پن‌ين

پن‌ين
بالصينية المبسطة: 拼音
Scheme of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet
الصينية التقليدية: 漢語拼音方案
الصينية المبسطة: 汉语拼音方案
رومنة الصينية
المندرينية للمندرينية الفصحى
    هانيو پن‌ين (ISO standard)
    EFEO
    Gwoyeu Romatzyh
        Spelling conventions
    Latinxua Sin Wenz
    Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II
    رومنة خريطة البريد الصينية
    تونگ‌يونگ پن‌ين
    ويد-گايلز
    يل
    Legge romanization
    ويد مبسطة
    جدول مقارنة
الكانتونية للكانتونية الفصحى
    Guangdong Romanization
    حكومة هونگ كونگ
    Jyutping
    Meyer-Wempe
    سيدني لاو
    S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols)
    S. L. Wong (romanisation)
    Standard Cantonese Pinyin
    الرومنة القياسية
    يل
    بارنت-تشاو
وو
    Long-short (romanization)
    latin phonetic method of Shanghainese
مين نان
للتايوانية, آموي, and related
    Pe̍h-oē-jī
للهاينانية
    Hainanhua Pinyin Fang'an
للتيوتشيو
    Peng'im
مين دونگ للهجة فوژو
    Foochow Romanized
هاكـّا for Moiyan dialect
    Kejiahua Pinyin Fang'an
For Siyen dialect
    Phak-fa-s
انظر أيضاً:
   General Chinese (Chao Yuenren)
   Cyrillization
   التعريب
   بوپوموفو
   الرومنة في سنغافورة
   الرومنة في تايوان
هذه المقالة تحتوي على IPA phonetic symbols. بدون دعم العرض المناصب، فقد ترى علامات استفهام، مربعات، أو رموز أخرى بدلاً من Unicode characters.

پن‌ين أو هانيو پن‌ين، هو نظام الرومنة الرسمي لكتابة الصينية بالحروف اللاتينية في البر الرئيسي للصين وإلى حد ما في تايوان. وكثيراً ما تُستخدم لتعليم الصينية (المندرينية) الفصحى، التي تُكتب عادةً باستخدام الحروف الصينية. يضم النظام أربع علامات تشكيل تـُميّز النغمات. ويُستخدم پن‌ين بدون علامات النغم لتهجي الأسماء الصينية والكلمات من لغات مكتوبة بـالأبجدية اللاتينية، وكذلك في بعض طرق الإدخال للحاسوب لإدخال الحروف الصينية.

تأسس نظام پن‌ين في 1958 من قِبل عدد من اللغويين، منهم ژو يوگوانگ،[1] مبنية على صيغة أقدم من رَومنات الصينية. وقد نشرتها الحكومة الصينية في 1958 وعدّلتها عدة مرات.[2] المنظمة الدولية للمعايير (ISO) اعتمدت پن‌ين كـمعيار دولي في 1982,[3] وتلتها الأمم المتحدة في 1986.[1] وقد اِعتُمِد النظام كمعيار رسمي في تايوان في 2009، حيث تُستخدم للرومنة فقط[مطلوب توضيح] (جزئياً لجعل مناطق صديقة للإنگليزية بشكل أكبر) وليس لأغراض تعليمية أو للإدخال للحاسوب.[4][5] وبالرغم من محاولة الحكومة الوطنية لتنفيذه، فإن "بعض المدن والشركات والمؤسسات، خصوصاً في جنوب تايوان، لم تقبل ذلك" ولذلك يبقي الپن‌ين واحداً من عدة نظم متنافسة ومستخدمة للرومنة هناك.[6]

كلمة Hànyǔ (الصينية المبسطة: 汉语الصينية التقليدية: 漢語) تعني "اللغة المحكية لشعب الهان." Pīnyīn (الصينية المبسطة: 拼音الصينية التقليدية: 拼音) وتعني حرفياً "الأصوات المتهجاة".[7]

