|القرون:||القرن 18 - القرن 19 - القرن 20|
|العقود:||عقد 1840 عقد 1850 عقد 1860 - عقد 1870 - عقد 1880 عقد 1890 عقد 1900|
|السنوات:||1872 1873 1874 - 1875 - 1876 1877 1878|
|1875 في موضوعات:|
|الآثار – العمارة – الفن – الأدب (الشعر) – الموسيقى|
|مصر – سوريا - إيران – الصين - فرنسا – ألمانيا – الدولة العثمانية – إيطاليا - اسبانيا - المغرب– روسيا - اليابان – البرازيل - الهند - المملكة المتحدة – الولايات المتحدة – إندونسيا|
|السكك الحديدية – العلوم – الرياضة|
|الدول ذات السيادة – زعماء الدول – حكام الأقاليم – الزعماء الدينيون|
|تصنيفا المواليد والوفيات|
|المواليد – الوفيات|
|تصنيفا التأسيسات والانحلالات|
|التأسيسات – الانحلالات|
|آب أوربه كونديتا||2628|
|سنة العهد البريطاني||38 Vict. 1 – 39 Vict. 1|
|التقويم الصيني||甲戌年 (الخشب الكلب)
4571 أو 4511
— إلى —
乙亥年 (الخشب الخنزير)
4572 أو 4512
|- ڤيكرام سامڤات||1931–1932|
|- شاكا سامڤات||1797–1798|
|- كالي يوگا||4976–4977|
|التقويم الياباني||Meiji 8
|التقويم اليوليوسي||الگريگوري ناقص 12 يوم|
|تقويم مينگوو||37 قبل جمهورية الصين
|التقويم الشمسي التايلندي||2418|
سنة 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) كانت سنة بسيطة تبدأ يوم الجمعة (الرابط يعرض التقويم كاملاً) التقويم الگريگوري، السنة 1875th بعد الميلاد (م)، السنة 875th في الألفية 2، السنة 75th في القرن 19، والسنة 6th في عقد 1870 بين 1583 و 1929 ومع فارق 1875 is 12 يوم عن التقويم اليوليوسي، والذين ظلوا مستخدمين حتى التحول الكامل إلى التقويم الگريگوري في 1929.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- January 1 - The Midland Railway of England abolishes the Second Class passenger category, leaving First Class and Third Class. Other British railway companies follow Midland's lead during the rest of the year (Third Class is renamed Second Class in 1956).
- 10 يناير - تأسيس الحزب الاشتراكي البرتغالي.
- January 12 - Guangxu becomes the 11th Qing Dynasty Emperor of China at the age of 4, in succession to his cousin.
- January 14 - The newly proclaimed King Alfonso XII of Spain (Queen Isabella II's son) arrives in Spain to restore the monarchy during the Third Carlist War.
- 3 فبراير - Third Carlist War - Battle of Lácar: Carlist commander Torcuato Mendíri secures a brilliant victory, when he surprises and routs a Government force under General Enrique Bargés at Lácar, east of Estella, nearly capturing newly crowned King Alfonso XII. The Carlists take several pieces of artillery, more than 2,000 rifles, and 300 prisoners. 800 men of both sides are killed (mostly government troops).
- 15 فبراير - ساڤورنيان دى برازا يتلقى تكليف باستكشاف حوض أوگوى و أليما، في الكونغو (1875-1879).
- 18 فبراير - The Mason County War begins, as a German-American mob breaks into a prison, and lynches cattle rustlers in central Texas.
- February 21 - Jeanne Calment is born in Arles, France. She will go on to become the world's oldest verified person to have ever lived, reaching an age of 122 years and 164 days, before passing away on August 4, 1997 of natural causes.
- February 24 - The إسإس Gothenburg sinks off Australia's east coast with the loss of approximately 102 lives, including a number of high-profile civil servants and dignitaries.
