جامو وكشمير

Jammu and Kashmir
State
Flag of Jammu and Kashmir
Flag
Seal
Seal
Location of Jammu and Kashmir in India
Location of Jammu and Kashmir in India
Map of Jammu and Kashmir
Map of Jammu and Kashmir
الإحداثيات (Srinagar): خطأ: الوظيفة "الإحداثيات" غير موجودة.
Country  الهند
Admission to Union 26 October 1947
Capital Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Largest city Srinagar
Districts 22
الحكم[1]
 • Governor Narinder Nath Vohra
 • Ministers
 • Legislature Bicameral (87 + 36 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 4
Lok Sabha 6
 • High Court Jammu and Kashmir High Court
المساحة
 • الإجمالية 222,236 كم² (85,806 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة 5th
التعداد(2011)
 • الإجمالي 12,541,302
 • الترتيب 19th
 • الكثافة 100/km2 (300/sq mi)
منطقة التوقيت IST (التوقيت العالمي المنسق+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-JK
HDI 0.542 (medium)
HDI rank 10th (2015)
Literacy 68.74 (30th)
Official languages Urdu[1]
Other spoken Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Punjabi, Ladakhi[1]
الموقع الإلكتروني jk.gov.in
رموز ولاية Jammu and Kashmir
الحيوان Kashmir stag
الطائر Black-necked crane
الزهرة Lotus
الشجرة Chinar tree
خريطة جامو وكشمير

تقع جامو وكشمير Jammu and Kashmir في أقصى شمال غربي شبه القارة الهندية وتشغل موقعا استراتيجيا بين الهند وباكستان. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. Jammu and Kashmir has an international border with China in the north and east, and the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and northwest respectively. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.[2][3]

A part of the erstwhile Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among China, India and Pakistan. The western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since 1947. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.[note 1]

Jammu and Kashmir consist of three regions: Jammu, the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.[10] The Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, and Jammu's numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year. Ladakh, also known as "Little Tibet", is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture.


History

Accession

Maharaja Hari Singh became the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1925, and he was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of the British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. With the impending independence of India, the British announced that the British Paramountcy over the princely states would end, and the states were free to choose between the new Dominions of India and Pakistan or to remain independent. It was emphasized that independence was only a `theoretical possibility' because, during the long rule of the British in India, the states had come to depend on British Indian government for a variety of their needs including their internal and external security.

Debate over accession

The primary argument for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir is that India did not hold the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the UN resolution of 13 August 1948; while India chose not to hold the plebiscite, Pakistan failed to withdraw its troops from Kashmir as was required under the resolution.

India gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite:

"WE, THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR,
having solemnly resolved, in pursuance of the accession of this State to India which took place on the twenty-sixth day of October 1947, to further define the existing relationship of the State with the Union of India as an integral part thereof, and to secure to ourselves-

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among us all;

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity of the nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this seventeenth day of November, 1956, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION."

-Preamble of Constitution of Jammu & Kashmir.[11]
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 on Kashmir was passed by UNSC under chapter VI of UN Charter, which are non binding and have no mandatory enforceability.[12][13] In March 2001, the then Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan during his visit to India and Pakistan, remarked that Kashmir resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Timor and Iraq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC.[14][15][16][17][18][19] In 2003, then Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf announced that Pakistan was willing to back off from demand for UN resolutions for Kashmir.[20][21][22]
  • Moreover, India alleges that Pakistan failed to fulfill the pre-conditions by withdrawing its troops from the Kashmir region as was required under the same UN resolution of 13 August 1948 which discussed the plebiscite.[23][24][25][26]
  • India has consistently told that UN resolutions are now completely irrelevant and Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and it has to be resolved under 1972 Simla Agreement and 1999 Lahore Declaration.[27][28][29]
  • The 1948–49 UN resolutions can no longer be applied, according to India, because of changes in the original territory, with some parts "having been handed over to China by Pakistan and demographic changes having been effected in Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas."[بحاجة لمصدر]
  • Another reason for the abandonment of the referendum is because demographic changes after 1947 have been effected in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, as generations of Pakistani individuals non-native to the region have been allowed to take residence in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.[23][30] Furthermore, India alleges that in Jammu & Kashmir state of India, the demographics of the Kashmir Valley have been altered after separatist militants coerced 250,000 Kashmiri Hindus to leave the region.[31][32][33]
  • India cites the 1951 elected Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, which voted in favour of confirming accession to India. Also, the 2014 assembly elections saw the highest voter turnout in the state in the last 25 years, prompting Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi to claim that it reflects the faith of the Kashmiri people in the democratic system of India and that they have given a "strong message to the world".[34][35]