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تاريخ رومنة الصينية قبل 1949

In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji (الصينية التقليدية: 《西字奇蹟》پن‌ين: Xīzì Qíjī; ويد-جايلز: Hsi-tzu Ch'i-chi; حرفياً "Miracle of Western Letters") in Beijing.[8] This was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi (الصينية التقليدية: 《西儒耳目資》ويد-جايلز: Hsi Ju Erh-mu Tzu; حرفياً "Aid to the Eyes and Ears of Western Literati") at Hangzhou.[9] Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, and the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese.[10]


Wade–Giles

مقال رئيسي: Wade–Giles

The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, and further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. It was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979.[11]

Sin Wenz

مقال رئيسي: Latinxua Sin Wenz

In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters which had been developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was originally intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East.[12] This Sin Wenz or "New Writing"[13] was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, with the major exception that it did not indicate tones.[14]

Yale Romanization

مقال رئيسي: Yale romanization of Mandarin

In 1943, the U.S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is very close to pinyin, but doesn't use English letters in unfamiliar ways; for example, pinyin x is written as sy. Medial semivowels are written with y and w (instead of pinyin i and u), and apical vowels (syllabic consonants) with r or z. Accent marks are used to indicate tone.

الاستخدام

نظرة عامة

الأحرف الأولى والأخيرة

الأحرف الأولى

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar
Plosive [p]
b
[pʰ]
p
[t]
d
[tʰ]
t
[k]
g
[kʰ]
k
Nasal [m]
m
[n]
n
Lateral approximant [l]
l
Affricate [ts]
z
[tsʰ]
c
[ʈʂ]
zh
[ʈʂʰ]
ch
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
q
Fricative   [f]
f
[s]
s
[ʂ]
sh
[ʐ] 1
r
[ɕ]
x
[x]
h
Approximant       [ɻ] 1
r
[j]2  or [ɥ]3
y  
[w]2
w

1 /ɻ/ may phonetically be /ʐ/ (a voiced retroflex fricative). This pronunciation varies among different speakers, and is not two different phonemes.
2 the letters "w" and "y" are not included in the table of initials in the official pinyin system. They are an orthographic convention for the medials "i", "u" and "ü" when no initial is present. When "i", "u" or "ü" are finals and no initial is present, they are spelled "yi", "wu", and "yu", respectively.
3 "y" is pronounced as [ɥ] before "u".

Conventional order (excluding w and y), derived from the zhuyin system, is:

b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s


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الأحرف الأخيرة

Final Medial
Nucleus Coda Ø i u y
a Ø [ɑ]
a
-a
[i̯a]
ya
-ia
[u̯a]
wa
-ua
i [aɪ̯]
ai
-ai
[u̯aɪ̯]
wai
-uai
u [ɑʊ̯]
ao
-ao
[i̯ɑʊ̯]
yao
-iao
n [an]
an
-an
[i̯ɛn]
yan
-ian
[u̯an]
wan
-uan
[y̯ɛn]
yuan
-üan 2
ŋ [ɑŋ]
ang
-ang
[i̯ɑŋ]
yang
-iang
[u̯ɑŋ]
wang
-uang
ə Ø [ɤ]
e
-e
[i̯ɛ]
ye
-ie
[u̯ɔ]
wo
-uo/-o 3
[y̯œ]
yue
-üe 2
i [eɪ̯]
ei
-ei
[u̯eɪ̯]
wei
-ui
u [oʊ̯]
ou
-ou
[i̯oʊ̯]
you
-iu
n [ən]
en
-en
[in]
yin
-in
[u̯ən]
wen
-un
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
ŋ [əŋ]
eng
-eng
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[u̯əŋ], [ʊŋ] 4
weng
-ong
[y̯ʊŋ]
yong
-iong
Ø [z̩], [ʐ̩]

-i
[i]
yi
-i
[u]
wu
-u
[y]
yu
2

1 [əɹ] (而, 二, etc.) is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends -r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final -r, please see Standard Mandarin.
2 "ü" is written as "u" after j, q, x, or y.
3 "uo" is written as "o" after b, p, m, or f.
4 It is pronounced [ʊŋ] when it follows an initial, and pinyin reflects this difference.

Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê [ɛ] (欸, 誒) and syllabic nasals m (呒, 呣), n (嗯, 唔), ng (嗯, 𠮾) are used as interjections.

Rules given in terms of English pronunciation

All rules given here in terms of English pronunciation are approximate, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English.


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نطق الأحرف الأولى

(audio) This section includes inline links to audio files. If you have trouble playing the files, see Wikipedia Media help.
Pinyin IPA Explanation
b [p] unaspirated p, as in spit
p [pʰ] strongly aspirated p, as in pit
m [m] as in English mummy
f [f] as in English fun
d [t] unaspirated t, as in stop
t [tʰ] strongly aspirated t, as in top
n [n] as in English nit
l [l] as in English love
g [k] unaspirated k, as in skill
k [kʰ] strongly aspirated k, as in kill
h [x] like the English h if followed by "a"; otherwise it is pronounced more roughly (like the Scots ch or Russian х (Cyrillic "kha")).
j [tɕ] like q, but unaspirated. Not unlike the j in jingle. Not the s in Asia, despite the common English pronunciation of "Beijing".
q [tɕʰ] like cheek, with the lips spread as when you say ee. Strongly aspirated.
x [ɕ] like she, with the lips spread as when you say ee. The sequence "xi" is like Japanese shi.
zh [ʈʂ] ch with no aspiration (a sound between joke and church, tongue tip curled more upwards); very similar to merger in American English, but not voiced
ch [ʈʂʰ] as in chin, but with the tongue curled upwards; very similar to nurture in American English, but strongly aspirated
sh [ʂ] as in shoe, but with the tongue curled upwards; very similar to marsh in American English
r [ʐ] Similar to the English z in azure, but with the tongue curled upwards, like a cross between English "r" and French "j". In Cyrillised Chinese the sound is rendered with the letter "ж".
z [ts] unaspirated c (something between suds and cats)
c [tsʰ] like ts in bats, but strongly aspirated
s [s] as in sun
w [w] as in water.*
y [j] as in yes.*
[.] new syllable*
* Note on w, y, and the apostrophe

Y and w are equivalent to the semivowel medials i, u, and ü (see below). They are spelled differently when there is no initial consonant in order to mark a new syllable: fanguan is fan-guan, while fangwan is fang-wan (and equivalent to *fang-uan). With this convention, an apostrophe only needs to be used to mark an initial a, e, or o: Xi'an (two syllables: [ɕi.an]) vs. xian (one syllable: [ɕi̯ɛn]). In addition, y and w are added to fully vocalic i, u, and ü when these occur without an initial consonant, so that they are written yi, wu, and yu. Some Mandarin speakers do pronounce a [j] or [w] sound at the beginning of such words—that is, yi [i] or [ji], wu [u] or [wu], yu [y] or [ɥy],—so this is an intuitive convention. See below for a few finals which are abbreviated after a consonant plus w/u or y/i medial: wen → C+un, wei → C+ui, weng → C+ong, and you → C+iu.

نطق الأحرف الأخيرة

Coda
/i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/
Medial [ɨ]

-i
[ɤ]
e
-e
[a]
a
-a
[ei̯]
ei
-ei
[ai̯]
ai
-ai
[ou̯]
ou
-ou
[au̯]
ao
-ao
[ən]
en
-en
[an]
an
-an
[ʊŋ]

