إلى ذلك أن كل من هذه اللغات تنقسم أيضًا إلى لهجات. ولكن التعايش في دولة واحدة ووجود كتابة مشتركة بالإضافة للغة الفصحى (التي يمكن أن ينظر إليها أيضًا على أنها لهجة يتحدث بها العدد الأكبر من سكان الصين كما ذكرنا) هي التي تجعل التواصل ممكنًا بين أبناء اللغات الصينية المختلفة. وفي هذا السياق نجد أن علم اللغة لا يتحدث عن لهجات صينية وإنما عن لغات صينية مختلفة وينظر للغة الصينية على أنها عبارة عن مجموعة من اللغات المختلفة وتشتمل على ست لغات مختلفة على الأقل.

وتعد اللهجة الشمالية «بايفنجهوا» هي الأكثر انتشارًا ويتحدث بها ما لا يقل عن 850 مليون نسمة وتقوم على أساسها اللغة الصينية الفصحى. ومن أهم اللغات الصينية الأخرى:

  • لغة (Gan) ويتحدث بها 20 مليون نسمة.
  • لغة (Hakka) ويتحدث بها 30 مليون نسمة.
  • لغة (Jin) ويتحدث بها 45 مليون نسمة.
  • لغة (Min Bei) ويتحدث بها 10 ملايين نسمة.
  • لغة (Min Nan) ويتحدث بها 40 مليون نسمة. ومن بينها اللغة التايوانية (Taiwanisch) ويتحدث بها 15 مليون نسمة.
  • لغة (Wu) ويتحدث بها 77 مليون نسمة.
  • لغة (Xiang) ويتحدث بها 36 مليون نسمة.
  • لغة (Yue) ويتحدث بها أكثر من 80 مليون نسمة.

ومما هو جدير بالذكر في هذا السياق أن هناك عددًا من اللغات التي تتحدث بها طوائف مختلفة من الشعب الصيني مثل اللغة المنغولية واللغة التبتية واللغة المنشورية لا تنتمي للغات الصينية.


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خصائص اللغة الصينية

من خصائص اللغة الصينية أن كل مفرداتها تتكون من مقطع واحد، وبالطبع هناك استثناءات قليلة جدًا لهذه القاعدة التي تتميز بها اللغة الصينية. والاستثناءات الموجودة في اللغة الصينية تتمثل في حالتين: فهي إما أن تكون تكرارًا لنفس المقطع أو تكون مقاطع صوتية مقلدة لحدث، مثال ذلك KO-KO (بمعنى أخ)، أو HA-HA (قهقهة). وتتميز اللغة الإنجليزية عن بقية اللغات الأوربية بتشابهها وتقاربها إلى حد كبير مع اللغة الصينية. فمن الممكن أن يكتب المرء مقاطع كاملة، بل نصوصًا أيضًا من كلمات ذات مقطع واحد كما في الصينية. وليس هذا هو التقارب الوحيد بين الإنجليزية والصينية: فنحن نعرف أنه على مدار 1000 عام مضت تقلصت فيها النهايات التي تضاف للكلمات في اللغة الإنجليزية، وبدأت إنجليزية تقوم على مفردات لا تتغير أشكالها. وهذه العملية لم تنته بعد في التخلص الكامل من النهايات في اللغة الإنجليزية أو بقاء المفردات على شاكلة واحدة دون تغيير صرفي لها، مثال: sing - sang أو foot-feet . أما الألمانية فلا زال الاشتقاق والإمالة فيها من العوامل المساعدة والفعالة والمستمرة في تغيير أشكال مفرداتها. ولا يزال المرء يضع حرف «s» في نهاية الكلمة المفردة في اللغة الإنجليزية للدلالة على الجمع، ويضع –s, ed-, ing للفعل، كما يضع –er, -est للاسم. ومن المتوقع أن تخطو الإنجليزية خطوة أخرى مع الوقت للحاق والتقارب مع الصينية في هذا الشأن. فالكلمة الصينية مثل القالب الذي لا يتبدل مع وجود بعض استثناءات قليلة جدًا. فالمفردة لا تعرف التصريف ولها فقط لواحق قليلة جدًا. ويمكننا أن نقول هنا باختصار إن شكل المفردة الصينية لا يجعلنا نعرف من خلاله إن كان اسمًا أو فعلاً أو صفة أو جمادًا أو إنسانًا.

ولذلك فإنه من خواص اللغة الصينية أن نجد أن نفس الكلمة يمكن استخدامها في وظائف عديدة. ومن نافلة القول أن نذكر هنا أن تقسيم مفردات اللغة الصينية إلى فصائل (كالاسم والفعل والصفة والضمير إلخ.) كما في اللغات الأوروبية مثلاً لا معنى له. فكلمة SHANG الصينية تعنى الأعلى أو السيد، وهي بالتالي هنا لها وظيفة الاسم. وإذا ما جاءت في السياق التالي SHANG PIEN بمعنى الناحية العليا فإنها تؤدي وظيفة الصفة. وفي المثال التالي SHANG MA بمعنى يمتطي الحصان فإنها تلعب دور الفعل. أما في العبارة MA SHANG فإنها تؤدي وظيفة حرف الجر.

