منطقة نيويورك الحضرية

(تم التحويل من New York metropolitan area)
منطقة نيويورك الحضرية
مدينة نيويورك
البلد  الولايات المتحدة
الولايات  نيويورك (The Empire State)
 New Jersey (Garden State)
 Connecticut (Constitution State)
 پنسيلڤانيا (Keystone State)
أكبر مدينة مدينة نيويورك
المدن الأخرى Newark
Jersey City
Yonkers
Paterson
Bridgeport
Elizabeth
Stamford
New Haven
Waterbury
Clifton
Norwalk
Danbury
New Rochelle
Passaic
Edison
Trenton
Area
 • Total 11٬842 ميل² (30٬670 كم²)
Population (2010 United States Census)
 • Total 22٬085٬649 (1st)
 • Density 1٬865/sq mi (720/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 212, 646 917, 718, 347, 917, 860, 929, 516, 631, 914, 845, 570, 203, 201, 551, 862, 973, 908, 609, 732,
Highest elevation 4,180 ft/1,274 m (Slide Mountain (Ulster County, New York), in the جبال كاتسكيل).
Lowest elevation 0 ft/0 m (sea level) at the المحيط الأطلسي، Long Island Sound, and at نهر هدسون estuary waterways.

منطقة نيويورك الحضرية New York metropolitan area تضم أكبر مدينة في الولايات المتحدة (مدينة نيويورك); المقاطعات comprising Long Island and the lower Hudson Valley in New York State; the six largest cities in نيوجرزي (Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Trenton, and Clifton) and their vicinities; six of the seven largest cities in Connecticut (Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, and Danbury), as well as their vicinities; and Pike County, پنسلڤانيا.

As per the 2010 Census, the New York City metropolitan area continues to be the most populous in the United States, by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) definition (18.9 million)[1] and the Combined Statistical Area (CSA) definition (22.1 million);[2] it is also one of the most populous in the world.[3][4][5] The MSA covers 6,720 sq mi (17,405 km2), while the CSA area is 11,842 sq mi (30,671 km2), encompassing an ethnically and geographically diverse region. As a center of many industries including finance, international trade, media and entertainment, tourism, biotechnology, and manufacturing, it is one of the most important economic regions in the world.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التعريفات

Metropolitan Statistical Area

ملف:New York Metropolitan Area Counties Illustration.PNG
Counties comprising the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area:
New York-White Plains-Wayne, NY-NJ Metropolitan Division
Nassau-Suffolk, NY Metropolitan Division
Newark-Union, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division
Edison-New Brunswick, NJ Metropolitan Division
Remainder of the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget has two definitions of the area: the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Combined Statistical Area (CSA). The MSA definition is called the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, New York-New Jersey-Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, and includes a population of 18,897,109 as of the 2010 census[6] (roughly 1 in 16 Americans). The MSA is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions. The 23-county metropolitan area includes ten counties in New York State (coinciding with the five boroughs of New York City, the two counties of Long Island, and three counties in the lower Hudson Valley); 12 counties in Northern and Central نيوجرزي; and one county in northeastern پنسلڤانيا. The largest urbanized area in the United States is at the heart of the metropolitan area, the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT Urbanized Area (estimated to have a population of 18,319,939 as of 2008 and an area of 6,720 square miles).

The counties and county groupings constituting the New York metropolitan area are listed below with 2009 U.S. Census Bureau estimates of their populations.

New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (19,069,796)

المنطقة الإحصائية المجمعة

ملف:LI region DEM-2.jpg
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to approximately 11 million residents conjointly.

The Combined Statistical Area definition consists of the original MSA plus a wider region consisting of five adjacent metropolitan areas. The area is known as the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, New York-New Jersey-Connecticut-Pennsylvania Combined Statistical Area, with an estimated population of 22,085,649[7] as of 2009. About one out of every fifteen Americans resides in this region, which includes seven additional counties in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, and is often referred to as the Tri-State Area and less commonly the Tri-State Region (but leaving out Pennsylvania). However, the New York City television designated market area (DMA) includes Pike County, Pennsylvania,[8] which is also included in the CSA.

In addition to the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the following Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also included in the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area (total pop. 22,232,494):

Geography

ملف:High Point Monument and Lake Marcia framed.jpg
High Point Monument as seen from Lake Marcia at High Point, Sussex County, the highest elevation in New Jersey at 1803 feet above sea level.[9]
The Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, Passaic County, New Jersey, dedicated as a U.S. National Park in November 2011, incorporates one of the largest waterfalls in the eastern United States.[10]
ملف:Downtown Trenton NJ.jpg
Downtown Trenton in Mercer County, including the New Jersey State House topped by its golden dome, alongside the Delaware River.

The area is frequently divided into the following regions:[11][12]

  • New York City (Center of the region)
  • Long Island (Nassau & Suffolk Counties, NY – separated by water from the rest of the region except New York City; not including Queens County or Kings County (Brooklyn), which coincide with two of New York City's Five Boroughs)
  • North Jersey (Northern portion of New Jersey)
  • Central Jersey (Middle portion of New Jersey)
  • Hudson Valley (Lower Hudson Valley suburbs of Westchester, Putnam and Rockland Counties; and Mid-Hudson exurbs of Dutchess, Orange and Ulster Counties)
  • Western Connecticut (Only Fairfield, New Haven and Litchfield Counties are part of the region and separated by the state line)

All five areas can be (and often are) further divided. For instance, Long Island can be divided into the South and North Shores (usually when speaking about Nassau County), Western Suffolk, and the East End. The Hudson Valley and Connecticut are sometimes grouped together and referred to as the Northern Suburbs, largely because of the shared usage of Metro-North Railroad.[13]

المناطق الجزئية

مدينة نيويورك

المقالة الرئيسية: مدينة نيويورك

لونگ أيلاند

المقالة الرئيسية: لونگ أيلاند

Long Island is home to two of New York City's boroughs: Brooklyn and Queens, as well as the more suburban Nassau and Suffolk counties, all within New York State.