In response Pakistan holds that:

  • A statement from the British Cabinet Mission in India in 1946 confirmed that Jammu and Kashmir, a princely state at the time of partition, was a sovereign territory, and Article 7 of the Indian Independence Act of 1947 dealing with lapse of suzerainty of the British Crown over the Indian states reaffirmed this fact, so the Kashmiri people had a vested right of self-determination from the time of independence.[36]
  • The Kashmiri's right of self-determination was further secured by the progressive development of customary international law in relation to this collective freedom. General Assembly Resolution 1514 (1960) firmly recognized the right of colonial people to self-determination; and General Assembly Resolution 2625 (1970) subsequently affirmed the right of internal self-determination, which the population of Kashmir has consistently been deprived of[36]
  • The popular Kashmiri insurgency which erupted on 1989 demonstrates that the Kashmiri people no longer wish to remain within India. Pakistan suggests that this means that Kashmir either wants to be with Pakistan or independent.[37]
  • According to the two-nation theory, which is one of the theories that is cited for the partition that created India and Pakistan, Kashmir should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim majority.[بحاجة لمصدر]
  • India has shown disregard to the resolutions of the UN Security Council and the United Nations Commission in India and Pakistan by failing to hold a plebiscite to determine the future allegiance of the state.[38]
  • In 2007 there have been reports of extrajudicial killings in Indian-administered Kashmir by Indian security forces while claiming they were caught up in encounters with militants. The encounters go largely uninvestigated by the authorities, and the perpetrators are spared criminal prosecution.[39][40] Human rights organisations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread abuses and murder of civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants.[41][42][43]

Diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan soured for many other reasons[44] and eventually resulted in three further wars in Kashmir the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and the Kargil War in 1999. India has control of 60% of the area of the former Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir (Jammu, Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and Siachen Glacier); Pakistan controls 30% of the region (Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir). China administers 10% (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract) of the state since 1962.

The Chenab formula was a compromise proposed in the 1960s, in which the Kashmir valley and other Muslim-dominated areas north of the Chenab river would go to Pakistan, and Jammu and other Hindu-dominated regions would go to India.[45]

The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Tibet, Afghanistan and Russia over the northernbordersofKashmir[بحاجة لمصدر], China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist revolution in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the northeast portion of Ladakh.[46]

By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962.[47] China has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963.

For intermittent periods between 1957, when the state approved its own Constitution,[48] and the death of Sheikh Abdullah in 1982, the state had alternating spells of stability and discontent. In the late 1980s, however, simmering discontent over the high-handed policies of the Union Government[49] and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 assembly elections[49] triggered a violent uprising which was backed by Pakistan.[50]

Since then, the region has seen a prolonged, bloody conflict between separatists and the Indian Army, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses, including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery.[51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60] The army has officially denied these allegations.[61] However, violence in the state has been on the decline since 2004 with the peace process between India and Pakistan.[62]

Geography and climate

مقال رئيسي: Geography of Jammu and Kashmir
ملف:India north.jpg
Tso Moriri (lake) on the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe in Ladakh