على أنه يمكننا القول إن السياق والكلمات المحيطة بالكلمة وترتيبها هو الذي يجعلنا نقرر إن كانت الكلمة اسمًا أو فعلاً أو صفة أو حرف جر كما في المثالين SHANG MA وMA SHANG. وهذا الكلام ينطبق فقط على لغة الكتابة. أما لغة التحدث فلها لواحق مختلفة، تجعل من الكلمة اسمًا بكل وضوح. فمن الممكن أن تدخل اللاحقة TZU، وهي كلمة تأتي في السياق الأدبي بمعنى ابن أو صبي كمقطع اشتقاقي بلا نبر (وينطق ds). وبذلك تنشأ كلمات تشير بوضوح على أنها أسماء كما في الأمثلة التالية: I-TZU (بمعنى كرسي فوتيه) وTU-TZU (بمعنى بطن). وهناك مقطع آخر في لهجة بكين وهو ERH والذي يعني إن جاء مستقلاً «صبي»، أما إذا جاء كلاحقة بدون نبر فإنه يدل على التصغير.

وفي اللغة الصينية لا نجد أي أثر للتذكير والتأنيث، فالضمير T´A يشير بشكله هذا ودون تغيير للمذكر والمؤنث. كما أن شكل الكلمة وحده لا ينبيء إن كانت الكلمة مفردة أو جمعًا، وبالتالي يمكن أن يكون معنى الكلمة الآتية HO «نهر» أو «أنهار» وفقًا للسياق. وللإشارة على الكلية يلجأ الصيني للطريق القديمة المنتشرة وهي التكرار، وأحيانًا تضاف اللاحقة MEN للدلالة على الجمع في الضمائر، كما في الأمثلة التالية:

  • WO أنا، ني Wo-MEN نحن، نا
  • NI أنت، ك NI-MEN أنتم، كم
  • T´A هو، ـه، هي، ها T´A-MEN هم، هن

وكما في الاسم فإننا لا نجد أثرًا للعلامات الإعرابية في الضمائر.

كما أنه ليس من العجب ألا نجد أشكالاً مختلفة للفعل للتعبير عن المفرد والجمع والزمن والمبني للمعلوم والمبني للمجهول. ومن الطبيعي أن نؤكد هنا على القول إن ترتيب الكلمات في اللغة الصينية له قواعد صارمة نظرًا لغياب التصريف فيها.

التنويعات

Range of Chinese dialect groups in China Mainland and Taiwan according to the Language Atlas of China[41]

Jerry Norman estimated that there are hundreds of mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese.[42] These varieties form a dialect continuum, in which differences in speech generally become more pronounced as distances increase, though the rate of change varies immensely.[43] Generally, mountainous South China exhibits more linguistic diversity than the North China Plain. In parts of South China, a major city's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to close neighbors. For instance, Wuzhou is about 190 kiloمترs (120 ميل) upstream from Guangzhou, but the Yue variety spoken there is more like that of Guangzhou than is that of Taishan, 95 kiloمترs (60 ميل) southwest of Guangzhou and separated from it by several rivers.[44] In parts of Fujian the speech of neighboring counties or even villages may be mutually unintelligible.[45]

Until the late 20th century, Chinese emigrants to Southeast Asia and North America came from southeast coastal areas, where Min, Hakka, and Yue dialects are spoken.[46] The vast majority of Chinese immigrants to North America up to the mid-20th century spoke the Taishan dialect, from a small coastal area southwest of Guangzhou.[47]

التجميع

نسب المتكلمين بكل تنويعة كلغة أولى[5] ██ المندرين (65.7%)██ مين (6.2%)██ وو (6.1%)██ يوى (5.6%)██ جين (5.2%)██ گان (3.9%)██ هاكا (3.5%)██ شيانگ (3.0%)██ هوي‌ژو (0.3%)██ پينگ‌هوا وغيرها (0.6%)

Local varieties of Chinese are conventionally classified into seven dialect groups, largely on the basis of the different evolution of Middle Chinese voiced initials:[48][49]

تبويب Li Rong, which is used in the Language Atlas of China (1987), distinguishes three further groups:[41][50]

  • Jin, previously included in Mandarin.
  • Huizhou, previously included in Wu.
  • Pinghua, previously included in Yue.

Some varieties remain unclassified, including Danzhou dialect (spoken in Danzhou, on Hainan Island), Waxianghua (spoken in western Hunan) and Shaozhou Tuhua (spoken in northern Guangdong).[51]

الصينية الفصحى

الصينية الفصحى, often called Mandarin, is the official standard language of China and Taiwan, and one of the four official languages of Singapore (where it is called "Huayu" 华语 or simply Chinese). Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect, the dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing. The governments of both China and Taiwan intend for speakers of all Chinese speech varieties to use it as a common language of communication. Therefore, it is used in government agencies, in the media, and as a language of instruction in schools.

