17 نوفمبر

أكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر
سبت أحد إثنين ثلاثاء أربعاء خميس جمعة
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474: الامبراطور زينون
1869: أول سفينة تمر في قناة السويس
1997: مذبحة معبد الدير البحري


الإمبراطور ڤسبازيان (* 9)
  • 9 - الإمبراطور ڤسبازيان، إمبراطور روماني. (ت. 79)
  • 1503 - برونزينو، رسام إيطالي (ت. 1572)
  • 1576 - Roque González de Santa Cruz, Paraguayan missionary and saint (ت. 1628)
  • 1587 - Joost van den Vondel, Dutch poet and playwright (ت. 1679)
  • 1597 - هنري جلي‌براند Henry Gellibrand، English astronomer and mathematician who co-discovered (with John Marr) the geomagnetic secular variation. This refers to the magentic declination of the earth's magnetic field, the angle between magnetic north and true north, changing on a long-term time scale over years. He detected the direction of a compass needle in London had changed by seven degrees over a period of a half-century. He became professor of astronomy at Gresham College, London on 2 Jan 1627. His navigation textbooks helped improve English navigation at the time.Using manuscripts left unfinished when his friend Henry Briggs died (1630), he completed volume two of Briggs's Trigonometrica Britannica, in 1633. Gellibrand published A Discourse Mathematicall on the Variation of the Magneticall Needle, in 1635. He died the following year, at age 39.« [Image: Title page of Gellibrand's Discourse (1635).] (توفي 16 فبراير 1636 عن عمر 38)
  • 1612 - دورگون، الابن المانشو لـ نورحاجي (ت. 1650)
  • 1645 - نيكولا ليمري Nicolas Lémery، كيميائي وصيدلي فرنسي، أعد قاموساً شاملاً للمستحضرات الصيدلية في Pharmacopée universelle (1697) و Traité des drogues simples (1698). He also gave popular lectures on chemistry. His Traité de l'antimoine (1707), contains the results of his investigation into the properties and preparations of mineral antimony. His chemistry textbook, Cours de chymie (Paris, 1675), went through 31 editions by 1756. He classified compounds as animal, vegetable or mineral in origin, and explained chemical activity in mechanistic terms (ex. he supposed that “spiky” atoms were associated with acidity and porous atoms with alkalinity, the two fitting together when a chemical reaction took place). (توفي 19 يونيو 1715 عن عمر 69)
  • 1790 - أوگوست موبيوس August Möbius، عالم فلك ورياضيات ومؤلف ألماني، توفي في لايپزيگ. He is best known for his work in analytic geometry and in topology, especially remembered as one of the discoverers of the Möbius strip, which he had discovered in 1858. A Möbius strip is a two-dimensional surface with only one side. It can be constructed in three dimensions as follows. Take a rectangular strip of paper and join the two ends of the strip together so that it has a 180 degree twist. It is now possible to start at a point A on the surface and trace out a path that passes through the point which is apparently on the other side of the surface from A. Although his most famous work is in mathematics, Möbius did publish important work on astronomy. (توفي 26 سبتمبر 1868 عن عمر 77)
  • 1793 - Charles Lock Eastlake, English painter, historian, and academic (ت. 1865)
  • 1823 - جون إڤانز Sir John Evans، مهتم بالآثار القديمة وعالم عملات ومؤسس علم آثار ما قبل التاريخ. In about 1860, he began his searches for relics of early man in Britain. He garnered a notable collection of prehistoric stone and bronze implements. Evans found humanly made stone axes in the same layers as the bones of extinct European animals like hippopotamus, elephant, and saber-toothed tiger. In 1859, from such evidence, he announced that humans had lived much earlier than 6,000 years ago. This was much older than the long accepted Biblical chronology implied. Evans also collected coins of the ancient Britons, Romans and Anglo-Saxons. His son Sir Arthur (John) Evans followed his interests as an archaeologist. (توفي 31 مايو 1908 عن عمر 84)
  • 1827 - Petko Slaveykov, Bulgarian journalist and poet (ت. 1895)