تبلغ مساحة جامو وكشمير 218.780 كم مربع وتتكون أرضها من مجموعة سلاسل جبلية عالية تجري بينها المنابع العليا لنهر السند وطبيعة البلاد تمتاز بالجبال وروعة المنظر . وهي مقسمة قسمين ثلثها تقريبا يخضع لإدارة باكستان والقسم الآخر أعلنت الهند ضمه إليها وجامو وكشمير ولاية إسلامية فالمسلمون بها أغلبية لا أقلية ونسبة المسلمين يها تصل إلى أكثر 75% وبسبب استيلاء الهند على النصيب الأكبر من أرض الولاية أصبح المسلمون أقلية وسط هذا المحيط البشري وظهرت هذه المشكلة غداة استقلال الهند وباكستان عام 1947 م . جغرافيا لا تتصل الولاية بالهند إلا من ناحية منطقة كاتو الضيقة وهي منطقة جبلية ليس بها ممرات او طرق مما يجعل هذا الاتصال اسميا أكثر منه فعليا . فالهند لا تتصل بهذه الولاية إلا بالطائرات نظرا لصعوبة الاتصال البري بينهما كما أن جامو وكشمير ترتبط مائيا بباكستان عن طريق وادي السند .

ملف:Srinagar- Yatra- Hindu holy cave.JPG
Srinagar- Yatra- Hindu holy cave
Division Area km2 Percentage Area
Kashmir 15,948 15.73%
Jammu 26,293 25.93%
Ladakh 59,146 58.33%
India-administrated Jammu and Kashmir 101,387 km2 100%

The Jhelum River is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Himalayan glaciers. With an average altitude of 5,753 metres (18,875 ft) above sea-level, the Siachen Glacier is 76 km (47 mi) long making it the longest Himalayan glacier.

The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per month between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimeters (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29 °C (84 °F).

Administrative divisions

Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts.[63] The Siachen Glacier, although under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kishtwar, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Bandipora, Ganderbal, Kulgam and Shopian are newly formed districts, and their areas are included with those of the districts from which they were formed.[63]

Division Name Headquarters Area (km²) Population
2001 Census
Population
2011 Census
Jammu Kathua District Kathua 2,651 550,084 615,711
Jammu District Jammu 3,097 1,343,756 1,526,406
Samba District Samba 904 245,016 318,611
Udhampur District Udhampur 4,550 475,068 555,357
Reasi District Reasi 1,719 268,441 314,714
Rajouri District Rajouri 2,630 483,284 619,266
Poonch District Poonch 1,674 372,613 476,820
Doda District Doda 11,691 320,256 409,576
Ramban District Ramban 1,329 180,830 283,313
Kishtwar District Kishtwar 1,644 190,843 231,037
Total for division Jammu 26,293 4,430,191 5,350,811
Kashmir Valley Anantnag District Anantnag 3,984 734,549 1,069,749
Kulgam District Kulgam 1,067 437,885 423,181
Pulwama District Pulwama 1,398 441,275 570,060
Shopian District Shopian 612.87 211,332 265,960
Budgam District Budgam 1,371 629,309 755,331
Srinagar District Srinagar 2,228 990,548 1,250,173
Ganderbal District Ganderbal 259 211,899 297,003
Bandipora District Bandipora 398 316,436 385,099
Baramulla District Baramulla 4,588 853,344 1,015,503
Kupwara District Kupwara 2,379 650,393 875,564
Total for division Srinagar 15,948 5,476,970 6,907,622
Ladakh Kargil District Kargil 14,036 119,307 143,388
Leh District Leh 45,110 117,232 147,104
Total for division Leh 59,146 236,539 290,492
Total 101,387 10,143,700 12,548,925

Major cities

Municipal corporations: 2 – Srinagar, Jammu

Municipal councils: 6 – Udhampur, Kathua, Poonch, Anantnag, Baramulla, Sopore

Municipal boards: 21 – Samba, Ranbirsinghpora, Akhnoor, Reasi, Ramban, Doda, Bhaderwah, Kishtwar, Kargil, Dooru-Verinag, Bijbehara, Pulwama, Tral, Badgam, Kulgam, Shopian, Ganderbal, Pattan, Sumbal, Kupwara, Handwara

Population of ten major cities:

Name Rank Population
2011 Census
State Region
Srinagar 1 1,273,312 Kashmir[64]
Jammu 2 612,163 Jammu[64]
Anantnag 3 108,505 Kashmir[64]
Baramulla 4 1,015,503 Kashmir
Udhampur 5 Jammu
Sopore 6 Kashmir
Kathua 7 Jammu
Rajouri 8 Jammu
Poonch 9 Jammu
Bandipora 10 Kashmir

Demographics

ملف:Vaishno Devi Bhavan.jpg
Vaishno Devi temple located in the state is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Shakti.