In mainland China and Taiwan, diglossia has been a common feature. For example, in addition to Standard Chinese, a resident of Shanghai might speak Shanghainese; and, if he or she grew up elsewhere, then he or she is also likely to be fluent in the particular dialect of that local area. A native of Guangzhou may speak both Cantonese and Standard Chinese. In addition to Mandarin, most Taiwanese also speak Minnan, Hakka, or an Austronesian language.[52] A Taiwanese may commonly mix pronunciations, phrases, and words from Mandarin and other Taiwanese languages, and this mixture is considered normal in daily or informal speech.[53]

Nomenclature

The official Chinese designation for the major branches of Chinese is fāngyán (方言, literally "regional speech"), whereas the more closely related varieties within these are called dìdiǎn fāngyán (地点方言/地點方言 "local speech").[54] Conventional English-language usage in Chinese linguistics is to use dialect for the speech of a particular place (regardless of status) and dialect group for a regional grouping such as Mandarin or Wu.[42] Because varieties from different groups are not mutually intelligible, some scholars prefer to describe Wu and others as separate languages.[55][بحاجة لمصدر أفضل] Jerry Norman called this practice misleading, pointing out that Wu, which itself contains many mutually unintelligible varieties, could not be properly called a single language under the same criterion, and that the same is true for each of the other groups.[42]

Mutual intelligibility is considered by some linguists to be the main criterion for determining whether varieties are separate languages or dialects of a single language,[56] although others do not regard it as decisive,[57][58][59][60][61] particularly when cultural factors interfere as they do with Chinese.[62] As Campbell (2008) explains, linguists often ignore mutual intelligibility when varieties share intelligibility with a central variety (i.e. prestige variety, such as Standard Mandarin), as the issue requires some careful handling when mutual intelligibility is inconsistent with language identity.[63] John DeFrancis argues that it is inappropriate to refer to Mandarin, Wu and so on as "dialects" because the mutual unintelligibility between them is too great. On the other hand, he also objects to considering them as separate languages, as it incorrectly implies a set of disruptive "religious, economic, political, and other differences" between speakers that exist, for example, between French Catholics and English Protestants in Canada, but not between speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin in China, owing to China's near-uninterrupted history of centralized government.[64]

Because of the difficulties involved in determining the difference between language and dialect, other terms have been proposed: ISO 639-3 follows Ethnologue in assigning individual language codes to the 13 main subdivisions, while Chinese as a whole is classified as a 'macrolanguage'.[65] Other options include vernacular,[66] lect [67] regionalect,[54] topolect,[68] and variety.[69]

Most Chinese people consider the spoken varieties as one single language because speakers share a common culture and history, as well as a shared national identity and a common written form.[70] To Chinese nationalists, the idea of Chinese as a language family may suggest that the Chinese identity is much more fragmented and disunified than it actually is and as such is often looked upon as culturally and politically provocative. Additionally, in Taiwan it is closely associated with Taiwanese independence,[citation needed] some of whose supporters promote the local Taiwanese Hokkien variety.

الصوتيات

A Malaysian man speaking Mandarin with a Malaysian accent

The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus that has a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties), preceded by an onset (a single consonant, or consonant+glide; zero onset is also possible), and followed (optionally) by a coda consonant; a syllable also carries a tone. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. An example of this is in Cantonese, where the nasal sonorant consonants /m/ and /ŋ/ can stand alone as their own syllable.

In Mandarin much more than in other spoken varieties, most syllables tend to be open syllables, meaning they have no coda (assuming that a final glide is not analyzed as a coda), but syllables that do have codas are restricted to nasals /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, the retroflex approximant /ɻ /, and voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/, or /ʔ/. Some varieties allow most of these codas, whereas others, such as Standard Chinese, are limited to only /n/, /ŋ/ and /ɻ /.

The number of sounds in the different spoken dialects varies, but in general there has been a tendency to a reduction in sounds from Middle Chinese. The Mandarin dialects in particular have experienced a dramatic decrease in sounds and so have far more multisyllabic words than most other spoken varieties. The total number of syllables in some varieties is therefore only about a thousand, including tonal variation, which is only about an eighth as many as English.[ث]

الأنغام

All varieties of spoken Chinese use tones to distinguish words.[71] A few dialects of north China may have as few as three tones, while some dialects in south China have up to 6 or 12 tones, depending on how one counts. One exception from this is Shanghainese which has reduced the set of tones to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese.