  • 1835 - وليام أرنولد أنتوني William Arnold Anthony، فيزيائي ومهندس كهربائي أمريكي بدأ وطوّر أحد أول المواد الدراسية في الهندسة الكهربائية في الولايات المتحدة (1883)، while teaching in the Physics Department at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. During 1872-75, Anthony, with the aid of student George Moler, built the first American Gramme dynamo for direct current, used to power arc lamps that lighted the Cornell campus, the first American electrical outdoor-lighting system. Anthony also built a mammoth tangent galvanometer, a device which utilized the earth's magnetic field for the measurement of current. He designed the dynamo for first underground electricity distributing system. Anthony contributed to development of gas-filled electric lamps. (توفي 29 مايو 1908 عن عمر 72)
  • 1850 - جورج توماس بيلبي Sir George Thomas Beilby، عالم كيمياء صناعية اسكتلندي طوّر (1890) عملية صناعة سيانيد الپوتاسيوم (المستخدمة على نطاق واسع لاستخلاص الذهب من الخام منخفض الجودة) بتمرير أمونيا فوق خليط مسخن من الفحم النباتي وكربونات الپوتاسيوم. Beilby entered the oil-shale industry in 1869 and greatly increased the yield of paraffin and ammonia by introducing the continuous retort. Noting the destruction of metals by ammonia at high temperatures, Beilby researched the flow of solids. He inferred that when a solid is caused to flow, as in polishing, the crystalline surface is broken down to a harder and denser layer. Although much criticized, this theory explained the hardening of metals under cold working and gave valuable stimulus to further research. (توفي 1 أغسطس 1924 عن عمر 73)
* 1854: ليوطي
  • 1857 - Joseph Babinski, French neurologist and academic (ت. 1932)
  • 1865 - وليام مريام برتون William Merriam Burton، كيميائي أمريكي اخترع أول عملية تكسير/فلق حراري رفعت نسبة ناتج الگاسولين إلى أكثر من الضعف من النفط الخام باستخدام حرارة وضغط عاليين. فخليط الهيدروكربونات المختلفة في النفط الخام يمكن فصله إلى مجموعات متعددة من المكونات بوسائل فيزيائية، يشيع تسميتها تقطير distillation. عمليته للتكسير الحراري (براءة اختراع في 7 يناير 1913، رقم 1,049,667) تعيد الصياغة الكيميائية للجزيئات الأطول للمكونات الأقل تطايراً إلى جزيئات أصغر وبذلك تضاعف ناتج الگاسولين الذي تحتاجه صناعة السيارات. وأثناء أول خمسة عشر عاماً من استخدام العملية فقد وفرت أكثر من 1 بليون برميل نفط خام. وفي 1937 تفوقت عملية الفلق التحفيزي على عملية برتون، إلا أنها تبقي نستخدمة على نطاق واسع.« (توفي 29 ديسمبر 1954 عن عمر 89)
  • 1865 - جون ستانلي پلاسكت John Stanley Plaskett، فلكي كندي عـُرِف بتصميماته الخبيرة للأجهزة وأرصاده المطيافية الكثيفة. كما صمم رسام طيف ذا فعالية استثنائية لعاكس قطره 15-بوصة وقاس السرعات القطرية ووجد مدارات لنجوم ثنائية المطيافية. كما صمم وأشرف على إنشاء عاكس بقطر 72-بوصة بُني من أجل مرصد نيو دمنيون للفيزياء الفلكية وعـُيـِّن أول مدير له في 1917. وهناك مد عمله إلى السرعات القطرية والثنائيات المطيافية spectroscopic binaries ودرس أطياف النجوم من النوعين O و B. وفي عقد 1930، نشر تحليلاً مفصلاً لدوران درب التبانة، مبيناً أن الشمس تقع على بعد الثلثين من مركز المجرة التي تدور حولها مرة كل 220 مليون سنة. (توفي 17 أكتوبر 1941 عن عمر 75)
  • 1867 - هنري گورو، جنرال فرنسي قاد الجيش الفرنسي في نهاية الحرب العالمية الأولى فغزى الشام وقبلها تمركز في المغرب وموريتانيا، (ت. 1946)
  • 1878 - ليز مايتنر، عالمة فيزياء سويدية.
  • 1878 - هانز زنسر Hans Zinsser، عالم بكتريا و American bacteriologist and immunologist who was an international authority on typhus, the deadly disease for which he isolated the typhus germ (1936). By 1939 he had perfection of a method to produce enough anti-typhus vaccine to protect a country nation. He travelled abroad to study disease outbreaks: an typhus epidemic in Serbia (1915)، الكوليرا في الاتحاد السوفيتي (1923)، وفاشية التيفوس في سجون المكسيك (1931) وحاضر في الصين (1938). He published over 160 scientific papers. The cause of typhus, Rickettsia organisms are carried by a louse or a rat flea and transmitted to humans by a bite from the parasites, especially in areas of poor sanitation and overcrowding. He wrote his autobiography in the third person, As I Remember Him, while dying of leukemia.


