25 فبراير

يناير فبراير مارس
سبت أحد إثنين ثلاثاء أربعاء خميس جمعة
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138: Antoninus Pius
1570: Pius V.
1570: Elisabeth I.
1623: Verleihung der Kurwürde an Maximilian I.
  • 1623 - Emperor Ferdinand II. Transfers Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria on the Regensburger Deputationstag the electoral dignity of the Palatinate , but only for life, without the right to inherit this.
  • 1631 - Cardinal Richelieu imprisoned François de Bassompierre at the Bastille .
  • 1634 - assassination of Wallenstein by order of Ferdinand II of the Holy Roman Empire .
  • 1635 - In the Treaty of Paris between France and the United Netherlands , an attack and defensive pact against Spain is concluded which foresees the partitioning of the Spanish Netherlands .
  • 1643 - During the Pavonia massacre, Dutch soldiers from the Nieuw Nederland colony invade an Indian village in North America during the Wappinger War , killing all the inhabitants and decapitulating them. Then use the heads of the beheaded for ball games.
  • 1713 - After the death of his father Frederick I is Frederick William I. King of Prussia. As the first official, he declares the existing budget of his kingdom void.
  • 1793 - George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting of a President of the United States .
  • 1797 - الكلونل وليام تيت وقوته المؤلفة من 1,000-1,500 جندي يستسلمون بعد آخر غزو لبريطانيا.
  • 1805 - the Diet of Regensburg recreates the German states under the influence of France and Russia.
  • 1832 - پولندا تصبح جزءاً من الامبراطورية الروسية.
1837: Thomas Davenport
1856: Pariser Kongress
1870: Hiram Rhodes Revels
1898: Frank Wedekind
1901: John Pierpont Morgan
1942: Das theoretische Einsatzgebiet des ABDACOM
1956: Chruschtschow mit Stalin 20 Jahre früher
1964: Muhammad Ali
1994: Die Abraham-Moschee in Hebron


Wilhelm René de l’Homme de Courbière (* 1733)
  • 1733: Wilhelm René de l’Homme de Courbière، preußischer Generalfeldmarschall französischer Herkunft, Generalgouverneur von Westpreußen
  • 1778 - خوسيه دي سان مارتين، جنرال أرجنتيني ومحرر أمريكا الجنوبية ورئيس پيرو.
  • 1822 - توماس باوتش، English railway engineer who was knighted for building the Tay Railway Bridge that afterwards collapsed in a fierce gale on 28 Dec 1879 killing a trainload of people. His railway engineering career began at age 17. By 1849, he was Engineer and Manager of the Edinburgh and Northern Railway. Realising the value of a bridge to replace ferries across the mile-wide Firth of Tay on the east Scottish coast, he spent 20 years promoting such a project before it was approved. The foundation stone was laid on 22 Jul 1871. The two-mile bridge of lattice girders on ironwork columns was opened 31 May 1878, but failed the next year. He died four months after the Court of Inquiry held him responsible for poor design against wind pressure. (ت. 1880)
الرسام الانطباعي رينوار(1841-1919). پورتريه ذاتي.
  • 1841 - أوگست رينوار، رسام ونحات فرنسي (ت. 1919)
  • 1842 - كارل ماي، كاتب ألماني.
  • 1860 - السير وليام آشلي، مؤرخ اقتصادي بريطاني (ت. 1927)
  • 1865 - أندرانيك، جنرال أرمني (ت. 1927)
  • 1866 - بندتو كروتشه، فيلسوف إيطالي.