A very common example used to illustrate the use of tones in Chinese is the application of the four tones of Standard Chinese (along with the neutral tone) to the syllable ma. The tones are exemplified by the following five Chinese words:

النغمات الأربعة الرئيسية للمندرينية القياسية بمقطع ma.
Examples of Standard Mandarin tones
Characters Pinyin Pitch contour Meaning
/ high level 'mother'
high rising 'hemp'
/ low falling-rising 'horse'
/ high falling 'scold'
/ ma neutral question particle

Standard Cantonese, in contrast, has six tones. Historically, finals that end in a stop consonant were considered to be "checked tones" and thus counted separately for a total of nine tones. However, they are considered to be duplicates in modern linguistics and are no longer counted as such:[72]

Examples of Standard Cantonese tones
Characters Jyutping Yale Pitch contour Meaning
/ si1 high level, high falling 'poem'
si2 high rising 'history'
si3 si mid level 'to assassinate'
/ si4 sìh low falling 'time'
si5 síh low rising 'market'
si6 sih low level 'yes'

النحو

Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language. However, this is only partially correct. It is largely accurate when describing Classical Chinese and Middle Chinese; in Classical Chinese, for example, perhaps 90% of words correspond to a single syllable and a single character. In the modern varieties, it is usually the case that a morpheme (unit of meaning) is a single syllable; In contrast, English has many multi-syllable morphemes, both bound and free, such as "seven", "elephant", "para-" and "-able".

Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary. In modern Mandarin, however, most nouns, adjectives and verbs are largely disyllabic. A significant cause of this is phonological attrition. Sound change over time has steadily reduced the number of possible syllables. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1,200 possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5,000 in Vietnamese (still largely monosyllabic) and over 8,000 in English.[ث]

This phonological collapse has led to a corresponding increase in the number of homophones. As an example, the small Langenscheidt Pocket Chinese Dictionary[73] lists six words that are commonly pronounced as shí (tone 2): 'ten'; الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: 'real, actual'; الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: 'know (a person), recognize'; 'stone'; الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: 'time'; 'food, eat'. These were all pronounced differently in Early Middle Chinese; in William H. Baxter's transcription they were dzyip, zyit, syik, dzyek, dzyi and zyik respectively. They are still pronounced differently in today's Cantonese; in Jyutping they are sap9, sat9, sik7, sek9, si4, sik9. In modern spoken Mandarin, however, tremendous ambiguity would result if all of these words could be used as-is; Yuen Ren Chao's modern poem Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den exploits this, consisting of 92 characters all pronounced shi. As such, most of these words have been replaced (in speech, if not in writing) with a longer, less-ambiguous compound. Only the first one, 'ten', normally appears as such when spoken; the rest are normally replaced with, respectively, shíjì الصينية المبسطة: 实际/الصينية التقليدية: 實際 (lit. 'actual-connection'); rènshi الصينية المبسطة: 认识/الصينية التقليدية: 認識 (lit. 'recognize-know'); shítou الصينية المبسطة: 石头/الصينية التقليدية: 石頭 (lit. 'stone-head'); shíjiān الصينية المبسطة: 时间/الصينية التقليدية: 時間 (lit. 'time-interval'); shíwù 食物 (lit. 'foodstuff'). In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding another morpheme, typically either a synonym or a generic word of some sort (for example, 'head', 'thing'), the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of the other, homophonic syllable should be selected.

However, when one of the above words forms part of a compound, the disambiguating syllable is generally dropped and the resulting word is still disyllabic. For example, shí alone, not shítou الصينية المبسطة: 石头/الصينية التقليدية: 石頭, appears in compounds meaning 'stone-', for example, shígāo 石膏 'plaster' (lit. 'stone cream'), shíhuī 石灰 'lime' (lit. 'stone dust'), shíkū 石窟 'grotto' (lit. 'stone cave'), shíyīng 石英 'quartz' (lit. 'stone flower'), shíyóu 石油 'petroleum' (lit. 'stone oil').

Most modern varieties of Chinese have the tendency to form new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetra-character compounds. In some cases, monosyllabic words have become disyllabic without compounding, as in kūlong 窟窿 from kǒng 孔; this is especially common in Jin.

Chinese morphology is strictly bound to a set number of syllables with a fairly rigid construction. Although many of these single-syllable morphemes (, ) can stand alone as individual words, they more often than not form multi-syllabic compounds, known as (الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: ), which more closely resembles the traditional Western notion of a word. A Chinese ('word') can consist of more than one character-morpheme, usually two, but there can be three or more.

For example:

All varieties of modern Chinese are analytic languages, in that they depend on syntax (word order and sentence structure) rather than morphology—i.e., changes in form of a word—to indicate the word's function in a sentence.[74] In other words, Chinese has very few grammatical inflections—it possesses no tenses, no voices, no numbers (singular, plural; though there are plural markers, for example for personal pronouns), and only a few articles (i.e., equivalents to "the, a, an" in English).[ج]

They make heavy use of grammatical particles to indicate aspect and mood. In Mandarin Chinese, this involves the use of particles like le (perfective), hái الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: ('still'), yǐjīng الصينية المبسطة: 已经/الصينية التقليدية: 已經 ('already'), and so on.

Chinese has a subject–verb–object word order, and like many other languages of East Asia, makes frequent use of the topic–comment construction to form sentences. Chinese also has an extensive system of classifiers and measure words, another trait shared with neighboring languages like Japanese and Korean. Other notable grammatical features common to all the spoken varieties of Chinese include the use of serial verb construction, pronoun dropping and the related subject dropping.