-ong
[əŋ]
eng
-eng
[aŋ]
ang
-ang
/j/ [i]
yi
-i
[je]
ye
-ie
[ja]
ya
-ia
[jou̯]
you
-iu
[jau̯]
yao
-iao
[in]
yin
-in
[jɛn]
yan
-ian
[jʊŋ]
yong
-iong
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[jaŋ]
yang
-iang
/w/ [u]
wu
-u
[wo]
wo
-uo 3
[wa]
wa
-ua
[wei̯]
wei
-ui
[wai̯]
wai
-uai
[wən]
wen
-un
[wan]
wan
-uan
[wəŋ]
weng
 
[waŋ]
wang
-uang
/y/ [y]
yu
2
[ɥe]
yue
-üe 2
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
[ɥɛn]
yuan
-üan 2

1 [aɚ̯] is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final r, please see Erhua#Rules.
2 ü is written as u after j, q, or x.
3 uo is written as o after b, p, m, f, or w.

Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê [ɛ] (الصينية المبسطة: الصينية التقليدية: ) and syllabic nasals m (بالصينية: , بالصينية: ), n (بالصينية: , بالصينية: ), ng (بالصينية: , بالصينية: 𠮾) are used as interjections.

التهجئة

الحروف

الحروف الاستهلالية وكتابة الكلمات

النطق

Relative pitch changes of the four tones

الحروف التقليدية:

() () () () (·ma)

الحروف المبسطة:

() () () () (·ma)

The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold" and a question particle, respectively.

Numerals in place of tone marks

Tone Tone Mark Number added to end of syllable
in place of tone mark
Example using
tone mark
Example using
number
IPA
First macron ( ˉ ) 1 ma1 mɑ˥˥
Second acute accent ( ˊ ) 2 ma2 mɑ˧˥
Third caron ( ˇ ) 3 ma3 mɑ˨˩˦
Fourth grave accent ( ˋ ) 4 ma4 mɑ˥˩
"Neutral" No mark
or dot before syllable (·)
no number
5
0
ma
·ma
ma
ma5
ma0

Rules for placing the tone mark

حرف "ü"

رسم مقارن

Vowels a, e, o, i
IPA ɑ ɔ ɤ ɑʊ ɤʊ an ən ɑŋ ɤŋ ɑɻ ʊŋ i iɤʊ iɛn ɪn ɪŋ
پن‌ين a o e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng er ong yi ye you yan yin ying
Tongyong Pinyin a o e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng er ong yi ye you yan yin ying
Wade-Giles a o o/ê ai ei ao ou an ên ang êng êrh ung i yeh yu yen yin ying
Zhuyin ㄨㄥ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ
مثال
Vowels u, y
IPA u ueɪ uaɪ uan uən uʊn uɤŋ uʊŋ y yɛn yn iʊŋ
پن‌ين wu wo wei wai wan wen weng yu yue yuan yun yong
Tongyong Pinyin wu wo wei wai wan wun wong yu yue yuan yun yong
Wade-Giles wu wo wei wai wan wên wêng yüeh yüan yün yung
Zhuyin ㄨㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ
مثال


Non-sibilant consonants
IPA p m fəŋ fʊŋ tiou tuei ny ly kəɻ
پن‌ين b p m feng diu dui t ger k he
Tongyong Pinyin b p m fong diou duei t nyu lyu ger k he
Wade-Giles p p' m fêng tiu tui t' kêrh k' ho
Zhuyin ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄏㄜ
مثال 歌儿
Sibilant consonants
IPA tɕiɛn tɕyʊŋ tɕʰɪn ɕyɛn ʈʂə ʈʂɚ ʈʂʰə ʈʂʰɚ ʂə ʂɚ ʐə ʐɚ tsə tsuɔ tsɨ tsʰə tsʰɨ
Pinyin jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
Tongyong Pinyin jian jyong cin syuan jhe jhih che chih she shih re rih ze zuo zih ce cih se sih
Wade-Giles chien chiung ch'in hsüan chê chih ch'ê ch'ih shê shih jih tsê tso tzŭ ts'ê tz'ŭ szŭ
Zhuyin ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄔㄜ ㄕㄜ ㄖㄜ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄘㄜ ㄙㄜ
مثال
الطبقات
IPA ma˥˥ ma˧˥ ma˨˩˦ ma˥˩ ma
پن‌ين ma
Tongyong Pinyin ma
Wade-Giles ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma0
Zhuyin ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ㄇㄚ・
مثال(تقليدية/مبسطة) 媽/妈 麻/麻 馬/马 罵/骂 嗎/吗

