|Jammu and Kashmir|
Location of Jammu and Kashmir in India|
Location of Jammu and Kashmir in India
Map of Jammu and Kashmir
|الإحداثيات (Srinagar): خطأ: الوظيفة "الإحداثيات" غير موجودة.|
|Admission to Union||26 October 1947|
|• Governor||Narinder Nath Vohra|
|• Legislature||Bicameral (87 + 36 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||
Rajya Sabha 4 |
Lok Sabha 6
|• High Court||Jammu and Kashmir High Court|
|• الإجمالية||222,236 كم² (85,806 ميل²)|
|• الكثافة||100/km2 (300/sq mi)|
|منطقة التوقيت||IST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-JK|
|HDI||▲ 0.542 (medium)|
|HDI rank||10th (2015)|
|Other spoken||Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Punjabi, Ladakhi|
تقع جامو وكشمير Jammu and Kashmir في أقصى شمال غربي شبه القارة الهندية وتشغل موقعا استراتيجيا بين الهند وباكستان. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir has an international border with China in the north and east, and the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and northwest respectively. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.
A part of the erstwhile Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among China, India and Pakistan. The western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since 1947. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.[note 1]
Jammu and Kashmir consist of three regions: Jammu, the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population. The Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, and Jammu's numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year. Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture.
Maharaja Hari Singh became the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1925, and he was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of the British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. With the impending independence of India, the British announced that the British Paramountcy over the princely states would end, and the states were free to choose between the new Dominions of India and Pakistan or to remain independent. It was emphasized that independence was only a `theoretical possibility' because, during the long rule of the British in India, the states had come to depend on British Indian government for a variety of their needs including their internal and external security.
Debate over accession
The primary argument for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir is that India did not hold the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the UN resolution of 13 August 1948; while India chose not to hold the plebiscite, Pakistan failed to withdraw its troops from Kashmir as was required under the resolution.
India gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite:
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 on Kashmir was passed by UNSC under chapter VI of UN Charter, which are non binding and have no mandatory enforceability. In March 2001, the then Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan during his visit to India and Pakistan, remarked that Kashmir resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Timor and Iraq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC. In 2003, then Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf announced that Pakistan was willing to back off from demand for UN resolutions for Kashmir.
- Moreover, India alleges that Pakistan failed to fulfill the pre-conditions by withdrawing its troops from the Kashmir region as was required under the same UN resolution of 13 August 1948 which discussed the plebiscite.
- India has consistently told that UN resolutions are now completely irrelevant and Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and it has to be resolved under 1972 Simla Agreement and 1999 Lahore Declaration.
- The 1948–49 UN resolutions can no longer be applied, according to India, because of changes in the original territory, with some parts "having been handed over to China by Pakistan and demographic changes having been effected in Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas."[بحاجة لمصدر]
- Another reason for the abandonment of the referendum is because demographic changes after 1947 have been effected in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, as generations of Pakistani individuals non-native to the region have been allowed to take residence in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Furthermore, India alleges that in Jammu & Kashmir state of India, the demographics of the Kashmir Valley have been altered after separatist militants coerced 250,000 Kashmiri Hindus to leave the region.
- India cites the 1951 elected Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, which voted in favour of confirming accession to India. Also, the 2014 assembly elections saw the highest voter turnout in the state in the last 25 years, prompting Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi to claim that it reflects the faith of the Kashmiri people in the democratic system of India and that they have given a "strong message to the world".
In response Pakistan holds that:
- A statement from the British Cabinet Mission in India in 1946 confirmed that Jammu and Kashmir, a princely state at the time of partition, was a sovereign territory, and Article 7 of the Indian Independence Act of 1947 dealing with lapse of suzerainty of the British Crown over the Indian states reaffirmed this fact, so the Kashmiri people had a vested right of self-determination from the time of independence.
- The Kashmiri's right of self-determination was further secured by the progressive development of customary international law in relation to this collective freedom. General Assembly Resolution 1514 (1960) firmly recognized the right of colonial people to self-determination; and General Assembly Resolution 2625 (1970) subsequently affirmed the right of internal self-determination, which the population of Kashmir has consistently been deprived of
- The popular Kashmiri insurgency which erupted on 1989 demonstrates that the Kashmiri people no longer wish to remain within India. Pakistan suggests that this means that Kashmir either wants to be with Pakistan or independent.
- According to the two-nation theory, which is one of the theories that is cited for the partition that created India and Pakistan, Kashmir should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim majority.[بحاجة لمصدر]
- India has shown disregard to the resolutions of the UN Security Council and the United Nations Commission in India and Pakistan by failing to hold a plebiscite to determine the future allegiance of the state.