  • 1925 - يوهان أوگوست برينل Johan August Brinell، عالم معادن سويدي طوّر اختبار برينل للصلابة، a rapid, nondestructive means of determining the hardness of metals. Brinell studied many aspects of iron and its production. Brinell´s important work on transformations in steel during heating and cooling. His discoveries about the control of the carbon containing phases is the present basis for the knowledge about properties of steel. The Brinell Hardness Test measures the relative hardness of metals and alloys, by forcing a 10mm hard steel ball into a test piece with a 3000kg load for 30 seconds and measuring the surface area of the resulting indentation. The load is reduced to 500kg for very soft materials and the steel ball is replaced with tungsten carbide for very hard materials. (ولد 21 نوفمبر 1849)
  • 1926 - كارل آكلي Carl E. Akeley، عالم طبيعيات ومسكتشف أمريكي، طوّر the taxidermic method for mounting museum displays to show animals in their natural surroundings. His method of applying skin on a finely molded replica of the body of the animal gave results of unprecedented realism and elevated taxidermy from a craft to an art. He mounted the skeleton of the famous African elephant Jumbo. He invented the Akeley cement gun (1911) to use while mounting animals, and the Akeley camera which was used to capture the first movies of gorillas. In the 1920's Akeley made a large specimen collection, part of the American Museum's famous African mammal hall. From 1919, using the skills he had acquired making clay models of animals to design taxidermy exhibits, Akeley also created a series of bronze animal casts. (ولد 19 مايو 1864)
  • 1940 - ريموند پيرل Raymond Pearl، عالم حيوان أمريكي، وأحد مؤسسي biometry, the application of statistics to biology and medicine. Pearl was chief statistician at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1919-35). He pioneered studies in longevity, changes in world population, and genetics. He reported in the May 1938 Scientific American that "the smoking of tobacco was associated definitely with an impairment of life duration and the amount or degree of this impairment increased as the habitual amount of smoking increased." In 1926, he first reported health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption (as opposed to both abstinence and heavy drinking) in a modern medical light. (ولد 3 يونيو 1879)
1949: علي محمود طه
  • 1956 - جون إڤرشد John Evershed، فلكي إنگليزي اكتشف (1909) the Evershed effect - the horizontal motion of gases outward from the centres of sunspots. While photographing solar prominences and sunspot spectra, he noticed that many of the Fraunhofer lines in the sunspot spectra were shifted to the red. By showing that these were Doppler shifts, he proved the motion of the source gases. This discovery came to be known as the Evershed effect. He also gave his name to a spectroheliograph, the Evershed spectroscope. (ولد 26 فبراير 1864)
  • 1975 - دتلف (ڤولف) برونك Detlev (Wulf) Bronk، عالم فيزياء حيوية أمريكي، يعود إليه فضل صياغة النظرية الحديثة لعلم الفيزياء الحيوية. He pioneered use of electro-microscopy to monitor human nerve network and was a leader in the study of human physiology in aeronautics. During WW II, he coordinated a group physiologists, located on air bases at home and abroad, who developed the Army Air Force altitude training and night vision training programs for pilots. Meanwhile, he studied the effects of low oxygen pressure on human performance. After the war, he became president of Rockefeller Institute/University (1953-68) and was prominent in scientific and governmental organizations including the National Science Foundation and the Presidential Science Advisory Committee.« (ولد 13 أغسطس 1897)
Robert Hofstadter
(† 1990)
  • 1990 - روبرت هوفستاتر Robert Hofstadter، عالم فيزياء أمريكي تقاسم جائزة نوبل في الفيزياء لعام 1961 لأبحاثه التي قاس فيها أحجام النيوترون والپروتون في نويات الذرات. He revealed the hitherto unknown structure of these particles and helped create an identifying order for subatomic particles. He also correctly predicted the existence of the omega-meson and rho-meson. He also studied controlled nuclear fission. Hofstadter was one of the driving forces behind the creation of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. He also made substantial contributions to gamma ray spectroscopy, leading to the use of radioactive tracers to locate tumors and other disorders. (He shared the prize with Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer of Germany.) (ولد 5 فبراير 1915)
  • 2000 - لوي نيل Louis Néel، فيزيائي فرنسي تقاسم (مع عالم الفيزياء الفلكية السويدي هانز ألفڤين) جائزة نوبل في الفيزياء لعام 1970 لدراساته الرائدة في الخصائص المغناطيسية للجوامد. His contributions to solid-state physics have found numerous useful applications, particularly in the development of improved computer memory units. About 1930 he suggested that a new form of magnetic behavior might exist - called antiferromagnetism. Above a certain temperature (the Néel temperature) this behaviour stops. Néel pointed out (1947) that materials could also exist showing ferrimagnetism. Néel has also given an explanation of the weak magnetism of certain rocks, making possible the study of the past history of the Earth's magnetic field. (ولد 22 نوفمبر 1904)

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