پن‌ين في تايوان

لغات أخرى

Customary Official (pinyin for local name) Chinese name Pinyin for Chinese name
Shigatse Xigazê 日喀则 Rìkāzé
Urumchi Ürümqi 乌鲁木齐 Wūlǔmùqí
Lhasa Lhasa 拉萨 Lāsà
Golmud Golmud 格尔木 Gé'ěrmù
انظر أيضا: پن‌ين التبت

مقارنة مع أنواع أخرى من الهجاء

قراءات إضافية

  • Gao, J. K. (2005). Pinyin shorthand: a bilingual handbook = [Pinyin su ji fa]. Dallas, TX: Jack Sun. ISBN 1599712512
  • Kimball, R. L. (1988). Quick reference Chinese: a practical guide to Mandarin for beginners and travelers in English, Pinyin romanization, and Chinese characters. San Francisco, CA: China Books & Periodicals. ISBN 0835120368
  • Wu, C.-j. (1979). The Pinyin Chinese-English dictionary. Hong Kong: Commercial Press. ISBN 0471275573

انظر أيضا

المصادر

  • Yin Binyong 尹斌庸 and Mary Felley (1990). Chinese Romanization. Pronunciation and Orthography (Hanyu pinyin he zhengcifa 汉语拼音和正词法). Beijing: Sinolingua. ISBN 7-80052-148-6 / ISBN 0-8351-1930-0.

ملاحظات

  1. ^ أ ب Margalit Fox (14 January 2017). "Zhou Youguang, Who Made Writing Chinese as Simple as ABC, Dies at 111". The New York Times.
  2. ^ "Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday". Xinhua News Agency. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
  3. ^ "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation – Romanization of Chinese". Retrieved 2009-03-01.
  4. ^ Shih Hsiu-Chuan (2008-09-18). "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times. p. 2.
  5. ^ "Government to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 2008-09-18.
  6. ^ Copper, John F. (2015). Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xv. ISBN  9781442243064 . Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  7. ^ النسخة الأونلاين من the canonical[مطلوب توضيح "According to which group?"] Guoyu Cidian (الصينية التقليدية: 《國語辭典》) defines this term as: الصينية التقليدية: 標語音﹑不標語義的符號系統,足以明確紀錄某一種語言。(A system of symbols for notation of the sounds of words, rather than for their meanings, that is sufficient to accurately record some language.) See this entry online. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  8. ^ Sin, Kiong Wong (2012). Confucianism, Chinese History and Society. World Scientific. p. 72. ISBN  9814374474 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  9. ^ Brockey, Liam Matthew (2009). Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Harvard University Press. p. 261. ISBN  0674028813 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  10. ^ Chan, Wing-tsit; Adler, Joseph (2013). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 303, 304. ISBN  0231517998 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  11. ^ Ao, Benjamin (1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: an International Electronic Journal. 4.
  12. ^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese, Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 261. ISBN  0521296536 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  13. ^ Jensen, Lionel M.; Weston, Timothy B. (2007). China's Transformations: The Stories Beyond the Headlines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. XX. ISBN  074253863X .
  14. ^ Chen, Ping (1999). Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN  0521645727 . Retrieved 13 July 2014.

وصلات خارجية

سبقه
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Official romanization adopted
by the People's Republic of China

1958-
تبعه
الحالي
سبقه
Tongyong Pinyin
Official romanization adopted
by the Republic of China (Taiwan)

2009-
تبعه
الحالي