- February 25 - The majority of the Yavapai (Wipukyipai) and Tonto Apache (Dil Zhéé) tribes are forced by the United States Cavalry, under command of Brigadier General George Crook, to walk at gunpoint from the Arizona's Verde Valley, to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, 180 miles to the southeast. The two tribes are not allowed to return to the Verde Valley until 1900.
- February 27 - Newton Booth, 11th Governor of California, resigns, having been elected Senator. Lieutenant Governor of California Romualdo Pacheco becomes acting Governor. He is later replaced by elected governor William Irwin.
- March 1 - The United States Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits racial discrimination in public accommodations and jury duty.
- March 3
- March 15 - Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York John McCloskey is named the first cardinal in the United States.
- April 10 - The Arya Samaj is founded in Mumbai by Swami Dayananda Saraswati. at Bombay , the Brahmin Gujarati Swami Dayananda Saraswati (in) ( 1824 - 1883 ) founded the center Arya Samaj , a Hindu reformist group that seeks to recover the simplicity of Vedic ritual and oppose the religions of the Book 25 . He advocated a reform of Hinduism : abandoning the cult of images, easing the caste system, and so on. The spreading of the reforming ideas of the group is ensured by preachers who arouse the hostility of Sikhs and Muslims.
- 14 أبريل - Creation of an assembly of councilors, the Genro-in , which constitutes the first draft of delegation of the legislative power, following the Osaka Conference held in January - February
- April 25 - Ten sophomores from Rutgers College (modern-day Rutgers University) steal a one-ton cannon from the campus of the College of New Jersey (modern-day Princeton University), and start the Rutgers–Princeton Cannon War.
- مايو - موجة من أعمال الشغب المعادي للسامية في الجزائر. من مدينة الجزائر، الأعمال المعادية للسامية، التي قام بها المستعمرون الفرنسيون، انتشرت إلى تلمسان، ثم قسنطينة، ثم سطيف وباتنة.
- May 7 - Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed between Japan and Russia.
- May 7 - German liner إسإس Schiller wrecks on the rocks off the Isles of Scilly, with the loss of 335 lives.
- May 17 - Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby.
- May 20 - The Metre Convention is signed in Paris, France. signing of the Meter Convention by 17 states in Paris 45 . This international treaty decides on the construction of a new prototype of the meter . The famous meter platinum iridium is deposited at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in the enclosure of Pavillon de Breteuil in Sèvres ( Hauts-de-Seine ), in a field subject to the law of exterritoriality.
- 24 مايو - الهند: creation by Syed Ahmad Khan of the Anglo-Oriental College Aligarh Muhammedan . It will become the Muslim university of Aligarh in 1920 .
- June - The record-setting American clipper Flying Cloud of 1851 is burned for scrap metal.
- 2 يونيو - ظهور التلفون لأول مرة على يد المخترع الكساندر غراهام بل.
- June 4 - Two American colleges play each other in arguably the first game of college football: Tufts University and Harvard University at Jarvis Field in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- الصيف - Third Carlist War in Spain: Two government armies under General Quesada and Martínez Campos start encroaching on Carlist territory. Both they and their Carlist opponent (Mendiri) drive opposing sympathisers from their homes, and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals (Dorregaray, Savalls, and others) are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty. Mendiri is also removed from his command, and replaced by the Count of Caserta. Despite having 48 infantry battalions, 3 cavalry regiments, 2 engineer battalions, and 100 pieces of artillery at his disposal, Caserta is heavily outnumbered by the government forces opposing him.
- July 1 - The General Postal Union is established.
- July 1-7 - Third Carlist War - Battle of Treviño: Advancing on the key city of Vitoria, in Navarre, Spanish Republican commander General Jenardo de Quesada sends General Tello to attack the Carlist lines just to the southwest, at Treviño. The newly appointed Carlist commander General José Pérula is heavily defeated and withdraws, and soon afterwards Quesada enters Vitoria in triumph.
- 14 يوليو - سلطان زنجبار السيد برغش، في زيارة للملكة ڤكتوريا في لندن، يصدق على معاهدة من عام 1873 لحظر تجارة العبيد.