It has a population of 7,568,304 as of the United States Census 2010 and is the most populated island in the United States and the 17th most populous island in the world. For transportation, it is served by the Long Island Expressway and the Long Island Railroad. It is also home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, two of the three major airport hubs in the area.

نيوجرزي الشمالية

المقالة الرئيسية: نيوجرزي الشمالية

Northern New Jersey is typically defined as the following counties:

The New Jersey State Department of Tourism splits North Jersey into the urban Gateway Region and the more rural Skylands Region.

Northern New Jersey is home to four of the largest cities of New Jersey: Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, and Elizabeth.

The region is geographically diverse with wetlands, mountains, and valleys scattered throughout the area. It has a large network of expressways and public transportation rail services which are mostly operated by New Jersey Transit. It is also home to the second largest airport in the area, Newark Liberty International Airport.

نيوجرزي الوسطى

المقالة الرئيسية: نيوجرزي الوسطى

Central Jersey is the middle portion of the state of New Jersey. It is home to both New York City and Philadelphia commuters. Due to this fact, it is loosely associated with the Delaware Valley and is considered to be part of both regions. Important towns such as Trenton (State capital of New Jersey) and Princeton (home to Princeton University) are located in this subregion, as is a significant portion of the Jersey Shore.

أسفل وادي هدسون

المقالة الرئيسية: Hudson Valley

The lower Hudson Valley is centered around the Hudson River north of New York City and lies within New York State. It is mostly suburban and contains fewer job centers than the rest of the region. It is one the fastest growing areas in the metropolitan area, because of high housing costs in New York City and the inner suburbs. Historically, the valley was home to many factories, but a significant number have closed. Cleanup efforts to improve the Hudson River water quality after years of pollution are currently planned and will be supervised by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[15]

The Bear Mountain Bridge connecting Westchester and Rockland Counties, نيويورك across the Hudson River as seen from Bear Mountain.

كنتيكت الغربية

Fairfield, New Haven, and Litchfield Counties are located in the western portion of Connecticut with large business and industrial parks scattered throughout the area although mostly contained within Fairfield County. The three counties (and Connecticut in general) have had a long-standing reputation for affluence. Geographically, the areas are flat along the coast with low hills eventually giving way to large mountain ranges such as The Berkshires further inland. Most of the largest cities in the state are located within New Haven and Fairfield Counties.

مقاطعة پايك، پنسلڤانيا

المقالة الرئيسية: مقاطعة پايك، پنسلڤانيا

مقاطعة پايك تقع في شمال شرق پنسلڤانيا. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 57,369.[17] Its county seat is Milford.[18] At the western edge of the New York metropolitan area, Pike County is the only Pennsylvania county considered part of the New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA. Part of the Pocono Mountains region lies within Pike County, which has ranked among the fastest growing counties of Pennsylvania.[19]

الأجزاء الحضرية في المنطقة

The combined statistical area is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas.

ملف:Newark aerial looking northwest.jpg
Aerial view of Newark, Essex County, New Jersey's most populous city.
ملف:Yonkers Main Library.jpg
Public Library in Yonkers, Westchester County, New York.
ملف:Barnum Museum, Bridgeport.jpg
Barnum Museum in Bridgeport, Fairfield County, Connecticut's most populous city.
ملف:Downtown-paterson-nj2.jpg
View of downtown Paterson, Passaic County, New Jersey, known as the "Silk City", from Garret Mountain Reservation.
Population
rank
Urbanized area State(s) 2000
population
1 New York—Newark NY—NJ—CT 17,799,861
42 Bridgeport—Stamford CT—NY 888,890
70 New Haven CT 531,314
90 Poughkeepsie—Newburgh NY 351,982
122 Trenton NJ 268,472
163 Waterbury CT 189,026
190 Danbury CT—NY 154,455
350 Hightstown NJ 69,977
435 Kingston NY 53,458
452 Middletown NY 50,071

المدن الرئيسية

The following is a list of "principal cities" and their respective population estimates from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau publication. Principal cities are generally those where there is a greater number of jobs than employed residents.[20][21][22][23]

المناخ

Under the Köppen climate classification, New York City; western Long Island; the eastern shore of Westchester County, New York; the southwestern coastline of Connecticut; and a sliver of the Jersey Shore experience a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).[24][25] Using the 0 °C (32 °F) threshold, New York City is the northernmost metropolis on the North American continent with the humid subtropical categorization.

The remainder of the New York metropolitan area is classified as experiencing a humid continental climate.[26][27] However, the area covered by this humid continental categorization is itself split into two realms, Dfa (hot summer subtype) versus Dfb (warm summer subtype); the Dfb region generally lies further north and inland,[28] at a higher elevation, and receives greater snowfall[29] than the Dfa region.

Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding of the Appalachians keep the New York area warmer in the winter than inland North American metropolitan areas located at similar or lesser latitudes including Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 39.1 °F (3.9 °C). However, temperatures in winter can for a few days be as low as 10 °F (−12 °C) and as high as 50 °F (10 °C).[30] Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers in New York City are typically hot and humid with a July average of 84.9 °F (29.4 °C). Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, and temperatures exceed 90 °F (32.2 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and can exceed 100 °F (38 °C).[31]

New York City receives 49.7 inches (1,260 mm) of precipitation annually, which is fairly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall for 1981 to 2010 has been 26.7 inches (68 cm), but this usually varies considerably from year to year.[32] Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area, but are not unheard of and always have the potential to strike the area.[33] Extreme temperatures in New York City have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded in February 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) in July 1936.[34]

The New York metropolitan area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, and averages 58% of possible sunshine annually, accumulating 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine per annum.[35]

