الحركة البيضاء

White Movement
Бѣлое движенiе
Белое движение
مشارك في الحرب الأهلية الروسية
Flag of Russia.svg
فترة النشاط 1917–1923
الأيديولوجية Anti-Bolshevism
Anti-Communism
Russian nationalism
Monarchism
القادة Alexander Kolchak (1918-early 1920)
Anton Denikin (1920)
Pyotr Wrangel (1920)
الحجم 2,400,000 جندي
أصبح المهاجرون البيض الروس
الحلفاء المتدخلون الحلفاء
الخصوم  الاتحاد السوڤيتي
جمهورية الصين (1912–49)جمهورية الصين
الحركات الوطنية
Red flag.svg Several communist states and movements
المعارك والحروب الحرب الأهلية الروسية (بما فيها الجبهة الجنوبية، الجبهة الشمالية، الجبهة الشرقية وثورة الياقوت)

الحركة البيضاء (روسية: Бѣлое движенiе/Белое движение, النطق Beloye dvizheniye; النطق الروسي: [ˈbʲeləjə dvʲɪˈʐɛnʲɪjə]) وذراعها العسكري الجيش الأبيض (Бѣлая Армiя/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya)، وتُعرف كذلك بإسم الحرس الأبيض (Бѣлая Гвардiя/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) أو البيض (Белые and белогвардейцы, "رجال الحرس الأبيض")، كان تنظيم فضفاض للقوى المناهضة للشيوعية التي قاتلت البلشڤيك في الحرب الأهلية الروسية (1917–1922).

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البنية والأيديولوجية

في السياق الروسي، أبيض يشير لثلاث معاني:

  1. political contra-distinction to the Reds, whose revolutionary Red Army supported the Bolshevik government;
  2. historical reference to absolute monarchy, specifically united under Russia’s first Tsar, Ivan III (1462–1505), styled “Albus Rex” (“White King”); and
  3. sartorially, some White Army soldiers wore the white uniforms of روسيا الإمبراطورية.


الأيديولوجية

Imperial insigne: The Kolchak Government in Russia.

The White movement were chiefly opponents of the Red Army.[1] They said they would bring law and order and the salvation of Russia, fighting against traitors, barbarians, and murderers.[2] They often acted in response to previous Red aggression and worked to remove Soviet organizations and functionaries in White-controlled territory.[3]

Overall, the White Army was nationalistic[1] and rejected ethnic particularism and separatism.[2] The White Army generally believed in a united multinational Russia, and opposed separatists who wanted to create nation-states instead of the Tsarist Russian Empire. Amongst White Army members, anti-Semitism was widespread.[1] Western sponsors were dismayed at this, especially as the Bolsheviks had prohibited anti-Semitism and appeared more progressive. Winston Churchill personally warned General Denikin, whose forces effected pogroms against the Jews, that

"my task in winning support in Parliament for the Russian Nationalist cause will be infinitely harder if well-authenticated complaints continue to be received from Jews in the zone of the Volunteer Armies."[4]

Many of the White leaders were conservative. They accepted autocracy while being suspicious of "politics" (which they characterized as consisting of speeches, elections, and party activities).[1]

Aside from being anti-Bolshevik[2] and patriotic, the Whites had no set ideology or main leader.[1] The White Armies did acknowledge a single provisional head of state, the so-called Supreme Governor of Russia, but this post was prominent only under the leadership of Alexander Kolchak.

The movement had no set plan for foreign policy; Whites differed on policies toward ألمانيا, debating whether or not to ally with it. The Whites wanted to keep from alienating any potential supporters and allies, and thus saw an exclusively monarchist position as a detriment to their cause and recruitment. White movement leaders such as Anton Denikin advocated for Russians to create their own government, claiming the military could not decide in Russians’ steads.[1] Admiral Alexander Kolchak succeeded in creating a temporary wartime government in Omsk, acknowledged by most other White leaders, only for it to fall with the loss of his armies.

البنية

"Why aren't you in the army?" Volunteer Army recruiting poster during the Russian Civil War.
The White Army: the flag of the Battalion of Death, later integral to the Volunteer Army.


مسارح العمليات

  تحت سيطرة البلشڤيك، فبراير 1918
  تحت سيطرة البلشڤيك،، صيف 1918
  أقصى تقدم للجيوش المناهضة للبلشڤية


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بعد الحرب الأهلية

ذهب الروس المناهضون للبلشڤية المهزومون إلى المنفى، فتجمعوا في بلگراد، برلين، باريس, هاربين، اسطنبول، تونس، وشانغهاي. وأسسوا شبكات عسكرية وثقافية استمرت طوال الحرب العالمية الثانية (1939–45), e.g., the Russian community in Harbin and the الجالية الروسية في شانغهاي). Afterward, the White Russians’ anti-Communist activities established a home base in the United States, where numerous refugees emigrated.

Moreover, in the 1920s and the 1930s, the White Movement established organisations outside of Russia, which were meant to depose the Soviet Government with guerrilla warfare, e.g., the Russian All-Military Union, the Brotherhood of Russian Truth, and the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists. A Russian cadet corps was established to prepare the next generation of anti-Communists for the “spring campaign” — a hopeful term denoting a renewed military campaign to reconquer Russia from the Soviet Government. In the event, many cadets volunteered to fight for the Russian Corps during the Second World War, when the White Russians participated in the Russian Liberation Movement.

Many supported Albania's King Zog during the 1920s. White Russians served under the Soviet Red Army during the الغزو السوڤيتي لشين‌جيانگ وحرب شين‌جيانگ (1937).

أشخاص بارزون

طالع أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Kenez, Peter, "The Ideology of the White Movement," Soviet Studies, 1980, no. 32. pp. 58-83. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Ideology" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Ideology" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Ideology" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Ideology" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Ideology" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  2. ^ أ ب ت Christopher Lazarski, "White Propaganda Efforts in the South during the Russian Civil War, 1918-19 (The Alekseev-Denikin Period)," The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 70, No. 4 (Oct., 1992), pp. 688-707. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Lazarski" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة. خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صالح؛ الاسم "Lazarski" معرف أكثر من مرة بمحتويات مختلفة.
  3. ^ Viktor G. Bortnevski, “White Administration and White Terror (The Denikin Period),” Russian Review, Vol. 52, No. 3 (Jul., 1993), pp. 354-366.
  4. ^ [1]

وصلات خارجية