سان موريتس

(تم التحويل من St. Moritz)
St. Moritz
St. Moritz on an evening in February 2009, with the lake frozen
St. Moritz on an evening in February 2009, with the lake frozen
درع St. Moritz
Coat of arms
St. Moritz is located in سويسرا
St. Moritz
St. Moritz
St. Moritz is located in Canton of Grisons
St. Moritz
St. Moritz
St. Moritz (Canton of Grisons)
الإحداثيات: 46°29′50″N 9°50′16″E / 46.49722°N 9.83778°E / 46.49722; 9.83778Coordinates: 46°29′50″N 9°50′16″E / 46.49722°N 9.83778°E / 46.49722; 9.83778
البلدسويسرا
الكانتونGrisons
المقاطعةMaloja
المساحة
 • الإجمالي28٫69 كم² (11٫08 ميل²)
المنسوب
(Traunter Plazzas)
1٬822 m (5٬978 ft)
التعداد
 (خطأ: زمن غير صحيح[2])
 • الإجمالي5٬148
 • الكثافة180/km2 (460/sq mi)
صفة المواطنبالألمانية: St. Moritzer(in)
Postal code
6969
SFOS number3787
المحلاتSt. Moritz-Dorf, St. Moritz-Bad, Suvretta, Champfèr (eastern part)
يحيطهاBever, Celerina/Schlarigna, Samedan, Silvaplana
الموقع الإلكترونيgemeinde-stmoritz.ch
SFSO statistics

St. Moritz (also بالألمانية: Sankt Moritz, بالرومانش: San Murezzan , بالايطالية: San Maurizio,[أ] بالفرنسية: Saint-Maurice) is a high Alpine resort town in the Engadine in Switzerland, at an elevation of about 1,800 مترs (5,910 قدم) above sea level. It is Upper Engadine's major town and a municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.

St. Moritz lies on the southern slopes of the Albula Alps below the Piz Nair (3,056 م or 10,026 قدم) overlooking the flat and wide glaciated valley of the Upper Engadine and eponymous lake: Lake St. Moritz. It hosted the Winter Olympics in 1928 and 1948.

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التاريخ

Votive offerings, swords, and needles from the Bronze Age found at the base of the springs in St. Moritz indicate that the Celts had already discovered them. St. Moritz is first mentioned around 1137–39 as ad sanctum Mauricium.[3] The village was named after Saint Maurice, an early Christian saint from southern Egypt said to have been martyred in 3rd century Roman Switzerland while serving as leader of the Theban Legion.

Pilgrims traveled to Saint Mauritius, often to the church of the springs, where they drank from the blessed, bubbling waters of the Mauritius springs in the hopes of being healed. In 1519, the Medici pope, Leo X, promised full absolution to anyone making a pilgrimage to the church of the springs. In the 16th century, the first scientific treatises about the St. Moritz mineral springs were written. In 1535, Paracelsus, the great practitioner of natural remedies, spent some time in St. Moritz.

St. Moritz in January 1931

Although it received some visitors during the summer, the origins of the winter resort only date back منذ 158 سنة to September 1864, when St. Moritz hotel pioneer Caspar Badrutt made a wager with four British summer guests: they should return in winter and, if the village was not to their liking, then he would reimburse their travel costs. If they were to find St. Moritz attractive in winter, then he would invite them to stay as his guests for as long as they wished.[4] This marked not only the start of winter tourism in St. Moritz but also the start of winter tourism in the whole of the Alps. The first tourist office in Switzerland was established the same year in the village. St. Moritz developed rapidly in the late nineteenth century; the first electric light in Switzerland was installed in 1878 at the Kulm Hotel, and the first curling tournament on the continent was held in 1880.[4] The first European Ice-Skating Championships were held at St. Moritz in 1882 and first golf tournament in the Alps held in 1889. The first bob run and bob race was held in 1890. By 1896, St. Moritz became the first village in the Alps to install electric trams and opened the Palace Hotel.[4] A horse race was held on snow in 1906, and on the frozen lake the following year. The first ski school in Switzerland was established in St. Moritz in 1929.[4]