Circle frame.svg

Religion in Jammu And Kashmir (2011)[67]

  Islam (68.31%)
  Hinduism (28.43%)
  Sikhism (1.87%)
  Buddhism (0.89%)
  Christianity (0.28%)
  Jainism (0.01%)
  Other or none (0.01%)
  Atheist (0.001%)
A mosque in Srinagar

The pre-independence Census of 1941 recorded Muslims as constituting 72.41% of the population, and Hindus 25.01%. In the 1961 census, the first one to be conducted after the partition of the State, Muslims constituted 68.31% of the population and Hindus 28.45%. The proportion of Muslims fell to 64.19% by 1981 but recovered afterward, reaching 68.31% again by 2011.[68]

ملف:Kashmiri man.jpg
Gujjar man from Jammu & Kashmir
Division  % Area  % Population Population  % Muslim  % Hindu  % Sikh  % Buddhist and other
Kashmir 15.73% 54.93% 6,888,475 96.40% 2.45% 0.98% 0.17%
Jammu 25.93% 42.89% 5,378,538 33.45% 62.55% 3.30% 0.70%
Ladakh 58.33% 2.18% 274,289 46.40% 12.11% 0.82% 39.67%
Jammu and Kashmir 100% 100% 12,541,302 68.31% 28.43% 1.87% 0.89%
  • Statistics from the 2011 Census India: Population by religious community
  • 525,000 refugees from Indian-administered portions of the state (mainly the Jammu province) migrated to Pakistan and Azad Kashmir in 1947–48.[69][70]:125
  • 226,000 refugees from Pakistan-administered Kashmir migrated to India and Jammu and Kashmir in 1947–48.[69]
  • An estimated 50,000-150,000 Kashmiri Muslims and 150,000-300,000 Kashmiri Pandits have been internally displaced due to the conflict.[71][72]

Economy

اقتصاد Jammu and Kashmir
احصائيات
ن.م.إ (2016–17 est.)
ترتيب ن.م.إ 21st
نمو ن.م.إ
14% (2016–17 est.)[73]
ن.م.إ للفرد
Agriculture 22%
Industry 25%
Services 53% (2015)[73]
القوة العاملة حسب المهنة
Agriculture 64%
Industry 11%
Services 25% (2015) [73]
المالية العامة
49.25% of GDP (2016–17 est.)[73]
Rs. 6,430 crore (US$ 1.17 billion) (2016–17 est.)[73]
العوائد Rs. 53,202 crore (US$ 9.68 billion) (2016–17 est.)[73]
النفقات Rs. 64,669 crore (US$ 11.77 billion) (2016–17 est.)[73]

كل القيم، ما لم يُذكر غير ذلك، هي بالدولار الأمريكي.
ملف:Shalimar gardens.jpg
Tourism forms an integral part of the state's economy. Shown here is the Shalimar Gardens. Mughal emperor Jahangir inscribed Amir Khusrau's famous paradise on Earth verse in the gardens.[74][75][76]
ملف:Kashmir Railway JUSBRL Project Map.png
A map of the Jammu–Baramulla line

Jammu and Kashmir's economy is predominantly dependent on agriculture and allied activities.[77] The Kashmir Valley is known for its sericulture and cold-water fisheries. Wood from Kashmir is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as Kashmir Willow. Kashmiri saffron is very famous and brings the state a handsome amount of foreign exchange. Agricultural exports from Jammu and Kashmir include apples, barley, cherries, corn, millet, oranges, rice, peaches, pears, saffron, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat, while manufactured exports include handicrafts, rugs, and shawls.