- 18 يوليو - Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha succeeds Radif Baghdad governorate (completed in 1876).
- 19 يوليو - اتفاقية تجارة إنگليزية تونسية، منحازة جداً للجانب البريطاني. the agreement provides for the concession of the Tunis-La Goulette railway .
- 24 يوليو - The Marshal MacMahon referee for the Portuguese in the territorial dispute in the Delagoa Bay , in Mozambique 5 .
- July 24 - The legendary Mohican Base Ball Club is established in Kennett Square, PA.
- August 6 - Hibernian F.C. is founded by Irishmen, in the Cowgate area of Edinburgh, Scotland.
- August 25 - Captain Matthew Webb becomes the first person to swim the English Channel.
- 27 أغسطس - 13 أكتوبر - war between Buganda and his vassal Buvuma; series of naval battles on Lake Victoria .
- September 1 - A murder conviction effectively forces the violent Irish anti-owner coal miners, the Molly Maguires, to disband.
- September 7 - Battle of Agurdat: An Egyptian invasion of Ethiopia fails, when Emperor Yohannes IV defeats an army led by Werner Munzinger.
- 17-18 سبتمبر - بعد وصول 4,000 جندي مصري إلى مصوع، مصر تشن أربع تجريدات عسكرية في آن واحد في الهضبة الحبشية.
- 20 سبتمبر : حادث كانگهوا: After the bombing of a Japanese warship by Korean coastal batteries, the Japanese land 800 marine rifles in Korea . A new fleet docked in Kangwha to negotiate a treaty.
- سبتمبر - English Association football team Birmingham City F.C. is founded as Small Heath Alliance in Birmingham by a group of cricketers from Holy Trinity Church, Bordesley, playing its first match in November.
- أكتوبر - Ottoman state declares partial bankruptcy, and places its finances in the hands of European creditors. The collegiate management of the debt, entrusted to the representatives of each of the creditors, avoids the control of a tutelary power over the Ottoman finances. Tax reforms undertaken under the pressure of creditors allow an increase in the revenue of the Treasury. The tithes on the crops increased by 50% from 1862 to 1878. The rates of the bebel (tax dispensing the military service) are raised. The cost of war in the Balkans, however, prevents the sustainable consolidation of Ottoman finances.
- 2 أكتوبر - Ethiopia: former colonel Danish Ahrendrup accompanied by 4,000 Egyptian soldiers launched an offensive north of Adowa 8 ; the operation is carnage for the Egyptian army.
- 5 أكتوبر - The Egyptian troops of the governor of Massawa Werner Munzinger disembark at Tadjoura with the intention of invading the Aoussa.
- 11 أكتوبر - The expedition led by Raouf Pasha, part of Zeilah , occupies Harar 10 . Of the four Egyptian expeditions to Ethiopia , she is the only one to be successful. The Egyptians force the Oromos to convert to Islam .
- October 15 - Chief Lone Horn of the Minneconjou dies at the Cheyenne River, leaving his son Big Foot as the new chief.
- October 16 - Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.
- 16 أكتوبر - نوفمبر - An Egyptian squadron led by Henry Frederick McKillop Pasha occupies temporarily Barawa and Kisimayou , possession of the Sultan of Zanzibar at the mouth of the Jubba . She retired after the protest of the British
- 23 أكتوبر - Yohannes IV of Ethiopia is mobilizing its troops and declare war on Egypt
- October 25 - The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts, with Hans von Bülow as soloist.
- October 30 - The Theosophical Society is founded in New York by Helena Blavatsky, H. S. Olcott, W. Q. Judge, and others.
- 2 نوفمبر - ماليزيا: Assassination of British resident to Perak James WW Birch (in) . Failure and severe repression of an insurrection against the British presence in the Sultanate of Perak (completed in 1876 )
- 3 نوفمبر - Savorgnan de Brazza leaves Libreville and goes back the Ogooué
- November 9 - American Indian Wars: In Washington, D.C., Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins issues a report stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States (the Battle of the Little Bighorn is fought in Montana the next year).