Although the grammars of the spoken varieties share many traits, they do possess differences.

المفردات

The entire Chinese character corpus since antiquity comprises well over 50,000 characters, of which only roughly 10,000 are in use and only about 3,000 are frequently used in Chinese media and newspapers.[75] However Chinese characters should not be confused with Chinese words. Because most Chinese words are made up of two or more characters, there are many more Chinese words than characters. A more accurate equivalent for a Chinese character is the morpheme, as characters represent the smallest grammatical units with individual meanings in the Chinese language.

Estimates of the total number of Chinese words and lexicalized phrases vary greatly. The Hanyu Da Zidian, a compendium of Chinese characters, includes 54,678 head entries for characters, including bone oracle versions. The Zhonghua Zihai (1994) contains 85,568 head entries for character definitions, and is the largest reference work based purely on character and its literary variants. The CC-CEDICT project (2010) contains 97,404 contemporary entries including idioms, technology terms and names of political figures, businesses and products. The 2009 version of the Webster's Digital Chinese Dictionary (WDCD),[76] based on CC-CEDICT, contains over 84,000 entries.

The most comprehensive pure linguistic Chinese-language dictionary, the 12-volume Hanyu Da Cidian, records more than 23,000 head Chinese characters and gives over 370,000 definitions. The 1999 revised Cihai, a multi-volume encyclopedic dictionary reference work, gives 122,836 vocabulary entry definitions under 19,485 Chinese characters, including proper names, phrases and common zoological, geographical, sociological, scientific and technical terms.

The 7th (2016) edition of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, an authoritative one-volume dictionary on modern standard Chinese language as used in mainland China, has 13,000 head characters and defines 70,000 words.

الكلمات المستعارة

Like any other language, Chinese has absorbed a sizable number of loanwords from other cultures. Most Chinese words are formed out of native Chinese morphemes, including words describing imported objects and ideas. However, direct phonetic borrowing of foreign words has gone on since ancient times.

Some early Indo-European loanwords in Chinese have been proposed, notably "honey", / shī "lion," and perhaps also / "horse", / zhū "pig", quǎn "dog", and / é "goose".[ح] Ancient words borrowed from along the Silk Road since Old Chinese include 葡萄 pútáo "grape", 石榴 shíliu/shíliú "pomegranate" and الصينية المبسطة: 狮子/الصينية التقليدية: 獅子 shīzi "lion". Some words were borrowed from Buddhist scriptures, including "Buddha" and الصينية المبسطة: 菩萨/الصينية التقليدية: 菩薩 Púsà "bodhisattva." Other words came from nomadic peoples to the north, such as 胡同 hútòng "hutong". Words borrowed from the peoples along the Silk Road, such as 葡萄 "grape," generally have Persian etymologies. Buddhist terminology is generally derived from Sanskrit or Pāli, the liturgical languages of North India. Words borrowed from the nomadic tribes of the Gobi, Mongolian or northeast regions generally have Altaic etymologies, such as 琵琶 pípá, the Chinese lute, or lào/luò "cheese" or "yogurt", but from exactly which source is not always clear.[77]

الاستعارات الحديثة

Modern neologisms are primarily translated into Chinese in one of three ways: free translation (calque, or by meaning), phonetic translation (by sound), or a combination of the two. Today, it is much more common to use existing Chinese morphemes to coin new words to represent imported concepts, such as technical expressions and international scientific vocabulary. Any Latin or Greek etymologies are dropped and converted into the corresponding Chinese characters (for example, anti- typically becomes "", literally opposite), making them more comprehensible for Chinese but introducing more difficulties in understanding foreign texts. For example, the word telephone was initially loaned phonetically as الصينية المبسطة: 德律风/الصينية التقليدية: 德律風 (Shanghainese: télífon [təlɪfoŋ], Mandarin: délǜfēng) during the 1920s and widely used in Shanghai, but later الصينية المبسطة: 电话/الصينية التقليدية: 電話 diànhuà (lit. "electric speech"), built out of native Chinese morphemes, became prevalent (電話 is in fact from the Japanese 電話 denwa; see below for more Japanese loans). Other examples include الصينية المبسطة: 电视/الصينية التقليدية: 電視 diànshì (lit. "electric vision") for television, الصينية المبسطة: 电脑/الصينية التقليدية: 電腦 diànnǎo (lit. "electric brain") for computer; الصينية المبسطة: 手机/الصينية التقليدية: 手機 shǒujī (lit. "hand machine") for mobile phone, الصينية المبسطة: 蓝牙/الصينية التقليدية: 藍牙 lányá (lit. "blue tooth") for Bluetooth, and الصينية المبسطة: 网志/الصينية التقليدية: 網誌 wǎngzhì (lit. "internet logbook") for blog in Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese. Occasionally half-transliteration, half-translation compromises are accepted, such as الصينية المبسطة: 汉堡包/الصينية التقليدية: 漢堡包 hànbǎobāo (漢堡 hànbǎo "Hamburg" + bāo "bun") for "hamburger". Sometimes translations are designed so that they sound like the original while incorporating Chinese morphemes (phono-semantic matching), such as الصينية المبسطة: 马利奥/الصينية التقليدية: 馬利奧 Mǎlì'ào for the video game character Mario. This is often done for commercial purposes, for example الصينية المبسطة: 奔腾/الصينية التقليدية: 奔騰 bēnténg (lit. "dashing-leaping") for Pentium and الصينية المبسطة: 赛百味/الصينية التقليدية: 賽百味 Sàibǎiwèi (lit. "better-than hundred tastes") for Subway restaurants.