Year State's Gross Domestic Product (in million INR)
1980 11,860
1985 22,560
1990 36,140
1995 80,970
2000 147,500
2006 INR539,850 مليون (US$9,825.27 مليون)
2016 INR132,307 كروره (US$24.08 بليون)[78]

Major crops

The Kashmir Valley has a large capacity of fruit production. Apples, walnuts, almonds, cherries and pears are imported by many foreign countries.

Handicrafts

Tourism

مقال رئيسي: Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir
ملف:Gulmarg-Gondala.JPG
Skiing is popular in Gulmarg, showing cable car in a snow-clad mountain.

Culture

مقال رئيسي: Culture of Kashmir
انظر أيضاً: Kashmiriyat و Kashmiri cinema
ملف:Likir Buddha.jpg
Buddhism is an integral part of Ladakh's culture. Shown here is a statue of Buddha in a monastery in Likir.

Education


العاصمة

مواضيع متعلقة

Notes

  1. ^ The Government of Pakistan and Pakistan sources refer to Jammu Kashmir as "Indian-occupied Kashmir" ("IoK") or "Indian-held Kashmir" (IHK),[4][5] "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-controlled Kashmir" are used by neutral sources.[6][7] Conversely, Indian sources call the territory under Pakistan control "Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir" ("POK") or "Pakistan-Held Kashmir" ("PHK").[8][9]