متوسطات الطقس لمدينة نيويورك (سنترال پارك)
شهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر السنة
العظمى القياسية °F (°C) 72 (22) 75 (24) 86 (30) 96 (36) 99 (37) 101 (38) 106 (41) 104 (40) 102 (39) 94 (34) 84 (29) 75 (24) 106 (41)
متوسط العظمى °ف (°م) 38 (3) 41 (5) 50 (10) 61 (16) 71 (22) 79 (26) 84 (29) 82 (28) 75 (24) 64 (18) 53 (12) 43 (6) 61٫8 (17)
متوسط الصغرى °ف (°م) 26 (-3) 28 (-2) 35 (2) 44 (7) 54 (12) 63 (17) 69 (21) 68 (20) 60 (16) 50 (10) 41 (5) 32 (0) 47٫5 (9)
الصغرى القياسية °ف (°C) -6 (-21) -15 (-26) 3 (-16) 12 (-11) 28 (-2) 44 (7) 52 (11) 50 (10) 39 (4) 28 (-2) 7 (-14) -13 (-25) -15 (-26)
هطول الأمطار بوصة (mm) 4.13 (104.9) 3.15 (80) 4.37 (111) 4.28 (108.7) 4.69 (119.1) 3.84 (97.5) 4.62 (117.3) 4.22 (107.2) 4.23 (107.4) 3.85 (97.8) 4.36 (110.7) 3.95 (100.3) 49٫69 (1٬262٫1)
المصدر: The Weather Channel[36] Weatherbase.com[37] August 2009

الديمغرافيا

Koreatown in Fort Lee, Bergen County, New Jersey.[38]
Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, Manhattan, circa 1900.

تعداد 2010

As of the 2010 Census, the metropolitan area had a population of 22,085,649. The population density was 1,865 per square mile. The racial markup was that 61.6% or 13,595,960 were White, 16.9% or 3,727,105 were African Americans, 0.5% or 102,349 were American Indian and Alaskan Native, Asians were 9.1% or 2,008,906 overall, Pacific Islanders were less than 1% with a population of 9,971, 8.8% or 1,944,165 listed themselves as "some other race", while 3.2% (697,193) were of two or more races. Hispanics were 21.7% of any race or 4,790,542.[بحاجة لمصدر]

The median age was 37.9. 25.5% were under 18, 9.5% were 18 to 24 years, 28% were 25 to 44 years of age, 26.6% were 45 to 64 years old, and 13.2% were over the age of 65. Males composed 48.3% of the population while females were 51.7% of the population.[بحاجة لمصدر]

97.7% of the population were in households, 2.3% were in group quarters, and 1% were institutionalized. There were 8,103,731 of which 30.2% or 2,449,343 had children. 46.1% or 3,736,165 were composted of opposite sex and married couples. Male households with no wife composed 4.9% or 400,534. 15.0% or 1,212,436 were female households, with no husbands. 34% or 2,754,596 were non-family households. The household density were 684 per square mile. 91.9% of housing units were occupied with a 3.8% vacancy rate. The average household size was 2.65 per household. The average income for non-family households was $90,335, and the average income for families was $104,715. 13.3% or 2,888,493 of the population were below the poverty line.[بحاجة لمصدر]

26.7% or 5,911,993 of the population were born outside the United States. Out of this, 17.4% or 1,028,506 were born in Europe, 27.0% or 1,595,523 were born in Asia, 3.8% or 224,109 were born in Africa, 0.2% or 11,957 were born in Oceania, 50.6% or 2,992,639 were born in Latin America.[بحاجة لمصدر]

تقديرات التعداد

التعداد تاريخياً
الإحصاء التعداد
1990 19٬710٬239
2000 21٬361٬797 8.4%
2010 22٬085٬649 3.4%
تقديري 2011 22٬214٬083 [39] 4.0%
New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA populations.[40][41]

As of July 1, 2011, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population of the metropolitan area at 22,214,083, an increase of 128,434 (0.6%) from the previous year.[42]

The New York City metropolitan area is ethnically diverse. It is home to the largest Jewish community outside Israel.[43] The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and 15% of all Korean Americans[44][45] and the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Italian American and African American populations and the second-largest Hispanic community in the United States; and including 6 Chinatowns in New York City,[46] as well as one each in Edison, New Jersey and Nassau County, Long Island,[47] comprised as of 2010 a population of 682,265 overseas Chinese,[48] the largest outside of Asia. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States.[49]

The metropolitan area is home to a self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at 568,903 individuals, the largest in the United States.[50] Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.[51]

The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, the world's largest stock exchange per total market capitalization of its listed companies.[52]

الاقتصاد

المقالة الرئيسية: Economy of New York City
ملف:Harkness Tower, high contrast.jpg
The bronze clock on Harkness Tower at Yale University, a structure reflecting the Collegiate Gothic architectural genre.

The regional economy is a center in international banking and commerce. It is the largest in the United States and one of the most important in the world. New York is considered a global city. Finance, international trade, media, real estate, manufacturing, tourism, biotechnology, and education are the leading industries in the area. Other industries include entertainment and news media. In 2010, the gross metropolitan product was $1.28 trillion dollars,[53] second only to Tokyo, and is larger than all but 14 countries.[54]

Along with its wealth, the area has a cost of living that is among the highest in the United States.[55] Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.

التعليم

ملف:Butler Library - 1000px - AC.jpg
Butler Library at Columbia University, rated one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States.[56]
A view of the interior of the Elmer Holmes Bobst Library at New York University.

The New York metropolitan area is home to many prestigious institutions of higher education. Three Ivy League universities (Columbia University in Manhattan, Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey, and Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut) reside in the region,[57] as well as New York University and The Rockefeller University, both also located in Manhattan, all of which have been ranked amongst the top 50 universities in the world.[58] The New York City Department of Education is the largest school district in the United States serving over 1.2 million students.[59]

The region also hosts many public high schools which have been acknowledged as some of the most prestigious in the country.[60]

Attainment

According to the 2010 American Community Survey, of the 14,973,063 persons in this area over 25 years of age, 14.8% (2,216,578) had a graduate or professional degree, 21.1% (3,166,037) had a bachelor's degree, 6.4% (962,007) had an associate degree, 16.0% (2,393,990) had some college education but no degree, 26.8% (4,009,901) had a high school diploma or equivalent, 14.8% (2,224,557) had less than a high school education.[61] In 2010, CNN Money ranked the area as one of the top 10 smartest regions in the United States.[62]

المواصلات

The depth and intricacy of the transportation network in the New York City region parallel the size and complexity of the metropolis itself.