Foreign words, mainly proper nouns, continue to enter the Chinese language by transcription according to their pronunciations. This is done by employing Chinese characters with similar pronunciations. For example, "Israel" becomes 以色列 Yǐsèliè, "Paris" becomes 巴黎 Bālí. A rather small number of direct transliterations have survived as common words, including الصينية المبسطة: 沙发/الصينية التقليدية: 沙發 shāfā "sofa", الصينية المبسطة: 马达/الصينية التقليدية: 馬達 mǎdá "motor", 幽默 yōumò "humor", الصينية المبسطة: 逻辑/الصينية التقليدية: 邏輯 luóji/luójí "logic", الصينية المبسطة: 时髦/الصينية التقليدية: 時髦 shímáo "smart, fashionable", and 歇斯底里 xiēsīdǐlǐ "hysterics". The bulk of these words were originally coined in the Shanghai dialect during the early 20th century and were later loaned into Mandarin, hence their pronunciations in Mandarin may be quite off from the English. For example, الصينية المبسطة: 沙发/الصينية التقليدية: 沙發 "sofa" and الصينية المبسطة: 马达/الصينية التقليدية: 馬達 "motor" in Shanghainese sound more like their English counterparts. Cantonese differs from Mandarin with some transliterations, such as 梳化 so1 faa3*2 "sofa" and 摩打 mo1 daa2 "motor".

Western foreign words representing Western concepts have influenced Chinese since the 20th century through transcription. From French came 芭蕾 bālěi "ballet" and الصينية المبسطة: 香槟/الصينية التقليدية: 香檳 xiāngbīn, "champagne"; from Italian, 咖啡 kāfēi "caffè". English influence is particularly pronounced. From early 20th century Shanghainese, many English words are borrowed, such as الصينية المبسطة: 高尔夫/الصينية التقليدية: 高爾夫 gāoěrfū "golf" and the above-mentioned الصينية المبسطة: 沙发/الصينية التقليدية: 沙發 shāfā "sofa". Later, the United States soft influences gave rise to 迪斯科 dísikē/dísīkē "disco", الصينية المبسطة: 可乐/الصينية التقليدية: 可樂 kělè "cola", and 迷你 mínǐ "mini [skirt]". Contemporary colloquial Cantonese has distinct loanwords from English, such as 卡通 kaa1 tung1 "cartoon", 基佬 gei1 lou2 "gay people", 的士 dik1 si6*2 "taxi", and 巴士 baa1 si6*2 "bus". With the rising popularity of the Internet, there is a current vogue in China for coining English transliterations, for example, الصينية المبسطة: 粉丝/الصينية التقليدية: 粉絲 fěnsī "fans", 黑客 hēikè "hacker" (lit. "black guest"), and 博客 bókè "blog". In Taiwan, some of these transliterations are different, such as 駭客 hàikè for "hacker" and 部落格 bùluògé for "blog" (lit. "interconnected tribes").

Another result of the English influence on Chinese is the appearance in Modern Chinese texts of so-called الصينية المبسطة: 字母词/الصينية التقليدية: 字母詞 zìmǔcí (lit. "lettered words") spelled with letters from the English alphabet. This has appeared in magazines, newspapers, on web sites, and on TV: الصينية المبسطة: 三G手机/الصينية التقليدية: 三G手機 "3rd generation cell phones" ( sān "three" + G "generation" + الصينية المبسطة: 手机/الصينية التقليدية: 手機 shǒujī "mobile phones"), IT界 "IT circles" (IT "information technology" + jiè "industry"), HSK (Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì, الصينية المبسطة: 汉语水平考试/الصينية التقليدية: 漢語水平考試), GB (Guóbiāo, الصينية المبسطة: 国标/الصينية التقليدية: 國標), الصينية المبسطة: CIF价/الصينية التقليدية: CIF價 (CIF "Cost, Insurance, Freight" + الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: jià "price"), e家庭 "e-home" (e "electronic" + 家庭 jiātíng "home"), الصينية المبسطة: W时代/الصينية التقليدية: W時代 "wireless era" (W "wireless" + الصينية المبسطة: 时代/الصينية التقليدية: 時代 shídài "era"), TV族 "TV watchers" (TV "television" + "social group; clan"), الصينية المبسطة: 后РС时代/الصينية التقليدية: 後PC時代 "post-PC era" (الصينية المبسطة: /الصينية التقليدية: hòu "after/post-" + PC "personal computer" + الصينية المبسطة: 时代/الصينية التقليدية: 時代), and so on.