St. Moritz hosted the 1928 Winter Olympics—the stadium still stands today—and again in 1948. It has hosted over 20 FIBT World Championships, four FIS Alpine World Ski Championships (1934/1974/2003/2017) and over 40 Engadin Skimarathons since 1969. It has also hosted many other events since, including some unlikely ones on the frozen lake in the 1970s and 1980s such as a golf tournament, (1979), a snow polo tournament (every year in January starting in 1985) and Cricket on Ice (1989).[4] St. Moritz has also been the venue for many Sailing and Windsurfing World Championships.

Since the early 1980s St. Moritz is also promoted and known as Top of the World. The expression was registered as a trademark by the tourist office in 1987.


الجغرافيا

St. Moritz from above

St. Moritz had an area (as of the 2004/09 survey) of قالب:Swiss area.[1] Of this area, about 26.3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 20.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 9.0% is settled (buildings or roads) and 44.8% is unproductive land. In the 2004/09 survey a total of 160 ها (400 أكرs) or about 5.6% of the total area was covered with buildings, an increase of 23 ها (57 أكرs) over the 1985 amount. Over the same time period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 3 ها (7.4 أكرs) and is now about 1.15% of the total area. Of the agricultural land 149 ها (370 أكرs) is fields and grasslands, and 643 ها (1,590 أكرs) consists of alpine grazing areas. Since 1985 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 37 ها (91 أكرs). Over the same time period the amount of forested land has increased by 33 ها (82 أكرs). Rivers and lakes cover 91 ها (220 أكرs) in the municipality.[5][6]

The highest summit in the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina at 4,048.6 م (13,283 قدم), located 15 kم (49,212.6 قدم) southeast of the village.

Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Oberengadin sub-district of the Maloja district, after 2017 it was part of the Maloja Region. It consists of the settlements of St. Moritz-Dorf (elev. 1,830 م (6,005 قدم)), Bad (1,775 م (5,825 قدم)), Champfèr (1,825 م (5,990 قدم)), and the village section of Suvretta.

الرياضة

Cartier Polo World Cup 2008

St. Moritz has been a resort for winter sport vacations since the 19th century. Students from Oxford and Cambridge went there to play each other; the predecessor of the recurring Ice Hockey Varsity Match was a bandy match played in St. Moritz in 1885. St. Moritz was the host city for the Winter Olympic Games in 1928 and 1948, one of three cities to host twice, along with Innsbruck, Austria and Lake Placid in the United States. It also hosted the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships in 1934, 1974, 2003, and 2017.

Additionally, St. Moritz has hosted the FIBT World Championships (bobsleigh and skeleton racing) a record 21 times. Since 1985, it has hosted Snow Polo St. Moritz, a tournament featuring many of the world's finest team and played on a specially-marked field on the frozen lake.[7]

St. Moritz is extremely popular in the summer months as an altitude training base for distance athletes, particularly cyclists, runners, and race walkers. Its popularity extends to the altitude, weather, world class athletics track, and availability of paths and trails in the area.

In 1904, the oldest and world's last remaining natural bob run was opened. The 1.72 kم (5,643 قدم 0.54 بوصة) ice channel – also known as the world's biggest "ice sculpture" – is built every winter from the ground up with only snow and water. The bob run hosted numerous world championships and was used in both Olympic Winter Games. In the early 1930s, some members of the bob club started taking guests along for taxi rides; today they run with slightly modified racing bobs.

For the 1928 games, the cross-country skiing and the cross-country skiing part of the Nordic combined events took place around the hills of St. Moritz.[8] Twenty years later, once again the cross-country skiing, the cross-country skiing part of the Nordic combined, and the ice hockey events took place in St. Moritz.[9]

In addition to the above sports, St. Moritz is also well known as a destination for sailing. It is the host venue for the annual St. Moritz Match Race held on lake St. Moritz. The St. Moritz Match Race event is part of the prestigious World Match Racing Tour which covers 3 continents. The identical supplied (BLU-26) boats are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities. Points accrued count towards the World Match Racing Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion.