  • 1869 - فوبس لڤين، Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene was a Russian-American chemist who was a pioneer in the study of nucleic acids. In 1909, he found that the carbohydrate present in nucleic acid from yeast is the pentose sugar ribose. In 1929, he succeeded in identifying the carbohydrate in the nucleic acid from the thymus of an animal. It is also a pentose sugar but lacks one oxygen atom of ribose and was therefore called deoxyribose. These were named ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids (RNA and DNA). Levene also determined how the nucleic acid components combine to form the nucleotides and how the nucleotides combine in chains. Later discoveries showed DNA and RNA to be key elements in the maintenance of life. (ت. 1940)
  • 1873 - إنريكو كاروسو، مغني أوبرا تـِنور ، الأشهر في القرن العشرين. (+ 1921 )
  • 1881 - Alexei Rykov، Russian politician, Premier of Russia (ت. 1938)
  • 1896 - إيدا نوداك، كيميائية ألمانية، شاركت في اكتشاف (1925) العنصر 75، رنيوم، الذي سموه تكريما لنهر الراين. They found trace amounts in the mineral columbite. She was working مع فالتر نوداك، زوجها اللاحق (1926). They were also trying to find element 43, which they called masurium, but announcement of that find was mistaken. She commented on the possibility of fission upon hearing the reports of Fermi's 1934 observations of the neutron bombardment of uranium. Her idea remained dormant. However, when Frisch, five years afterwards, presented the same idea, it became accepted. In photochemistry, the Noddacks worked on sensitizing coloring substances, the photochemistry of the human eye and other subjects. (ت. 1979)
  • 1898 - وليام توماس أستبري، English physical biochemist who was the first to make use of X-ray diffraction patterns to study the structure of nucleic acids (1937). Astbury researched the method under Bragg for seven years, then investigated the structure of wool in both the stretched and unstretched forms. From the difference in the diffraction patterns, he began to try to work ot the structure of protein molecules. His preliminary determination of the structure of nucleic acids were, in fact, wrong - but it gave impetus to Pauling's work with proteins, and to Crick and Watson's study of DNA structure. His work, slowly decoding the nature of molecular structure of virtually the largest organic materials, fibrous and globular proteins, was valuable to both science and industry. (ت. 1961)
1904: جون بيتنر


Philipp Pendleton Barbour († 1841)
  • 1841: Philip Pendleton Barbour، US-amerikanischer Jurist und Politiker
  • 1850 - داوگوانگ، امبراطور الصين (و. 1782)
  • 1894 - ستيل مكـِيْ، مؤلف دراما أمريكي ومخترع في تصميمات المشاهد المسرحية. After studying in Europe he went to the United States (c.1872). He opened the Madison Square Theatre in 1879, where he created a huge elevator with two stages stacked one on top of the other so that elaborate furnishings could be changed quickly between scenes. He also invented and installed overhead and indirect stage lighting, movable stage wagons, artificial ventilation, and folding seats. MacKaye was the first to light a New York theatre entirely by electricity - the Lyceum - which he founded in 1884. In all, Mackaye patented over a hundred inventions, mostly for the improvement of theatrical equipment, and included the disappearing orchestra pit. One of his sons, Benton MacKaye (1879-1975), who became a forester, proposed the establishment of the Appalachian Trail (1921). [Image (right): MacKaye's two stacked stages.] (و. 6 يونيو 1842)
Paul Julius Reuter († 1899)
  • 1899 - پول جوليوس رويتر، مؤسس وكالة أنباء رويترز (و. 1816)
  • 1915 - تشارلز إدوين بسي، عالم نبات أمريكي، who created the first U.S. undergraduate botanical experimental laboratory at Iowa State University, where he held several positions (1870-84) and inaugurated the systematic study of plant morphology in the U.S. He devised a classification of angiosperm (flowering plant) taxa based on Candolle's theory of differentiation to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of primitive forms. He moved to become Dean of Agriculture at the University of Nebraska (1884-1915). While in Nebraska, he started a tree planting experiment (1902) that initiated the Nebraska National Forest, the first man-made national forest in the world. He helped influence federal legislation to preserve the giant sequoia trees in California. (و. 1845)
  • 1920 - مارسل-أوگست ديولافوا، عالم آثار ومهندس مدني فرنسي who in 1884-86 undertook major excavations at the ancient site of Susa (modern Shush, Iran) uncovering the palaces of the ancient Persian kings Darius I the Great and Artaxerxes II. He was helped by a French physician at the Persian court to reopen the 1852 excavations done by W.K. Loftus. Dieulafoy's exploration resulted in revealing part of the palace and other structures, and in settling the topographical details of the city. He also recovered unique and beautiful features of art and architecture, including the pillars with capitals of bulls' heads, three great porticoes and the hall of columns, the frieze of lions, and that of archers now in the Louvre.« Image: winged bull glazed bricks from Susa (Louvre). (و. 1844)