Since the 20th century, another source of words has been Japanese using existing kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese). Japanese re-molded European concepts and inventions into wasei-kango (和製漢語, lit. "Japanese-made Chinese"), and many of these words have been re-loaned into modern Chinese. Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature. For example, jīngjì (الصينية المبسطة: 经济/الصينية التقليدية: 經濟; 経済 keizai in Japanese), which in the original Chinese meant "the workings of the state", was narrowed to "economy" in Japanese; this narrowed definition was then reimported into Chinese. As a result, these terms are virtually indistinguishable from native Chinese words: indeed, there is some dispute over some of these terms as to whether the Japanese or Chinese coined them first. As a result of this loaning, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese share a corpus of linguistic terms describing modern terminology, paralleling the similar corpus of terms built from Greco-Latin and shared among European languages.

نظام الكتابة

The Chinese orthography centers on Chinese characters, which are written within imaginary square blocks, traditionally arranged in vertical columns, read from top to bottom down a column, and right to left across columns. Chinese characters denote morphemes independent of phonetic change. Thus the character ("one") is uttered in Standard Chinese, yat1 in Cantonese and it in Hokkien (form of Min). Vocabularies from different major Chinese variants have diverged, and colloquial nonstandard written Chinese often makes use of unique "dialectal characters", such as 冇 and 係 for Cantonese and Hakka, which are considered archaic or unused in standard written Chinese.

Written colloquial Cantonese has become quite popular in online chat rooms and instant messaging amongst Hong-Kongers and Cantonese-speakers elsewhere. It is considered highly informal, and does not extend to many formal occasions.

The Chinese had no uniform phonetic transcription system until the mid-20th century, although enunciation patterns were recorded in early rime books and dictionaries. Early Indian translators, working in Sanskrit and Pali, were the first to attempt to describe the sounds and enunciation patterns of Chinese in a foreign language. After the 15th century, the efforts of Jesuits and Western court missionaries resulted in some rudimentary Latin transcription systems, based on the Nanjing Mandarin dialect.

In Hunan, women in certain areas write their local language in Nü Shu, a syllabary derived from Chinese characters. The Dungan language, considered by many a dialect of Mandarin, is nowadays written in Cyrillic, and was previously written in the Arabic script. The Dungan people are primarily Muslim and live mainly in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia; some of the related Hui people also speak the language and live mainly in China.

الحروف الصينية

永 (meaning "forever") is often used to illustrate the eight basic types of strokes of Chinese characters.

Each Chinese character represents a monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme. In 100 CE, the famed Han dynasty scholar Xu Shen classified characters into six categories, namely pictographs, simple ideographs, compound ideographs, phonetic loans, phonetic compounds and derivative characters. Of these, only 4% were categorized as pictographs, including many of the simplest characters, such as rén (human), (sun), shān (mountain; hill), shuǐ (water). Between 80% and 90% were classified as phonetic compounds such as chōng (pour), combining a phonetic component zhōng (middle) with a semantic radical (water). Almost all characters created since have been made using this format. The 18th-century Kangxi Dictionary recognized 214 radicals.

Modern characters are styled after the regular script. Various other written styles are also used in Chinese calligraphy, including seal script, cursive script and clerical script. Calligraphy artists can write in traditional and simplified characters, but they tend to use traditional characters for traditional art.

There are currently two systems for Chinese characters. The traditional system, still used in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and Chinese speaking communities (except Singapore and Malaysia) outside mainland China, takes its form from standardized character forms dating back to the late Han dynasty. The Simplified Chinese character system, introduced by the People's Republic of China in 1954 to promote mass literacy, simplifies most complex traditional glyphs to fewer strokes, many to common cursive shorthand variants.

Singapore, which has a large Chinese community, was the second nation to officially adopt simplified characters, although it has also become the de facto standard for younger ethnic Chinese in Malaysia. The Internet provides the platform to practice reading these alternative systems, be it traditional or simplified.

A well-educated Chinese reader today recognizes approximately 4,000 to 6,000 characters; approximately 3,000 characters are required to read a Mainland newspaper. The PRC government defines literacy amongst workers as a knowledge of 2,000 characters, though this would be only functional literacy. School-children typically learn around 2,000 characters whereas scholars may memorize up to 10,000.[78] A large unabridged dictionary, like the Kangxi Dictionary, contains over 40,000 characters, including obscure, variant, rare, and archaic characters; fewer than a quarter of these characters are now commonly used.

الرَوْمنة

"National language" (國語/国语; Guóyǔ) written in Traditional and Simplified Chinese characters, followed by various romanizations.

Romanization is the process of transcribing a language into the Latin script. There are many systems of romanization for the Chinese varieties, due to the lack of a native phonetic transcription until modern times. Chinese is first known to have been written in Latin characters by Western Christian missionaries in the 16th century.