السكك الحديدية

About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City metropolitan area.[63][64]

مترو مدينة نيويورك

المقالة الرئيسية: مترو مدينة نيويورك
The مترو مدينة نيويورك is the world's largest rapid transit system by length of routes and by number of stations.

مترو مدينة نيويورك is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with قالب:NYCS const, and by length of routes. It is the third largest when measured by annual ridership (1.5 billion passenger trips in 2006).[65] New York's subway is also notable because nearly the entire system remains open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong,[66][67] London, Paris, Seoul,[68][69] and Tokyo.

Commuter rail

The metropolitan area is also fundamentally defined by the areas from which people commute into New York City. The city is served by three primary commuter rail systems plus Amtrak.

ملف:Acela racing past BWI.jpg
An Acela Express train going to New York City. The Acela Express, operated by Amtrak through the Northeast Corridor, is the sole high-speed rail service in the country.
ملف:PATH 836.JPG
The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) rapid transit rail system connects Manhattan and metropolitan northern New Jersey beneath the Hudson River.

Metro-North Railroad (MNRR), the busiest commuter railroad in the United States (as of 2012),[70] is operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) (an agency of نيويورك state that focuses on New York City-area transit), in conjunction with the Connecticut Department of Transportation and New Jersey Transit. Its major terminal is Grand Central Terminal. Trains on the Port Jervis Line and Pascack Valley Line terminate at Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken, New Jersey; commuters may transfer at either Secaucus Junction for New Jersey Transit trains to New York Pennsylvania Station or at Hoboken Terminal for PATH trains into Manhattan.

The Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), the second busiest commuter railroad in the United States,[70] is also operated by the MTA. It has two major terminals at Pennsylvania Station in Midtown Manhattan and Atlantic Terminal in Downtown Brooklyn, with a minor terminal at the Long Island City station and a major transfer point at the Jamaica station in Queens.

New Jersey Transit (NJT), the third busiest commuter railroad in the United States by passenger miles and also third in trips (when direct operated and purchased transportation services are both included—fourth if only direct operated are included),[70] is operated by the New Jersey Transit Corporation, an agency of the state of New Jersey, in conjunction with Metro-North Railroad and Amtrak. A map of the system can be found here. It has major terminals at Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, Hoboken Terminal, and Newark Pennsylvania Station, with a major transfer point at Secaucus Junction in Hudson County, New Jersey. New Jersey Transit also operates the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail through Hudson County, the Newark City Subway, and the River Line that runs along tracks shared with Conrail Shared Assets Operations from Trenton to Camden in southern New Jersey. NJ Transit also has commuter buses operating in and out of Manhattan.

Amtrak's Northeast Corridor offers service to Philadelphia, New Haven, and other points between and including Boston and Washington, D.C. Additionally, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, an agency controlled by the states of New York and New Jersey, operates the PATH system; this heavy rail transportation service links Manhattan in New York and the counties of Hudson and Essex in New Jersey. A map can be found here.

Major stations in the metropolitan area include:

Station Railroad(s) State County Type
Pennsylvania Station (New York City) Amtrak, LIRR, NJT NY New York Terminal and Transfer
Grand Central Terminal MNRR NY New York Terminal
Pennsylvania Station (Newark) Amtrak, NJT, PATH NJ Essex Terminal and Transfer
Hoboken Terminal NJT, MNRR, PATH NJ Hudson Terminal
Atlantic Terminal LIRR NY Kings Terminal
Hunterspoint Avenue LIRR NY Queens Terminal
Jamaica Station LIRR NY Queens Terminal and Transfer
Secaucus Junction NJT, MNRR NJ Hudson Transfer
New Haven Union Station Amtrak, MNRR, Shore Line East CT New Haven Terminal and Transfer
Trenton Station Amtrak, NJT, SEPTA NJ Mercer Terminal and Transfer

The following table shows all train lines operated by these commuter railroads in the New York metropolitan area. New Jersey Transit operates an additional train line in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. (Shown counterclockwise from the Atlantic Ocean):

Line or Branch Railroad Counties
Far Rockaway LIRR Kings, Queens, Nassau
Long Beach LIRR Nassau
Montauk LIRR Suffolk
Babylon LIRR Nassau, Suffolk
West Hempstead LIRR Kings (weekdays), Queens, Nassau
Hempstead LIRR Kings, Queens, Nassau
Ronkonkoma (Main Line) LIRR Nassau, Suffolk
Port Jefferson LIRR Nassau, Suffolk
Oyster Bay LIRR Nassau
Port Washington LIRR Queens, Nassau
New Haven MNRR, Shore Line East, Amtrak Westchester, Fairfield, New Haven
Harlem MNRR New York, Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess
Hudson MNRR, Amtrak Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess
Pascack Valley MNRR, NJT Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Rockland, Orange
Port Jervis / Main Line / Bergen County MNRR, NJT Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Rockland, Orange
Montclair-Boonton NJT New York, Hudson, Essex, Passaic, Morris, Warren
Morris & Essex (Morristown Line and Gladstone Branch) NJT New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Morris, Somerset, Warren
Raritan Valley NJT Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Somerset, Hunterdon
Northeast Corridor and Princeton Branch NJT, Amtrak New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Mercer
North Jersey Coast NJT New York, Hudson, Essex, Union, Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean

الطرق السريعة الرئيسية

The following highways serve the region:

ملف:George Washington Bridge, on a late winter afternoon.jpg
The George Washington Bridge, connecting Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan across the Hudson River to Fort Lee in Bergen County, New Jersey, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.[71] Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1/9 cross the river via the bridge, while U.S. Route 46, which is entirely in New Jersey, ends halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York.

بين الولايات

U.S. Routes

State Routes

Other limited-access roads

ملف:Parkway Congestion 02.jpg
Heavy traffic on the Garden State Parkway in Wall Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey.