Sailing on Lake St. Moritz


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السياحة

The Badrutt's Palace Hotel is considered the birthplace of winter sports[10]

Thanks to its favorable location, St. Moritz enjoys over 300 days of sunshine a year. Every winter it hosts the "White Turf" horse race on the frozen Lake St. Moritz attended by the international upper class. Prominent property owners in St. Moritz included Sonja Ziemann, Gunter Sachs, Herbert von Karajan, Lakshmi Mittal, Ivan Glasenberg, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Ingvar Kamprad, Helmut Horten, Giovanni Agnelli, Aristoteles Onassis and Stavros Niarchos.

Popular pastimes include skiing, snowboarding, and hiking, and nearby there is also the world-famous Cresta Run toboggan course.

The year-round population is 5,600, with some 3,000 seasonal employees supporting hotels and rental units with a total of 13,000 beds. The Kulm Hotel St. Moritz is a large luxury hotel in St. Moritz.

المناظر الرئيسية

Plazza da Scoula
and St. Moritz library

المناخ

St. Moritz has a subarctic climate (Koppen: Dfc) due to its particularly high elevation near to the tree line. It has cool summers coupled with cold nights and very cold, snowy winters with highs around freezing and 254 cم (8.33 قدم) of average annual snowfall. The average temperature, about 2°C (measured in the nearby town of Samedan), is extremely low compared to that of the Swiss Plateau. It is also significantly lower to that of La Brévine, traditionally considered the coldest inhabited place in Switzerland.

بيانات مناخ Climate normals Samedan (Reference period 1981−2010)
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -1.6
(29.1)
0.5
(32.9)
3.7
(38.7)
7.4
(45.3)
12.9
(55.2)
16.4
(61.5)
19.3
(66.7)
18.7
(65.7)
14.9
(58.8)
10.9
(51.6)
3.7
(38.7)
-1.2
(29.8)
8٫8
(47٫8)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) -9.1
(15.6)
-7.8
(18)
-2.8
(27)
1.6
(34.9)
6.6
(43.9)
9.9
(49.8)
12.2
(54)
11.5
(52.7)
7.9
(46.2)
3.8
(38.8)
-2.7
(27.1)
-7.5
(18.5)
2٫0
(35٫6)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -16.3
(2.7)
-16.4
(2.5)
-10.4
(13.3)
-4.7
(23.5)
-0.1
(31.8)
2.5
(36.5)
4.3
(39.7)
4.0
(39.2)
1.0
(33.8)
-2.9
(26.8)
-8.9
(16)
-13.8
(7.2)
−5٫1
(22٫8)
هطول mm (inches) 28
(1.1)
20
(0.79)
26
(1.02)
39
(1.54)
78
(3.07)
90
(3.54)
93
(3.66)
99
(3.9)
73
(2.87)
68
(2.68)
61
(2.4)
36
(1.42)
713
(28٫07)
سقوط الثلج cm (inches) 51.8
(20.39)
38.9
(15.31)
32.5
(12.8)
23.5
(9.25)
6.3
(2.48)
0.6
(0.24)
0.3
(0.12)
0.3
(0.12)
1.2
(0.47)
8.1
(3.19)
40.8
(16.06)
49.9
(19.65)
254٫2
(100٫08)
Humidity 77 73 70 69 69 69 70 73 74 75 77 79 73
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.3 4.2 4.8 6.0 9.3 10.3 10.0 10.5 7.8 7.6 7.0 6.0 88٫8
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 9.1 7.4 7.6 5.8 1.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.6 2.0 6.8 9.1 50٫4
Sunshine hours 117 122 140 138 158 176 200 180 154 140 106 103 1٬733
Source: MeteoSchweiz[12]


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الديمغرافيا

السكان

St. Moritz has a population (as of قالب:Swiss populations date) of 5٬148.[2] اعتبارا من 2008, 38.0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals.[13] Over the 10 years up to 2009 the population decreased at a rate of 4.9%.[14]