  • 1920 - جيمس گيلي، American metallurgist who invented a device to ensure uniform humidity in the air stream going into blast furnaces. With prior experience at several iron works, Gayley was hired by the Edgar Thomson Steel Works as Superintendent of the Blast Furnaces (1885). In this capacity was an economist, and made a record reduction in the coke consumption. He invented the bronze cooling plate for blast furnace walls, the auxiliary casting stand for Bessemer steel plants, and was the first to use the compound condensing blowing engine with the Blast Furnace. He also invented the dry-air blast, for which the Franklin Institute awarded him the Elliott Cresson medal. Gayley rose to first vice-president of the U.S.Steel Corp and acquired a large fortune. (و. 1855)
  • 1937 - إلزابث گرترود نايت بريتون، American botanistt known for her lasting contributions to bryology, the study of mosses. She went on numerous botanical expeditions to the West Indies and in wilderness areas of the Adirondacks. A visit to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, near London, England, made a great impression on Britton and she determined that New York City should have its own botanical garden. She was the driving force in the establishment of the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. The original 250 acre garden was incorporated in 1891. Through publications, lectures, and correspondence, Britton also raised public interest in conservation issues and promoted legislation for the protection of endangered native plants. (و. 1858)
  • 1947 - لويس پاشن، Louis Carl Heinrich Friedrich Paschen was a German physicist who was an outstanding experimental spectroscopist. In 1895, in a detailed study of the spectral series of helium, an element then newly discovered on earth, he showed the identical match with the spectral lines of helium as originally found in the solar spectrum by Janssen and Lockyer nearly 40 years earlier. He is remembered for the Paschen Series of spectral lines of hydrogen which he elucidated in 1908. (و. 1865)
  • 1950 - جورج مينوت، طبيب أمريكي حاصل على جائزة نوبل في الطب عام 1934. (و. ١٨٨٥)
  • 1953 - سرگي ڤينوگرادسكي، Russian microbiologist who helped to establish bacteriology as a major biological science. He was first to isolate the bacteria responsible for nitrification and nitrogen fixation by soil bacteria (1890).Winogradsky also studied bacteria that recycle other vital elements for use by other organisms - including ‘iron bacteria', and those which metabolize sulfur (1887-9) - deriving metabolic energy from inorganic nutrients. Previously, only organic substrates were considered suitable for microbes. The "Winogradsky column" is still used as an enrichment culture that simulates the muddy habitat of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. (و. ١٨٥٦)
  • 1963 - ملڤل هرسكوڤتس، American cultural anthropologist who was noted for having opened up the study of the New World Negro as a new field of research. Herskovits was also known for his humanistic and relativistic writings on culture. Herskovits turned to the study of Anthropology in 1920 in graduate work at Columbia University under Franz Boas. As a teacher at Northwestern University, IL, (1927-63), he founded the first US University Program in African Studies (1951). He advocated cultural relativism in Man and His Works (1948) that all standards of judgment are culture-bound. (و. ١٨٩٥)
  • 1964 - موريس فارمان، French aircraft designer and manufacturer who contributed greatly to early aviation. In 1908, with his brother Henri, he made the first circular flight of over 1-km, completing a 1.6-km (one-mile) flight near Paris. They built a plane the following year and flew a record distance of 160 km (100 miles). Four years after that, the two brothers started their own aviation company at Boulogne-sur-Seine, supplying the army in France and other countries. The UK also made use of Farman's inventions, for example, air-screw reduction gears, in WW II. In 1917 the Farman brothers built the first long-distance passenger plane, the Goliath. (و. ١٨٧٧)
  • 1971 - تيودور سڤدبرگ، عالم كيمياء سويدي حاصل على جائزة نوبل في الكيمياء عام 1926. (و. )
  • 1975 - إليجا محمد، مؤسس أمة الإسلام للأمريكان السود. (و. 1897)
  • 1980 - أحمد الشقيري، أحد مؤسسي منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية.
Tennessee Williams († 1983)

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