Some of these roads have a numerical designation assigned to it:

Named bridges and tunnels

Commuter bus

New Jersey Transit, Academy Bus, Coach USA, Spanish Transportation, and several other companies operate commuter coaches into the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan, and many other bus services in New Jersey. Bus services also operate in other nearby counties in the states of New York and Connecticut, but most terminate at a subway terminal or other rail station.

المطارات الرئيسية

The New York metropolitan area handles the busiest urban airspace in the United States - carrying over 100 million passengers annually,[82] and is served by three major airports.

Airport IATA code ICAO code County State
John F. Kennedy International Airport JFK KJFK Queens New York
Newark Liberty International Airport EWR KEWR Essex/Union نيوجرزي
LaGuardia Airport LGA KLGA Queens New York

The following smaller airports are also in the metro area and provide daily commercial service:

Airport IATA code ICAO code County State
Long Island MacArthur Airport ISP KISP Suffolk New York
Stewart International Airport SWF KSWF Orange New York
Tweed New Haven Regional Airport HVN KHVN New Haven Connecticut
Westchester County Airport HPN KHPN Westchester New York

Commuter usage

According to the 2010 American Community Survey, 54.3% (5,476,169) of commuters used a car or other private vehicle alone, 7.0% (708,788) used a carpool, 27.0% (2,721,372) used public transportation, 5.5% (558,434) walked to work, 2.0% (200,448) used some other means of transportation such as a bicycle to get to work.[83]

التاريخ

المقالة الرئيسية: تاريخ مدينة نيويورك
The Statue of Liberty, on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, is a globally recognized symbol of both the United States and ideals such as freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[84]

During the Wisconsinan glaciation, the region was at the edge of a large ice sheet that was over 1000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving bedrock. Later on, the ice sheet would help split apart what are now Long Island and Staten Island.

The region was inhabited by Native American tribes such as the Lenape[87] and others. The tribes used the abundant waterways in the area for many purposes such as fishing and trade routes. Later, when Henry Hudson visited the area, he built a settlement on Lower Manhattan Island which was eventually renamed New Amsterdam by Dutch colonists in 1626.[88]. The area came under English control in 1664[89][90] and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[91][92]

As the fur trade expanded north, New York became a trade hub. The trading bought in a diverse set of ethnic groups including Africans, Jews, and the Portuguese. The island of Manhattan had an extraordinary natural harbor formed by New York Bay (actually the drowned lower river valley of the Hudson River, enclosed by glacial moraines), the East River (actually a tidal strait), and the Hudson River, all of which are confluent at the southern tip, from which all later development spread. During the American Revolution, New York was an important region for battle. Many battles such as the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of New York were fought here. However, New York City remained in the hands of the British until the war ended in 1783. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790,[93] after which the capital moved to Philadelphia. New York City has been the country's largest city since 1790.[94] In 1792, the Buttonwood Agreement, made by a group of merchants, created what is now the New York Stock Exchange in Lower Manhattan. Today, many people in the metropolitan area work in this important stock exchange.

The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries[95] and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.[96] Large-scale immigration into New York was a result of a large demand for manpower. A cosmopolitan attitude in the city created tolerance for various cultures and ethnic groups. German, Irish, and Italian immigrants were among the largest ethnic groups. Today, many of their descendents continue to live in the region. Cultural buildings such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera, the American Museum of Natural History were built. New York newspapers were read around the country as media moguls James Gordon Bennett, Sr., Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst battled for readership. In 1884, over 70% of exports passed through ports in New York or in one of the surrounding towns. The five boroughs of New York City — The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island — were consolidated into a single city in 1898.[97][98]

The now-unified New York City encouraged both more physical connections between the boroughs and the growth of bedroom communities. The New York City Subway began operating in 1905 as different private systems that were later taken over by the city. Railroad stations such as Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station helped fuel suburban growth. During the era of the Prohibition, when alcohol was banned nationwide, organized crime grew to supply the high demand for bootleg alcohol. The iconic Broadway Theater District developed with the showing of the musical, Show Boat.

The Great Depression suspended the region's fortunes as a period of widespread unemployment and poverty began. City planner Robert Moses began his automobile-centered career of building bridges, parkways, and later expressways. During World War II, the city economy was hurt by blockades of German U-Boats, which limited of shipping with Europe.

After its population peaked in 1950, much of the city's population began leaving for the suburbs. The effects were a result of white flight. Industry and commerce also declined in this era, with businesses leaving for the suburbs and other cities. Crime affected the city severely. Urban renewal projects alleviated the decay in Midtown Manhattan to a certain extent, but later failed. Blackouts such as the Northeast Blackout of 1965 and the New York City Blackout of 1977 caused massive rioting. A rare highlight was the completion of the former World Trade Center, which once stood as the tallest buildings in the world.

In the 1980s, the city economy was booming. Wall Street was fueling an economic surge in the real estate market. Despite this, crime was still an issue. Beginning in the 1990s, however, crime dropped substantially.

The former World Trade Center burning on September 11, 2001. It would later collapse, killing nearly 3,000 people, many of whom lived in the suburbs surrounding the city.

A major event in the regions history was the September 11th attacks in 2001, killing nearly 3,000 people as two planes crashed into the former World Trade Center, causing them to collapse. Businesses led an exodus from Lower Manhattan because of this. In 2003, another blackout occurred, the 2003 North America blackout, but the city suffered no looting. A building boom in New York City continues to this day although this has been slowed down by the Great Recession.