- In 2007 there have been reports of extrajudicial killings in Indian-administered Kashmir by Indian security forces while claiming they were caught up in encounters with militants. The encounters go largely uninvestigated by the authorities, and the perpetrators are spared criminal prosecution. Human rights organisations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread abuses and murder of civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants.
Diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan soured for many other reasons and eventually resulted in three further wars in Kashmir the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and the Kargil War in 1999. India has control of 60% of the area of the former Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu, Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and Siachen Glacier); Pakistan controls 30% of the region (Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir). China administers 10% (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract) of the state since 1962.
The Chenab formula was a compromise proposed in the 1960s, in which the Kashmir valley and other Muslim-dominated areas north of the Chenab river would go to Pakistan, and Jammu and other Hindu-dominated regions would go to India.
The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Tibet, Afghanistan and Russia over the northernbordersofKashmir[بحاجة لمصدر], China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist revolution in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the northeast portion of Ladakh.
By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962. China has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963.
For intermittent periods between 1957, when the state approved its own Constitution, and the death of Sheikh Abdullah in 1982, the state had alternating spells of stability and discontent. In the late 1980s, however, simmering discontent over the high-handed policies of the Union Government and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 assembly elections triggered a violent uprising which was backed by Pakistan.
Since then, the region has seen a prolonged, bloody conflict between separatists and the Indian Army, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses, including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery. The army has officially denied these allegations. However, violence in the state has been on the decline since 2004 with the peace process between India and Pakistan.
Geography and climate
تبلغ مساحة جامو وكشمير 218.780 كم مربع وتتكون أرضها من مجموعة سلاسل جبلية عالية تجري بينها المنابع العليا لنهر السند وطبيعة البلاد تمتاز بالجبال وروعة المنظر . وهي مقسمة قسمين ثلثها تقريبا يخضع لإدارة باكستان والقسم الآخر أعلنت الهند ضمه إليها وجامو وكشمير ولاية إسلامية فالمسلمون بها أغلبية لا أقلية ونسبة المسلمين يها تصل إلى أكثر 75% وبسبب استيلاء الهند على النصيب الأكبر من أرض الولاية أصبح المسلمون أقلية وسط هذا المحيط البشري وظهرت هذه المشكلة غداة استقلال الهند وباكستان عام 1947 م . جغرافيا لا تتصل الولاية بالهند إلا من ناحية منطقة كاتو الضيقة وهي منطقة جبلية ليس بها ممرات او طرق مما يجعل هذا الاتصال اسميا أكثر منه فعليا . فالهند لا تتصل بهذه الولاية إلا بالطائرات نظرا لصعوبة الاتصال البري بينهما كما أن جامو وكشمير ترتبط مائيا بباكستان عن طريق وادي السند .
|Division||Area km2||Percentage Area|
|India-administrated Jammu and Kashmir||101,387 km2||100%|
The Jhelum River is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Himalayan glaciers. With an average altitude of 5,753 metres (18,875 ft) above sea-level, the Siachen Glacier is 76 km (47 mi) long making it the longest Himalayan glacier.
The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per month between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimeters (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29 °C (84 °F).
- Tso Kiagar Lake Ladakh.jpg
Lake Tso Moriri
Topographic map of J&K (Kashmir valley, Jammu region and Ladakh region are visible by altitude)
- The mountains.JPG
Mountains in Jammu and Kashmir
- Nageen Lake .jpg
View from the Gulmarg slopes. Cable car is used as ski lift
- Mountains near Rohtang Pass, Himachal Pradesh.jpg
Mountains near Rohtang Pass
Natural Rock and Sand Formations along Sumkhel Lungpa River in More Plains
Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts. The Siachen Glacier, although under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kishtwar, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Bandipora, Ganderbal, Kulgam and Shopian are newly formed districts, and their areas are included with those of the districts from which they were formed.