Today the most common romanization standard for Standard Chinese is Hanyu Pinyin, often known simply as pinyin, introduced in 1956 by the People's Republic of China, and later adopted by Singapore and Taiwan. Pinyin is almost universally employed now for teaching standard spoken Chinese in schools and universities across America, Australia and Europe. Chinese parents also use Pinyin to teach their children the sounds and tones of new words. In school books that teach Chinese, the Pinyin romanization is often shown below a picture of the thing the word represents, with the Chinese character alongside.

The second-most common romanization system, the Wade–Giles, was invented by Thomas Wade in 1859 and modified by Herbert Giles in 1892. As this system approximates the phonology of Mandarin Chinese into English consonants and vowels, i.e. it is an Anglicization, it may be particularly helpful for beginner Chinese speakers of an English-speaking background. Wade–Giles was found in academic use in the الولايات المتحدة, particularly before the 1980s, and until recently[when?] was widely used in Taiwan.

When used within European texts, the tone transcriptions in both pinyin and Wade–Giles are often left out for simplicity; Wade–Giles' extensive use of apostrophes is also usually omitted. Thus, most Western readers will be much more familiar with Beijing than they will be with Běijīng (pinyin), and with Taipei than T'ai²-pei³ (Wade–Giles). This simplification presents syllables as homophones which really are none, and therefore exaggerates the number of homophones almost by a factor of four.

Here are a few examples of Hanyu Pinyin and Wade–Giles, for comparison:

Mandarin Romanization Comparison
Characters Wade–Giles Hanyu Pinyin Meaning/Notes
中国/中國 Chung¹-kuo² Zhōngguó China
台湾/臺灣 T'ai²-wan¹ Táiwān Taiwan, officially known as the جمهورية الصين
北京 Pei³-ching¹ Běijīng Beijing, the Capital of the People's Republic of China
台北/臺北 T'ai²-pei³ Táiběi Taipei, the Capital of the Republic of China (Taiwan)
毛泽东/毛澤東 Mao² Tse²-tung¹ Máo Zédōng Former Communist Chinese leader
蒋介石/蔣介石 Chiang³ Chieh⁴-shih² Jiǎng Jièshí Former Nationalist Chinese leader (better known to English speakers as Chiang Kai-shek, with Cantonese pronunciation)
孔子 K'ung³ Tsu³ Kǒngzǐ Confucius

Other systems of romanization for Chinese include Gwoyeu Romatzyh, the French EFEO, the Yale (invented during WWII for U.S. troops), as well as separate systems for Cantonese, Min Nan, Hakka, and other Chinese varieties.

تدوينات صوتية أخرى

Chinese varieties have been phonetically transcribed into many other writing systems over the centuries. The 'Phags-pa script, for example, has been very helpful in reconstructing the pronunciations of premodern forms of Chinese.

Zhuyin (colloquially bopomofo), a semi-syllabary is still widely used in Taiwan's elementary schools to aid standard pronunciation. Although zhuyin characters are reminiscent of katakana script, there is no source to substantiate the claim that Katakana was the basis for the zhuyin system. A comparison table of zhuyin to pinyin exists in the zhuyin article. Syllables based on pinyin and zhuyin can also be compared by looking at the following articles:

There are also at least two systems of cyrillization for Chinese. The most widespread is the Palladius system.

شاورجن - الصينية بحروف عربية

عينة من شاو-إر-جن. الصف الأول بالصينية، والثاني بالعربية، والثالث بالشاورجن. (راجع لي و جونج-آ شوانكجي زيديانك - شانغهاي 1955)

شاورجن (شاو-إر-جن) هي نظام لكتابة الصينية بحروف عربية، طوره المسلمون الصينيون (هوي) في مدارسهم الدينية في القرن السادس عشر، ومازالت مستعملة حتى الآن في لكافة أغراض الحياة.

للمزيد من التفاصيل، انظر: شاو إر جن

كلغة أجنبية

Yang Lingfu, former curator of the National Museum of China, giving Chinese language instruction at the Civil Affairs Staging Area in 1945.

With the growing importance and influence of China's economy globally, Mandarin instruction has been gaining popularity in schools throughout East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Western world.[79]

Besides Mandarin, Cantonese is the only other Chinese language that is widely taught as a foreign language, largely due to the economic and cultural influence of Hong Kong and its widespread usage among significant Overseas Chinese communities.[80]

In 1991 there were 2,000 foreign learners taking China's official Chinese Proficiency Test (also known as HSK, comparable to the English Cambridge Certificate), while in 2005, the number of candidates had risen sharply to 117,660.[81]

انظر أيضاً

مواقع أخرى

  • تعلم الصينية بالعربية
  • Learn Chinese دروس مجانية في اللغة الصينية في 15 وحدة. تتألف كل وحدة من حوارات سهلة الفهم و صفحة للتمارين.
  • Chinese-English dictionary قاموس صيني-إنجليزي يحتوي أكثر من 34.000 كلمة. يمكن البحث فيه بالحروف الصينية أو الكتابة الصوتية أو الإنجليزية. توجد أيضا ملفات صوتية.

tokipona:toki Sonko

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خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "lower-alpha"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="lower-alpha"/> أو هناك وسم </ref> ناقص