- 14 نوفمبر - Werner Munzinger is killed by the Afars during an ambush in the Aoussa
- November 16 - الحملة المصرية على الحبشة: معركة جوندت: Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV defeats another Egyptian army. troops of Arakel Bey are defeated by the negro Yohannes IV at Gundet , on the Mareb 8 . The Egyptians must withdraw and leave their equipment in the field, six pieces of artillery, nearly 2,000 rifles and 20,000 thalers.
- November 26 - The Times newspaper in London reveals that Isma'il Pasha has sold Egypt's 44% share in the Suez Canal to Britain, in a deal secured by Benjamin Disraeli, without the prior sanction of the British Parliament.
- 28 نوفمبر - The United Kingdom buys shares of the Suez Canal Company from the Khedive of Egypt Ismaïl to secure its route to the Indies (45% of the shares) 13 . The British demand the repayment of their debts to Ismail Pasha who must abandon his actions on the Suez Canal : the British government now has the largest part (nearly two-thirds).
- December 4 - Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then to Spain.
- December 5-6 - German emigrant ship SS Deutschland runs aground in the English Channel, resulting in the death of 157 passengers and crew.
- December 9 - The Massachusetts Rifle Association, America's Oldest Active Gun Club, is formed.
- December 20 - The ICRM is renamed the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
- 24 ديسمبر - اعادة تنظيم نظام البلدات المختلطة في الجزائر. Municipalities and prefects refuse the presence of commissions of notables in the mixed communes.
- December 25 - The first Edinburgh derby in Association football is played: Heart of Midlothian F.C. wins 1–0 against Hibernian F.C.
تاريخ غير محدد
- Asia's first stock exchange is established as The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association, (the modern-day Bombay Stock Exchange).
- Wimbledon: Henry Cavendish Jones convinces the All England Croquet Club to replace a croquet court with a lawn tennis court.
- The Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act 1875 is passed in the United Kingdom, to permit slum clearance.
- Widespread nationalist rebellion in the Ottoman Empire results in Turkish repression, Russian intervention and Great Power tensions.
- Convent Scandal: During the winter in Montreal, typhoid fever strikes at a convent school. The corpses of the victims are filched by body-snatchers before relatives arrive from America, causing much furor. Eventually the Anatomy Act of Quebec is changed over it.
- The opening of Flushing High School, the oldest public high school in New York City.
- The Zulus adopt firearms and are delivered 15,000 rifles 15 , including 300 rapid fire.
- Tippu Tib , Métis an Arab and a Swahili of the east coast, settled in Kasongo , on the Congo River 16 . He credits himself with the title of Sultan, brings together the powerful Arabs of the region and organizes the ivory trade on a territory that he continues to extend while maintaining excellent relations with his neighbors the Nyamwesi and the Chokwe . He appears as the federator of Arab institutions, which exert a great political influence on the local chiefs.