اعتبارا من 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 45.4% male and 54.6% female.[15] The age distribution, اعتبارا من 2000, in St. Moritz is; 423 children or 7.6% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 502 teenagers or 9.0% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 960 people or 17.2% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 1,055 people or 18.9% are between 30 and 39, 864 people or 15.5% are between 40 and 49, and 820 people or 14.7% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 532 people or 9.5% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 289 people or 5.2% are between 70 and 79, there are 121 people or 2.2% who are between 80 and 89, and there are 23 people or 0.4% who are 90 and older.[13]

In 2014 there were 2,822 private households in St. Moritz with an average household size of 1.84 persons. Of the 884 inhabited buildings in the municipality, in 2000, about 29.1% were single family homes and 40.8% were multiple family buildings. Additionally, about 19.9% of the buildings were built before 1919, while 8.6% were built between 1991 and 2000.[16] In 2013 the rate of construction of new housing units per 1000 residents was 9.32. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2015, was 3.18%.[6]

Historic Population[3][15]
year population
1803 183
1850 228
1900 1,603
1910 3,197
1950 2,558
1960 3,751
1970 5,699
1980 5,900
1990 5,426
2000 5,589
Population by Nationality (Census 2000)
Nationality Number
Without dual-citizens
Number
Including dual-citizens
Switzerland 3079 3527
Italy 897 1162
Portugal 435 445
Germany 202 232
Serbia-Montenegro 106 108
Austria 74 104
France 56 73
Croatia 62 63
Spain 33 41
United Kingdom 30 41
Netherlands 17 29
Bosnia-Herzegovina 27 28

السياسة

In the 2015 federal election the most popular party was the FDP with 31.0% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP (27.0%), the BDP (15.1%) and the CVP (11.0%). In the federal election, a total of 1,428 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 54.1%.[17]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 34.9% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the FDP (24.5%), the SP (22.4%), and the CVP (17%).[14]

التعليم

In St. Moritz about 65.8% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule).[14]

الوظائف

St. Moritz is a regional economic centre and a tourist community.[18] اعتبارا من المعلمة المطلوبة غير صحيحة 1=الشهر! 2014[[تصنيف:مقالات فيها عبارات متقادمة منذ المعلمة المطلوبة غير صحيحة 1=الشهر! 2014]], there were a total of 7,590 people employed in the municipality. Of these, a total of 24 people worked in 7 businesses in the primary economic sector. The secondary sector employed 1,039 workers in 74 separate businesses. A minority (17.0%) of the secondary sector employees worked in very small businesses. There were 22 small businesses with a total of 533 employees and 3 mid sized businesses with a total of 329 employees. Finally, the tertiary sector provided 6,527 jobs in 768 businesses. In 2014 a total of 3,820 employees worked in 752 small companies (less than 50 employees). There were 14 mid sized businesses with 1,928 employees and 2 large businesses which employed 779 people (for an average size of 389.5).[19] The Badrutt's Palace Hotel (Five Star) has a staff of 520 persons and is the biggest employer in St.Moritz.

In 2014 a total of 9.3% of the population received social assistance.[6]

In the second quarter of 2016 an average of 1,062 workers commuted from outside Switzerland to work in the municipality, representing a minority of the employees.[20]

In 2015 local hotels had a total of 599,734 overnight stays, of which 69.2% were international visitors.[21] In the same year there was one movie theater in the municipality with 267 seats.[22]

اللغة

Most of the population (اعتبارا من 2000) speaks German (58.8%), with Italian being second most common (21.8%), and Portuguese being third (6.6%).[14] Originally, the entire population spoke the Upper-Engadin Romansh dialect of Puter. Due to increasing trade with the outside world, Romansh usage began to decline. In 1880, only 50.2% spoke Romansh as a first language. Romansh lost ground to both German and Italian. In 1900, 31% of the population spoke Italian as a first language, and in 1910, it was about the same. In the following years, the percentage of Romansh and Italian speakers both decreased against German speakers. In 1941, only 20% spoke Romansh, and in 1970 it was 8%. In 2000, only 4.7% of the population spoke Romansh.[23]