التاريخ الإحصائي

The U.S. Census Bureau first designated metropolitan areas in 1950 as standard metropolitan areas (SMAs). The "New York-Northeastern NJ SMA" was defined to include 17 counties: 9 in New York (the five boroughs of New York City, Nassau, Suffolk, Westchester, and Rockland) and 8 in New Jersey (Bergen, Hudson, Passaic, Essex, Union, Morris, Somerset, and Middlesex). In 1960, the metropolitan area standards were modified and renamed standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs). The new standards resulted in the splitting of the former SMA into several pieces: the nine New York counties became the "New York SMSA"; three of the New Jersey counties (Essex, Union, and Morris) became the "Newark SMSA"; two other New Jersey counties (Bergen and Passaic) became the "Paterson-Passaic-Clifton SMSA"; Hudson County was designated the "Jersey City SMSA"; and Middlesex and Somerset counties lost their metropolitan status. In 1973, a new set of metropolitan area standards resulted in further changes: Nassau and Suffolk counties were split off as their own SMSA ("Nassau-Suffolk SMSA"); Bergen County (originally part of the Paterson-Clifton-Passaic SMSA) was transferred to the New York SMSA; the New York SMSA also received Putnam County (previously non-metropolitan); Somerset County was added to the Newark SMSA; and two new SMSAs, the "New Brunswick-Perth Amboy-Sayreville SMSA" (Middlesex County) and "Long Branch-Asbury Park SMSA" (Monmouth County), were established. In 1983, the concept of a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA) was first implemented. A CMSA consisted of several primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs), which were individual employment centers within a wider labor market area. The "New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island CMSA" consisted of 12 PMSAs. Seven PMSAs were based on the original 1950 New York SMA that were split up: New York, Bergen-Passaic, Jersey City, Middlesex-Somerset-Hunterdon (Hunterdon added for the first time), Monmouth-Ocean (Ocean added for the first time), Nassau-Suffolk, and Newark (Sussex added for the first time). One additional PMSA was the Orange County PMSA (previously the Newburgh-Middletown SMSA). The other four PMSAs were former SMSAs in Connecticut: Bridgeport, Stamford, Norwalk, and Danbury. In 1993, four PMSAs were added to the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island CMSA: Trenton PMSA (Mercer County), Dutchess County PMSA, Waterbury PMSA, and New Haven PMSA. Several new counties were also added to the CMSA: Sussex, Warren, and Pike. The CMSA model was originally utilized for tabulating data from the 2000 census. In 2003, a new set of standards was established using the Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) model was adopted and remains in use as of 2010. The CBSA model resulted in the splitting up of the old CMSA into several metropolitan statistical areas: New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, Trenton-Ewing, Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk (includes Danbury), and New Haven-Milford (includes Waterbury).

الثقافة والحياة المعاصرة

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile in the Carnegie Hill neighborhood of Manhattan's Upper East Side, is one of the largest museums in the world.[99]
المقالة الرئيسية: New York City § Culture and contemporary life

New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland[100] and Latvia[101] and by New York's own Baruch College.[102] A book containing a series of essays titled New York, culture capital of the world, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia.[103] Tom Wolfe has quoted regarding New York's culture that "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather".[104]

Although Manhattan remains the epicenter of cultural life in the metropolitan area, the entire region is replete with prominent cultural institutions, with artistic performances and ethnically oriented events receiving international attention throughout the year.

الفرق الرياضية

للمزيد من المعلومات: الرياضة في مدينة نيويورك

New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League,[105] Major League Baseball,[106] the National Basketball Association,[107] and the National Hockey League.[108] Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area.[109]

ملف:New Meadowlands Stadium Mezz Corner.jpg
MetLife Stadium, in East Rutherford, New Jersey, home to the New York Giants and New York Jets, is the most expensive stadium ever built,[110] at approximately $1.6 billion.[111]
The New York Knicks, Rangers, and Liberty sports teams play at Madison Square Garden in Midtown Manhattan.

Listing of the professional sports teams in the New York metropolitan area:

According to Travel + Leisure magazine's October 2011 survey, Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, iconified as the "Crossroads of the World",[112][113][114][115][116] is the world's most visited tourist attraction, bringing in over 39 million visitors annually.[117]

الإعلام

المقالة الرئيسية: الإعلام في مدينة نيويورك

The New York City metropolitan area is home to the headquarters of several well-known media companies, subsidiaries, and publications, including Thomson Reuters, The New York Times Company, the Associated Press, Time Warner, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, Viacom, News Corporation, The Wall Street Journal, Fox News, ABC, CBS, and NBC. Local television channels include WCBS-TV 2 (CBS), WNBC 4 (NBC), WNYW 5 (FOX), WABC-TV 7 (ABC), WWOR-TV 9 (MyNetworkTV), WPIX 11 (CW), WNET 13 (PBS), WNYE-TV 25 (NYC Media) and WPXN-TV 31 (Ion). NY1 is a 24/7 local news provider available only to cable subscribers. Radio stations serving the area include: WNYC, WFMU, WABC-AM, and WFAN. Many television and radio stations use the top of the Empire State Building to broadcast their terrestrial television signals, while some media entities broadcast from studios in Times Square.

Theme parks

في نيوجرزي

ملف:SFGadv Skyline.jpg
Skyline of Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, slated to become the world's largest theme park in 2013.[118] To the far left is Kingda Ka, the world's tallest roller coaster.[119]
Main Park Other Parks Location Year Opened
Six Flags Great Adventure Six Flags Wild Safari, Six Flags Hurricane Harbor Jackson 1974
Mountain Creek Waterpark None Vernon 1998

في ولاية نيويورك

Playland, Rye, Westchester County

المفاتيح الهاتفية للمناطق

The area is served by 24 area codes:

  • 212: Serves Manhattan and is overlaid with 646 and 917.
  • 718: Serves all other boroughs of New York City and is overlaid with 347, 917, 929
  • 917: Serves all of New York City
  • 516: Serves Nassau County
  • 631: Serves Suffolk County
  • 914: Serves Westchester County
  • 845: Serves the Hudson Valley counties of Southern New York State.
  • 570: Serves Northeastern پنسلڤانيا
  • 203: Serves Southwestern Connecticut and is overlaid with 475
  • 860: Serves the rest of Connecticut not served by 203 or 475
  • 201: Serves most of Bergen County, as well as parts of Essex, Hudson and Passaic in Northern New Jersey. and is overlaid with 551.
  • 973: Serves portions of Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Morris, Passaic, Sussex and northern portions of Union County in Northern New Jersey, also southern portions of Union County in Central New Jersey and is overlaid with 862.
  • 908: Serves communities in Union County, Somerset County, northern parts of Middlesex County, Hunterdon County, Warren County, and Morris County as well as some cell phones in Monmouth County in New Jersey.
  • 732: Serves Middlesex County, Somerset County, and southern portions of Union County in Central Jersey and northern portions of Union County in North Jersey, and Monmouth and northern Ocean counties on the Jersey Shore and overlaid with 848
  • 609: Serves Mercer County and parts of Middlesex and Monmouth Counties.