- January 3 - Alexandros Diomidis, Prime Minister of Greece (ت. 1950)
- January 5 - James Stuart Blackton, American film producer (ت. 1941)
- January 6 - Leslie Green, British architect (ت. 1908)
- January 7 - Thomas Hicks, American runner (ت. 1963)
- January 9 - Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, American sculptor, socialite (ت. 1942)
- January 11 - Reinhold Glière, Russian composer (ت. 1956)
- January 14
- January 15 - Thomas Burke, American sprinter (ت. 1929)
- January 22 - D. W. Griffith, American film director, known for directing The Birth of a Nation (ت. 1948)
- January 31
- February 1 - Eddie Polo, Austrian-American actor (ت. 1961)
- February 2 - Fritz Kreisler, Austrian violinist (ت. 1962)
- February 4 - Ludwig Prandtl, German physicist (ت. 1953)
- February 7 - Erkki Melartin, Finnish composer (ت. 1937)
- February 8 - Valentine O'Hara, Irish author, authority on Russia and the Baltic states (ت. 1945)
- February 15 - Grigore Constantinescu, Romanian priest, journalist (ت. 1932)
- February 21 - Jeanne Calment, world's longest lived person (ت. 1997)
- February 26 - Emma Dunn, British-born stage, screen actress (ت. 1966)
- March 4 - Mihály Károlyi, former Prime Minister of Hungary and President of Hungary (ت. 1955)
- March 7 - Maurice Ravel, French composer (ت. 1937)
- March 8 - Kenkichi Ueda, Japanese general (ت. 1962)
- March 9 - Juan de Dios Martínez, 23rd President of Ecuador (ت. 1955)
- March 26 - Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (ت. 1965)
- March 28 - Helen Westley, American stage, film actress (ت. 1942)
- April 1 - Edgar Wallace, English writer (ت. 1932)
- April 2 - Walter Chrysler, American automobile pioneer (ت. 1940)
- April 4
- April 5 - Mistinguett, French singer (ت. 1956)
- April 8 - King Albert I of Belgium (ت. 1934)
- April 15 - James J. Jeffries, American boxer (ت. 1953)
- April 18 - Oskar Ernst Bernhardt (Abdruschin), German author (ت. 1941)
- May 2 - Owen Roberts, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (ت. 1955)
- May 6 - William D. Leahy, American admiral (ت. 1959)
- May 7 - Ernst Friedberger, German immunologist, hygienist (ت. 1932)
- May 11 - Harriet Quimby, American pilot (ت. 1912)
- May 12
- May 23 - Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr., American automobile industrialist (ت. 1966)
- June 6
- June 9 - Henry Hallett Dale, English pharmacologist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (ت. 1968)
- June 12 - Sam De Grasse, Canadian actor (ت. 1953)
- June 24 - Diedrich Westermann, German linguist (ت. 1956)
- June 28 - Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (ت. 1941)
- July 1 - Joseph Weil, American con man (ت. 1976)
- July 3 - Ferdinand Sauerbruch, German surgeon (ت. 1951)
- July 7 - Vincent Tancred, South African cricketer (ت. 1904)
- July 10
- July 25 - Jim Corbett, Anglo-Indian hunter, conservationist and author (ت. 1955)
- July 26
- August 8 - Arthur Bernardes, 12th President of Brazil (ت. 1955)
- August 15 - Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, English composer (ت. 1912)
- August 16 - Juho Sunila, Prime Minister of Finland (ت. 1936)
- August 21 - Winnifred Eaton, Canadian author (ت. 1954)
- August 26 - John Buchan, Scottish-Canadian historian and politician, 15th Governor General of Canada (ت. 1940)
- August 27 - Katharine McCormick, American suffragist (ت. 1967)
- August 29 - Leonardo De Lorenzo, Italian flautist (ت. 1962)
- September 1 - Edgar Rice Burroughs, American author (ت. 1950)
- September 3 - Ferdinand Porsche, Austrian automotive engineer (ت. 1951)
- September 16 - James Cash Penney, American businessman, founder of J. C. Penney (ت. 1971)
- September 18
- September 22 - Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Lithuanian composer (ت. 1911)
- October - George Ranetti, Romanian poet, publicist (ت. 1928)
- October 1 - Eugeen Van Mieghem, Belgian painter (ت. 1930)
- October 12 - Aleister Crowley, British occultist (ت. 1947)
- October 23 - Gilbert N. Lewis, American chemist (ت. 1946)