|Division||Name||Headquarters||Area (km²)|| Population
| Population |
|Total for division||Jammu||26,293||4,430,191||5,350,811|
|Kashmir Valley||Anantnag District||Anantnag||3,984||734,549||1,069,749|
|Total for division||Srinagar||15,948||5,476,970||6,907,622|
|Total for division||Leh||59,146||236,539||290,492|
|هذهsection requires expansion. (April 2016)|
Municipal boards: 21 – Samba, Ranbirsinghpora, Akhnoor, Reasi, Ramban, Doda, Bhaderwah, Kishtwar, Kargil, Dooru-Verinag, Bijbehara, Pulwama, Tral, Badgam, Kulgam, Shopian, Ganderbal, Pattan, Sumbal, Kupwara, Handwara
Population of ten major cities:
<tr><td style="text-align:center">1951</td><td style="padding-left:8px">3,254,000</td><td></td><td style="padding-left:8px">|
The 1991 Census could not be held in Jammu and Kashmir, the 1991 population is interpolated.</td></tr>
The pre-independence Census of 1941 recorded Muslims as constituting 72.41% of the population, and Hindus 25.01%. In the 1961 census, the first one to be conducted after the partition of the State, Muslims constituted 68.31% of the population and Hindus 28.45%. The proportion of Muslims fell to 64.19% by 1981 but recovered afterward, reaching 68.31% again by 2011.
|Division||% Area||% Population||Population||% Muslim||% Hindu||% Sikh||% Buddhist and other|
|Jammu and Kashmir||100%||100%||12,541,302||68.31%||28.43%||1.87%||0.89%|
|14% (2016–17 est.)|
Agriculture 22% |
Services 53% (2015)
القوة العاملة حسب المهنة
Agriculture 64% |
Services 25% (2015) 
|49.25% of GDP (2016–17 est.)|
|Rs. 6,430 crore (US$ 1.17 billion) (2016–17 est.)|
|العوائد||Rs. 53,202 crore (US$ 9.68 billion) (2016–17 est.)|
|النفقات||Rs. 64,669 crore (US$ 11.77 billion) (2016–17 est.)|
كل القيم، ما لم يُذكر غير ذلك، هي بالدولار الأمريكي.
Jammu and Kashmir's economy is predominantly dependent on agriculture and allied activities. The Kashmir Valley is known for its sericulture and cold-water fisheries. Wood from Kashmir is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as Kashmir Willow. Kashmiri saffron is very famous and brings the state a handsome amount of foreign exchange. Agricultural exports from Jammu and Kashmir include apples, barley, cherries, corn, millet, oranges, rice, peaches, pears, saffron, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat, while manufactured exports include handicrafts, rugs, and shawls.
|Year||State's Gross Domestic Product (in million INR)|
|2006||539,850 مليون (US$9,825.27 مليون)|
|2016||132,307 كروره (US$24.08 بليون)|
- Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir
- Separatist movements of India
- Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu and Kashmir Floods, 2014
- Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014
- Outline of India
- Index of India-related articles
- Bibliography of India
- Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir
- Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus
- Indian White Paper on Jammu and Kashmir
- ^ The Government of Pakistan and Pakistan sources refer to Jammu Kashmir as "Indian-occupied Kashmir" ("IoK") or "Indian-held Kashmir" (IHK), "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-controlled Kashmir" are used by neutral sources. Conversely, Indian sources call the territory under Pakistan control "Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir" ("POK") or "Pakistan-Held Kashmir" ("PHK").
- ^ أ ب "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- ^ "What is Article 370? Three key points". The Times of India.
- ^ "In Depth-the future of Kashmir". BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- ^ Ali Zain (13 September 2015). "Pakistani flag hoisted, pro-freedom slogans chanted in Indian Occupied Kashmir – Daily Pakistan Global". En.dailypakistan.com.pk. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- ^ (11 September 2015). "Pakistani flag hoisted once again in Indian Occupied Kashmir | World | Dunya News". Dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- ^ South Asia: fourth report of session 2006–07 by By Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee page 37
- ^ Enforced Disappearances in Indian Occupied Kashmir by Jammu and Kashmir Council for Human Rights (JKCHR)1994
- ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir: The Unwritten History. HarperCollins India. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9350298988.
- ^ The enigma of terminology, The Hindu, 27 January 2014.
- ^ Larson, Gerald James. "India's Agony Over Religion", 1995, page 245
- ^ Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (PDF). Official website of Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly on National Informatics Centre, India. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- ^ "1948: Another UNSC Resolution on Kashmir". Archived from the original on 13 December 2014.
- ^ Bill Emmott. "Bill Emmott: If Saddam steps out of line we must go straight to war". the Guardian.
- ^ "Low expectations from Indo-Pak talks".
- ^ "The Rediff Interview/Ashraf Jehangir Qazi".
- ^ "Don't expect too much from talks: Officials".
- ^ "Does India have a case in Kashmir?".
- ^ "Annan upbeat on Kashmir".