Languages in St. Moritz GR
Languages Census 1980 Census 1990 Census 2000
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
German 3092 52.41% 3,186 58.72% 3,286 58.79%
Italian 1608 27.25% 1,157 21.32% 1,220 21.83%
Romansh 569 9.64% 338 6.23% 264 4.72%
Population 5900 100% 5,426 100% 5,589 100%

النقل

St. Moritz is a regional hub for trains and buses

St. Moritz is the highest town in the country with a railway station. St. Moritz railway station is situated in the centre of the town, near the lakeshore and at the bottom of Via Serlas. It is operated by the Rhaetian Railway, and is the terminus that railway's Albula and Bernina lines. The Glacier Express and Bernina Express trains stop at St. Moritz.

Near the railway station is an important Swiss PostBus stop.

The St. Moritz–Corviglia funicular links St. Moritz with the Corviglia summit and ski area.

في الثقافة الشعبية

Norman Foster's Chesa Futura in St. Moritz

أشخاص بارزون

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Outdated; usually replaced by the German or French toponym.

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  2. ^ أ ب Swiss Federal Statistical Office, MS Excel document – Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach Kantonen, Bezirken und Gemeinden (بالألمانية) accessed 14 March 2010
  3. ^ أ ب St. Moritz in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  4. ^ أ ب ت ث ج "History". www.stmoritz.ch. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
  5. ^ "Arealstatistik Land Use - Gemeinden nach 10 Klassen". www.landuse-stat.admin.ch. Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 24 November 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  6. ^ أ ب ت Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Regional portraits accessed 27 October 2016
  7. ^ "The Cradle of Snow Polo". Snow Polo World Cup. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  8. ^ 1928 Winter Olympics official report. Part 2. pp. 8-10. (in فرنسية)
  9. ^ 1948 Winter Olympics official report. pp. 6, 21, 23. (in فرنسية and ألمانية)
  10. ^ The Thrill of Winter Sports in the Alpine Resort of St. Moritz
  11. ^ Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance Archived 2009-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. 21.11.2008 version, (in ألمانية) accessed 20-Oct-2009
  12. ^ "Climate normals Samedan (Reference period 1981−2010)" (in الألمانية, الفرنسية, and الإيطالية). Zurich Airport, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-29.
  13. ^ أ ب Graubunden Population Statistics Archived 2009-08-27 at the Wayback Machine. (in ألمانية) accessed 13 February 2010
  14. ^ أ ب ت ث Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 20-Oct-2009
  15. ^ أ ب Graubunden in Numbers Archived 2009-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. (in ألمانية) accessed 21 September 2009
  16. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB - Thema 09 - Bau- und Wohnungswesen (in ألمانية) accessed 5 May 2016
  17. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Nationalratswahlen 2015: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung nach Gemeinden Archived 2016-08-02 at the Wayback Machine. (in ألمانية) accessed 18 July 2016
  18. ^ "Die Raumgliederungen der Schweiz 2016" (in الألمانية, الفرنسية, الإيطالية, and الإنجليزية). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  19. ^ Federal Statistical Office -Arbeitsstätten und Beschäftigte nach Gemeinde, Wirtschaftssektor und Grössenklasse accessed 31 October 2016
  20. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Cross Border Workers accessed 27 October 2016
  21. ^ Federal Statistical Office - Hotellerie: Ankünfte und Logiernächte der geöffneten Betriebe accessed 31 October 2016
  22. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Kinoinfrastruktur nach Gemeinde und Kinotyp Archived 2016-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. (in ألمانية) accessed 9 August 2016
  23. ^ "Wohnbevölkerung mit Hauptsprache Rätoromanisch, 2000". Statistical Atlas of Switzerland. Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 2000. Retrieved 9 March 2020.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Municipalities of the Maloja Region قالب:Engadin villages

قالب:1928 Winter Olympic venues قالب:1948 Winter Olympic venues قالب:Olympic venues cross country skiing قالب:Olympic venues in ice hockey قالب:Olympic venues Nordic combined