- October 26 - H. B. Warner, English stage, screen actor (ت. 1958)
- October 31 - Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian political leader (Iron Man of India) (ت. 1950)
- November 8 - Qiu Jin, Chinese revolutionary, writer and feminist (ت. 1907)
- November 14 - Gregorio del Pilar, Filipino general (ت. 1899)
- November 30
- December 4 - Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet (ت. 1926)
- December 5 - Arthur Currie, Canadian general (ت. 1933)
- December 6 - Evelyn Underhill, British writer (ت. 1941)
- December 11 - Yehuda Leib Maimon, Bassarabian-born Israeli rabbi, government minister (ت. 1962)
- December 12 - Gerd von Rundstedt, German field marshal (ت. 1953)
- December 15 - Emilio Jacinto, Filipino poet, revolutionary (ت. 1899)
- December 19 - Mileva Marić, Albert Einstein's first wife (ت. 1948)
- December 24 - Otto Ender, 8th Chancellor of Austria (ت. 1960)
- December 25 - Theodor Innitzer, Austrian Catholic cardinal (ت. 1955)
- January 20 - جان-فرانسوا ميليه, French painter (و. 1814)
- January 23 - Charles Kingsley, English writer (و. 1819)
- February 22
- March 1 - Tristan Corbière, French poet (و. 1845)
- April 4 - Karl Mauch, German explorer (و. 1837)
- 25 أبريل - الدالاي لاما الثاني عشر (و. 1857)
- May 17 - John C. Breckinridge, 14th Vice President of the United States, Confederate States Secretary of War (و. 1821)
- May 31 - Eliphas Lévi, French occult author, magician (و. 1810)
- June 2 - Józef Kremer, Polish philosopher (و. 1806)
- 3 يونيو - جورج بيزيه، ملحن فرنسي (و. 1838)
- June 4 - Eduard Mörike, German poet (و. 1804)
- June 25 - Antoine-Louis Barye, French sculptor (و. 1796)
- June 29 - Ferdinand I of Austria, Emperor of Austria (و. 1793)
- July 8 - Francis Preston Blair Jr., American politician, Civil War officer (و. 1821)
- July 29 - Paschal Beverly Randolph, American occultist (و. 1825)
- July 30 - George Pickett, American Confederate General (و. 1825)
- July 31 - Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States (و. 1808)
- August 4 - Hans Christian Andersen، كاتب دنماركي (و. 1805)
- 6 أغسطس - گابرييل گارسيا مورينو، رئيس الإكوادور السابق. (و. 1821)
- August 10 - Karl Andree, German geographer (و. 1808)
- August 12 - János Kardos, Hungarian Slovenes evangelic priest, teacher, and writer (و. 1801)
- August 14 - William Alexander Graham, United States Senator from North Carolina, (1840-1843), Confederate States Senator (1864-1865) (و. 1804)
- August 17 - Wilhelm Bleek, German linguist (و. 1827)
- September 22 - Charles Bianconi, Italian-Irish entrepreneur (و. 1786)
- 10 أكتوبر - ألكسي كونستانتينوڤتش تولستوي، كاتب روسي (و. 1817)
- October 15 - Chief Lone Horn, Native American Chief (و. 1790)
- October 12 - Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, French sculptor, painter (و. 1827)
- October 24 - Jacques Paul Migne, French priest, theologian, and publisher (و. 1800)
- November 7 - Werner Munzinger, Swiss adventurer (و. 1832)
- 22 نوفمبر - هنري ولسون، نائب رئيس الولايات المتحدة الثامن عشر (و. 1812)
- November 24 - William Backhouse Astor, Sr., American businessman (و. 1792)
- December 25 - Young Tom Morris, Scottish golfer (و. 1851)
- ^ Smith, Ronald A. (1988). Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics. New York: Oxford University Press.
- ^ "The Origins of Hibernian - Part 1". Hibernian FC: The Official Website. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- ^ "The Early Years 1875-1904" (PDF). When Football Was Football. Haynes. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- ^ This inspires Gerard Manley Hopkins' poem The Wreck of the Deutschland, not published until 1918.
- ^ Gordon, Richard (1994). The Alarming History of Medicine. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-312-10411-1.
- ^ History of Medicine Days Archived June 15, 2004, at the Wayback Machine., p. 132.
Further reading and year books
- 1875 Annual Cyclopedia (1876) highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" for year 1875; massive compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage; 801pp