- ^ "Terrorism to feature in talks with Kofi Annan".
- ^ "We have `left aside' U.N. resolutions on Kashmir: Musharraf".
- ^ "The Musharraf formula".
- ^ "Does Pakistan have sincere intention to resolve Kashmir issue: Omar to Musharraf".
- ^ أ ب "With Friends Like These...": Human Rights Violations in Azad Kashmir. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
In January 194,
- ^ Subramanian Swamy (6 February 2003). "India's bleeding head wound". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ Hashim Qureshi. "Understanding UN Resolutions on Kashmir". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014.
- ^ "rediff.com: The Rediff Interview/Pakistan's High Commissioner for India Ashraf Jehangir Qazi". rediff.com.
- ^ "India repulses Pakistan attack at UN assembly".
- ^ "Kashmir profile".
- ^ "Indian, Pakistani and Chinese border disputes-Fantasy frontiers".
- ^ From Jinnah to Jihad: Pakistan's Kashmir quest and the limits of realism. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd. 2007. ISBN 978-81-269-0721-2. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
While India had agreed to a plebiscite initially, it reneged, arguing that Pakistan had refused to withdraw its troops, had integrated parts of Kashmir with the rest of the country and had altered their demographic system.
- ^ Kaul, Shyam; Kachru, Onkar (1 January 1998). Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh: ringside views. ISBN 978-81-85495-51-4. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
Demographics (1947–48) considered for this UN resolution have changed, most recently with the exodus of a 1/4 million Hindus from Kashmir.
- ^ "Only 1 Pandit family returned to Valley in 25 years: J&K govt to SC".
- ^ Kaul, Shyam; Kachru, Onkar (1 January 1998). Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh: ringside views. ISBN 978-81-85495-51-4. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
Indians are free to migrate as anyone else in a democracy. Yet, as a large group, none of the post-partition (1947) minorities have relocated to India or migrated to Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, or anywhere else in the world under the threat of persecution or insecurity. Ironically, 250,000 Hindus living in Kashmir left Kashmir for India due to the hostile environment created by the militancy in Kashmir.
- ^ "Jammu and Kashmir Registers Highest Voter Turnout in 25 Years, Jharkhand Breaks Records". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- ^ PTI. "Jammu and Kashmir people have shown their faith in Indian democracy: PM Narendra Modi – timesofindia-economictimes". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- ^ أ ب Sikandar Shah (24 January 1957). "Peace not possible without progress on Kashmir issue". The China Post. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- ^ Kashmiris want accession to Pakistan: Attique Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ Schofield, Victoria (17 January 2002). "South Asia | Kashmir's forgotten plebiscite". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- ^ "South Asia | Kashmir's extrajudicial killings". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- ^ Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch (31 January 2007). "India: Prosecute Police for Killings in Jammu and Kashmir | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- ^ Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch. (9 February 2009). "India: Hold Abusers in Kashmir Accountable | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- ^ "Kashmir's extra-judicial killings". BBC News online. BBC. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ Somini Sengupta (6 February 2007). "Indian Army and Police Tied to Kashmir Killings". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم
<ref>غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة
- ^ "The Future of Kashmir?". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- ^ "Kashmir – region, Indian subcontinent". Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- ^ "Kashmir | region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- ^ Schofield 2003, p. 94
- ^ أ ب Schofield 2003, p. 137
- ^ Schofield 2003, p. 210
- ^ Billal A. Jan (Director) (2012). Ocean of Tears (Excerpt) (YouTube). Jammu and Kashmir: PSBTIndia. External link in
- ^ "India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: I. Summary". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- ^ "India and Human Rights in Kashmir – The Myth – India Together". Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- ^ Schofield 2003, pp. 148, 158
- ^ "India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: VI. Militant Abuses". Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- ^ "Kashmir troops held after rape". BBC News. 19 April 2002. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- ^ "219 Kashmiri Pandits killed by militants since 1989". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
The Jammu and Kashmir government on Tuesday said 219 Kashmiri Pandits were killed by militants since 1989 while 24,202 families were among the total 38,119 families which migrated out of the Valley due to turmoil
- ^ "Not myth, but the truth of migration". Retrieved 31 December 2007.
The Pandits have preserved the threat letters sent to them. They have the audio and video evidence to show what happened. They have preserved the local newspapers through which they were warned to leave the Valley within 48 hours. This evidence also include still photographs of Pandits killed by militants and the desecrated temples.