طالع أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "Table GCT-PL2 - Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  2. ^ "Table GCT-PL2 - Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-03-28. 
  3. ^ "World's Largest Urban Areas [Ranked by Urban Area Population]". Rhett Butler. 2003–2006. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  4. ^ "Largest Cities of the World – (by metro population)". Woolwine-Moen Group d/b/a Graphic Maps. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  5. ^ "Largest urban areas in the world: 2008 All Urban Areas 2,000,000 & Over" (PDF). Wendell Cox Consultancy. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  6. ^ "Population Change for the Ten Most Populous and Fastest Growing Metropolitan Statiscal Areas: 2000 to 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. March 2011. p. 6. Retrieved April 12, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved March 23, 2010. 
  8. ^ http://transition.fcc.gov/dtv/markets/maps_current/New_York_NY.pdf New York City Designated Market Area map PDF
  9. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  10. ^ Mark J. Magyar (2011-11-08). "Paterson Great Falls National Park: More Than Scenery". Copyright © 2010-2011, njSPOTLIGHT. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  11. ^ Geography Explained (see Change in Labor Market Areas) http://www.labor.ny.gov/stats/lsgeog.shtm
  12. ^ http://www2.census.gov/geo/maps/puma/puma2k/ct_puma5.pdf
  13. ^ "Metro-North Railroad". Metropolitan Transportation Authority of the State of New York. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  14. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program - Lake Mohonk Mountain House". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  15. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Hudson River PCBs. New York, NY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved September 29, 2011. 
  16. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program - New Haven Green Historic District" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  17. ^ ((cite web|url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/42/42103.html%7Ctitle=Pike County, Pennsylvania QuickFacts|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|accessdate=2012-09-11}}
  18. ^ "Pike County, PA Court Administration". Copyright © 2011 Pike County Commissioners. Retrieved 2012-09-11. 
  19. ^ David Pierce (2010-06-25). "Population pops in Pike, Monroe counties". The Pocono Record - Copyright © 2012 Dow Jones Local Media Group, Inc. - (570) 421-3000 - 511 Lenox St., Stroudsburg, PA 18360. All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-11. 
  20. ^ Office of Management and Budget – Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas, Sec. 5
  21. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  22. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  23. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  24. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  25. ^ "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". Copyright © 2010-2012 NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  26. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  27. ^ "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". Copyright © 2010-2012 NewYorkPolonia.com. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  28. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  29. ^ "united states annual snowfall map". ©1998-2012 HowStuffWorks, Inc. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  30. ^ "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  31. ^ "Weatherbase New York, New York". © Copyright 2012 Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  32. ^ "Weatherbase New York, New York". © Copyright 2012 Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  33. ^ Sam Dolnick (August 28, 2011). "Damage From Irene Largely Spares New York – Recovery Is Slower in New York Suburbs". © 2011 The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  34. ^ "Monthly Weather Averages and Records for New York, NY". © 1995 - 2012, The Weather Channel, LLC weather.com® Licensed by TRUSTe. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  35. ^ "united states annual sunshine map". HowStuffWorks, Inc. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  36. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  37. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for New York (Central Park), NY, United States". Weatherbase. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  38. ^ Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Second Edition, Edited by Pyong Gap Min. Pine Forge Press - An Imprint of Sage Publications, Inc. 2006. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  39. ^ "Table 2. Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  40. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data - Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  41. ^ "Table 6. Population in Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs) in Alphabetical Order and Numerical and Percent Change for the United States and Puerto Rico: 1990 and 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  42. ^ "Population Estimates: Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  43. ^ "World Jewish Population". SimpleToRemember.com – Judaism Online. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  44. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  45. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  46. ^ Kirk Semple (June 23, 2011). "Asian New Yorkers Seek Power to Match Numbers". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  47. ^ Lawrence A. McGlinn, Department of Geography SUNY-New Paltz. "BEYOND CHINATOWN: DUAL IMMIGRATION AND THE CHINESE POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN NEW YORK CITY, 2000, Page 6" (PDF). Middle States Geographer, 2002, 35: 110-119, Journal of the Middle States Division of the Association of American Geographers. Retrieved 2012-06-27. 
  48. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data Geography: New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA". Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  49. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 - Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  50. ^ Gary J. Gates, PhD. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey" (PDF). The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  51. ^ Nicholas Confessore and Michael Barbaro (June 24, 2011). "New York Allows Same-Sex Marriage, Becoming Largest State to Pass Law". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  52. ^ "Market highlights for first half-year 2010" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  53. ^ "GDP by State". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 23, 2011. 
  54. ^ Zumbrun, Joshua. "In Pictures: World's Most Economically Powerful Cities". Forbes. 
  55. ^ Huddleston, Cameron. "Top 5 Cities with the highest cost of living". Kiplinger's. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  56. ^ Wienerbronner, Danielle (2010-11-09). "Most Beautiful College Libraries". Copyright © 2012 TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  57. ^ خطأ لوا في وحدة:Citation/CS1 على السطر 3565: bad argument #1 to 'pairs' (table expected, got nil).
  58. ^ {{cite web|url=http://www.arwu.org/ARWU2010.jsp |title=Academic Ranking of World Universities |publisher=Arwu.org |accessdate=2012-09-09}
  59. ^ "Selected statistics on enrollment, teachers, dropouts, and graduates in public school districts enrolling more than 15,000 students, by state: 1990, 2000, and 2006" (PDF). Digest of Education Statistics 2008. U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. 18 March 2009. pp. 129–139. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  60. ^ "U.S. News and World Report Best High Schools National Rankings". Copyright © 2012 U.S.News & World Report LP. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  61. ^ "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S Census Bureau. Retrieved November 16, 2011. 