References

  1. ^ أ ب "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "What is Article 370? Three key points". The Times of India. 
  3. ^ "In Depth-the future of Kashmir". BBC News. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  4. ^ Ali Zain (13 September 2015). "Pakistani flag hoisted, pro-freedom slogans chanted in Indian Occupied Kashmir – Daily Pakistan Global". En.dailypakistan.com.pk. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  5. ^   (11 September 2015). "Pakistani flag hoisted once again in Indian Occupied Kashmir | World | Dunya News". Dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  6. ^ South Asia: fourth report of session 2006–07 by By Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Foreign Affairs Committee page 37
  7. ^ Enforced Disappearances in Indian Occupied Kashmir by Jammu and Kashmir Council for Human Rights (JKCHR)1994
  8. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2013). Kashmir: The Unwritten History. HarperCollins India. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9350298988. 
  9. ^ The enigma of terminology, The Hindu, 27 January 2014.
  10. ^ Larson, Gerald James. "India's Agony Over Religion", 1995, page 245
  11. ^ Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (PDF). Official website of Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly on National Informatics Centre, India. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  12. ^ "1948: Another UNSC Resolution on Kashmir". Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. 
  13. ^ Bill Emmott. "Bill Emmott: If Saddam steps out of line we must go straight to war". the Guardian. 
  14. ^ "Low expectations from Indo-Pak talks". 
  15. ^ "The Rediff Interview/Ashraf Jehangir Qazi". 
  16. ^ "Don't expect too much from talks: Officials". 
  17. ^ "Does India have a case in Kashmir?". 
  18. ^ "Annan upbeat on Kashmir". 
  19. ^ "Terrorism to feature in talks with Kofi Annan". 
  20. ^ "We have `left aside' U.N. resolutions on Kashmir: Musharraf". 
  21. ^ "The Musharraf formula". 
  22. ^ "Does Pakistan have sincere intention to resolve Kashmir issue: Omar to Musharraf". 
  23. ^ أ ب "With Friends Like These...": Human Rights Violations in Azad Kashmir. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 31 December 2007. In January 194, 
  24. ^ Subramanian Swamy (6 February 2003). "India's bleeding head wound". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  25. ^ Hashim Qureshi. "Understanding UN Resolutions on Kashmir". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. 
  26. ^ "rediff.com: The Rediff Interview/Pakistan's High Commissioner for India Ashraf Jehangir Qazi". rediff.com. 
  27. ^ "India repulses Pakistan attack at UN assembly". 
  28. ^ "Kashmir profile". 
  29. ^ "Indian, Pakistani and Chinese border disputes-Fantasy frontiers". 
  30. ^ From Jinnah to Jihad: Pakistan's Kashmir quest and the limits of realism. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd. 2007. ISBN 978-81-269-0721-2. Retrieved 31 December 2007. While India had agreed to a plebiscite initially, it reneged, arguing that Pakistan had refused to withdraw its troops, had integrated parts of Kashmir with the rest of the country and had altered their demographic system. 
  31. ^ Kaul, Shyam; Kachru, Onkar (1 January 1998). Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh: ringside views. ISBN 978-81-85495-51-4. Retrieved 31 December 2007. Demographics (1947–48) considered for this UN resolution have changed, most recently with the exodus of a 1/4 million Hindus from Kashmir. 
  32. ^ "Only 1 Pandit family returned to Valley in 25 years: J&K govt to SC". 
  33. ^ Kaul, Shyam; Kachru, Onkar (1 January 1998). Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh: ringside views. ISBN 978-81-85495-51-4. Retrieved 31 December 2007. Indians are free to migrate as anyone else in a democracy. Yet, as a large group, none of the post-partition (1947) minorities have relocated to India or migrated to Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, or anywhere else in the world under the threat of persecution or insecurity. Ironically, 250,000 Hindus living in Kashmir left Kashmir for India due to the hostile environment created by the militancy in Kashmir. 
  34. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir Registers Highest Voter Turnout in 25 Years, Jharkhand Breaks Records". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  35. ^ PTI. "Jammu and Kashmir people have shown their faith in Indian democracy: PM Narendra Modi – timesofindia-economictimes". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  36. ^ أ ب Sikandar Shah (24 January 1957). "Peace not possible without progress on Kashmir issue". The China Post. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  37. ^ Kashmiris want accession to Pakistan: Attique Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ Schofield, Victoria (17 January 2002). "South Asia | Kashmir's forgotten plebiscite". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  39. ^ "South Asia | Kashmir's extrajudicial killings". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  40. ^ Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch (31 January 2007). "India: Prosecute Police for Killings in Jammu and Kashmir | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  41. ^ Brad Adams, Asia director at Human Rights Watch. (9 February 2009). "India: Hold Abusers in Kashmir Accountable | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  42. ^ "Kashmir's extra-judicial killings". BBC News online. BBC. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  43. ^ Somini Sengupta (6 February 2007). "Indian Army and Police Tied to Kashmir Killings". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  44. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة stein
  45. ^ "The Future of Kashmir?". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  46. ^ "Kashmir – region, Indian subcontinent". Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  47. ^ "Kashmir | region, Indian subcontinent". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  48. ^ Schofield 2003, p. 94
  49. ^ أ ب Schofield 2003, p. 137
  50. ^ Schofield 2003, p. 210
  51. ^ Billal A. Jan (Director) (2012). Ocean of Tears (Excerpt) (YouTube). Jammu and Kashmir: PSBTIndia.  External link in |title= (help)
  52. ^ "India: "Everyone Lives in Fear": Patterns of Impunity in Jammu and Kashmir: I. Summary". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2 June 2008. 
  53. ^ "India and Human Rights in Kashmir – The Myth – India Together". Retrieved 2 June 2008. 
  54. ^ Schofield 2003, pp. 148, 158
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  74. ^ Michelsen, Leslee (2013). Ferozkoh: Tradition and Continuity in Afghan Art (English Edition). A&C Black. p. 99. ISBN 978-9992195987. 'If there be Paradise on earth, it is here, it is here, it is here'. This Persian couplet invokes the heavenly realms. The verse was inscribed at the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir, founded by the Mughal emperor Jahangir in 1620, (...) 
  75. ^ Kabir, Ananya Jahanara (2009). Territory of Desire: Representing the Valley of Kashmir. U of Minnesota Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0816653560. However, the association between his [Jahangir's] love of Kashmir and the Persian couplet (...), appears to be an urban legend of sorts. The couplet is by the Sufi poet of Delhi, Amir Khusrau Dehlavi (1253–1325 CE), (...) 
  76. ^ Blake, Stephen P. (2002). Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India 1639–1739. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0521522991. This same inscription is also found in the Shalimar garden in Kashmir, built by the Emperor Jahangir in the early part of his reign. 
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Sources

Further reading

  • Bose, Sumantra (2003), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01173-2 
  • Rai, Mridu (2004), Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850656614 

External links

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General information

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