- ^ "Pregnant woman in Doda accuses Lashkar militants of gang raping her repeatedly". The Indian News. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
A 31-year-old pregnant Gujjar woman has told police at the Baderwah Police Station in Jammu and Kashmir's Doda District that she was repeatedly gang raped by Lashkar-e-Toiba militants for two months.
- ^ "19/01/90: When Kashmiri Pandits fled Islamic terror". Rediff. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
Notices are pasted on doors of Pandit houses, peremptorily asking the occupants to leave Kashmir within 24 hours or face death and worse...In the preceding months, 300 Hindu men and women, nearly all of them Kashmiri Pandits, had been slaughtered following the brutal murder of Pandit Tika Lal Taploo, noted lawyer and BJP national executive member, by the JKLF in Srinagar on September 14, 1989. Soon after that, Justice N K Ganju of the Srinagar high court was shot dead. Pandit Sarwanand Premi, 80-year-old poet, and his son were kidnapped, tortured, their eyes gouged out, and hanged to death. A Kashmiri Pandit nurse working at the Soura Medical College Hospital in Srinagar was gang-raped and then beaten to death. Another woman was abducted, raped and sliced into bits and pieces at a sawmill.
- ^ "95% HR violation cases against Army in J&K false". zeenews.
- ^ "2 Militants Killed After 22-Hour Standoff in India Kashmir | Asia | English". .voanews.com. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- ^ أ ب "Ministry of Home Affairs:: Department of Jammu & Kashmir Affairs". Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- ^ أ ب ت "Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- ^ "Reference Tables, A-series : Population". Census of India 2001. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
- ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- ^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
- ^ Share of Muslims and Hindus in J&K population same in 1961, 2011 Censuses, Indian Express, 30 December 2016.
- ^ أ ب Korbel, Danger in Kashmir 1966, p. 153.
- ^ Snedden, Christopher, "What happened to Muslims in Jammu? Local identity, ‘"the massacre" of 1947’ and the roots of the ‘Kashmir problem’", South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 24 (2), doi:10.1080/00856400108723454
- ^ Evans, Alexander (1 March 2002). "A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990–2001". Contemporary South Asia. 11 (1): 19–37. ISSN 0958-4935. doi:10.1080/0958493022000000341.
- ^ "Kashmir: The Predicament – Commentary". 5 January 2009. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ "Jammu and Kashmir Budget Analysis 2016–17" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- ^ Michelsen, Leslee (2013). Ferozkoh: Tradition and Continuity in Afghan Art (English Edition). A&C Black. p. 99. ISBN 978-9992195987.
'If there be Paradise on earth, it is here, it is here, it is here'. This Persian couplet invokes the heavenly realms. The verse was inscribed at the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir, founded by the Mughal emperor Jahangir in 1620, (...)
- ^ Kabir, Ananya Jahanara (2009). Territory of Desire: Representing the Valley of Kashmir. U of Minnesota Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0816653560.
However, the association between his [Jahangir's] love of Kashmir and the Persian couplet (...), appears to be an urban legend of sorts. The couplet is by the Sufi poet of Delhi, Amir Khusrau Dehlavi (1253–1325 CE), (...)
- ^ Blake, Stephen P. (2002). Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India 1639–1739. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0521522991.
This same inscription is also found in the Shalimar garden in Kashmir, built by the Emperor Jahangir in the early part of his reign.
- ^ "CHAPTER III : Socio-Economic and Administrative Development" (PDF). Jammu & Kashmir Development Report. State Plan Division, Planning Commission, Government of India. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- ^ "Jammu and Kashmir Budget Analysis 2016–17". PRS Legislative Research (in English). Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Korbel, Josef (1953), "The Kashmir dispute after six years", International Organization (Cambridge University Press) 7 (4), doi:10.1017/S0020818300007256
- Korbel, Josef (1966) [first published 1954], Danger in Kashmir (second ed.), Princeton University Press, https://books.google.com/books?id=7Q7WCgAAQBAJ
- Schofield, Victoria (2003), Kashmir in Conflict, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-86064-898-3, https://books.google.com/?id=jVXANgu-YCcC
- Snedden, Christopher (3 May 2003), Kashmir – The Untold Story, India: HarperCollins Publishers
- Varshney, Ashutosh (1992), "Three Compromised Nationalisms: Why Kashmir has been a Problem", in Raju G. C. Thomas, Perspectives on Kashmir: the roots of conflict in South Asia, Westview Press, ISBN 978-0-8133-8343-9
- Bose, Sumantra (2003), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01173-2
- Rai, Mridu (2004), Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850656614
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