  62. ^ Christie, Les (October 1, 2010). "America's brainiest places to live". CNN Money. Retrieved November 16, 2011. 
  63. ^ "The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  64. ^ Pisarski, Alan (October 16, 2006). "Commuting in America III: Commuting Facts" (PDF). Transportation Research Board. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  65. ^ "The MTA Network: Public Transportation for the New York Region". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  66. ^ "Service Hours". Copyright © 2011 MTR. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  67. ^ "Tsuen Wan Line". Copyright © 1998-2012 TravelChinaGuide.com, All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  68. ^ "Train Time Table - Search station". Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  69. ^ "Subway map". Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  70. ^ أ ب ت Metro-North ridership tops LIRR for 1st time - Poughkeepsie Journal
  71. ^ "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey - George Washington Bridge". Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  72. ^ "Longest Suspension Bridges in the World". © 2000–2012 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  73. ^ "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". © by Eastern Roads. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  74. ^ "Port Authority: Bayonne Bridge Project 6 Months Ahead Of Schedule". ©2012 CBS Local Media, a division of CBS Radio Inc. All rights reserved. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  75. ^ "Brooklyn Bridge - National Historic Landmarks Program". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  76. ^ "Garden State Parkway opens world's widest bridge - 15 lanes". TOLLROADSnews, Peter Samuel. 2006-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  77. ^ "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey - George Washington Bridge". Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  78. ^ "Garden State Parkway opens world's widest bridge - 15 lanes". TOLLROADSnews, Peter Samuel. 2006-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  79. ^ Ted Mann (2012-08-20). "Tappan Zee Span Gets New Push". The Wall Street Journal Copyright ©2012 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  80. ^ "Longest Suspension Bridges in the World". © 2000–2012 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  81. ^ "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". © by Eastern Roads. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  82. ^ Susan Fleming. "FAA Airspace Redesign: An Analysis of the New York/New Jersey/Philadelphia Project, United States Government Accountability Office Report to the Congressional Requesters". Copyright Diane Publishing Company. All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  83. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_DP03&prodType=table%7Ctitle=SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates|publisher=US Census Bureau
  84. ^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved 2012-08-31. 
  85. ^ "Queens - The NYC Experience". Copyright 2012 The City of New York. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  86. ^ Schenkler, Michael. "We Are A Nation Of Immigrants". Queens Tribune. Retrieved 2012-09-07. 
  87. ^ "About the Lenapes". Copyright © 2002 [Lenape Lifeways]. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-08. 
  88. ^ "United States History - History of New York City, New York". Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  89. ^ Shorto, Russell (2005). The Island at the Center of The World, 1st Edition. New York: Vintage Books. p. 30. ISBN 1-4000-7867-9. 
  90. ^ "United States History - History of New York City, New York". Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  91. ^ "New Jersey Colony Reading Comprehension". MrNussbaum.com. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  92. ^ "KINGSTON Discover 300 Years of New York History DUTCH COLONIES". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  93. ^ "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  94. ^ "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". U.S. Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  95. ^ "Statue of Liberty". 1996–2011, A&E Television Networks, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  96. ^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. © UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992–2011. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  97. ^ "A 5-Borough Centennial Preface for Katharine Bement Davis Mini-History". The New York City Department of Correction. 1997. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  98. ^ "New York: A City of Neighborhoods". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  99. ^ "The Metropolitan Museum of Art General Information". © 2000–2012 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  100. ^ "Consulate General of Iceland New York Culture". Consulate General of Iceland New York. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  101. ^ "Consulate of Latvia in New York". Consulate of Latvia. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  102. ^ "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture". Copyright © The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  103. ^ "New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 / edited by Leonard Wallock ; essays by Dore Ashton ... [et al.]". NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  104. ^ "Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening" (Press release). Consulate General of the United States: Frankfurt, Germany. May 9, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2012-09-10. 
  105. ^ "National Football League". Copyright © 2012, Hoover's Inc., All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  106. ^ "Major League Baseball". Copyright © 2012, Hoover's Inc., All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  107. ^ "National Basketball Association, Inc.". Copyright © 2012, Hoover's Inc., All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  108. ^ "National Hockey League". Copyright © 2012, Hoover's Inc., All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  109. ^ Esteban (2011-10-27). "11 Most Expensive Stadiums In The World". Total Pro Sports. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  110. ^ Esteban (2011-10-27). "11 Most Expensive Stadiums In The World". Total Pro Sports. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  111. ^ Belson, Ken (April 8, 2010). "New Stadium, a Football Palace, Opens Saturday With Lacrosse". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  112. ^ "Big Apple History Arts and Entertainment The Crossroads of the World". Thirteen/WNET New York 2005 Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  113. ^ "Crossroads of the world - Times Square the official website of Times Square". Times Square District Management Association, Inc. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  114. ^ "Times Square New York, NY Times Square". 2011 NYCTourist.com. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  115. ^ Aditya Rangroo (October 14, 2010). "Times Square Crossroads of the World New York City Info". (C) 1980 - 2010 TimesSquare.com A Dataware Corporation Company. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  116. ^ Allan Tannenbaum. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". © The Digital Journalist. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  117. ^ Joshua Pramis (October 2011). "World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 1: Times Square, New York City". Copyright © 1997 - 2011 American Express Publishing Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  118. ^ "Six Flags Great Adventure To Become The World’s Largest Theme Park In 2013". Copyright © 2012 njtoday.net – Everything New Jersey. All Rights Reserved. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  119. ^ KarlFabricius (2010-09-20). "10 Highest Roller Coasters on Earth". © 2011 EntertainmentDesigner.com. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 

وصلات خارجية


قالب:USPopulousPSA