شي جنپنگ (تـُنطق /ˈʃiː dʒɪnˈpɪŋ/ SHEE jin-PING؛ بالإنگليزية: Xi Jinping؛ وُلِد في 1 يونيو 1953) هو سياسي صيني يعمل حالياً أميناً عاماً للحزب الشيوعي الصيني، ورئيس جمهورية الصين الشعبية، ورئيس المفوضية العسكرية المركزية. ولما كان شي يشغل المناصب العليا في الحزب والعسكرية، بالاضافة لكونه رأس الدولة عبر منصب الرئيس، فأحياناً يشار إليه بأنه "الزعيم الأعلى" للصين. وفي 2016، أسبغ عليه الحزب لقب قائد "اللـُب"، الذي لم يُمنح قبله إلا لكل من ماو تسى تونگ ودنگ شياوپنگ. وكأمين عام، يحتفظ شي بمقعد المسئول السابق في اللجنة الدائمة للمكتب السياسي للحزب الشيوعي الصيني، أعلى هيئة مسئولة في الصين.
شي جنپنگ هو أول رئيس لجمهورية الصين الشعبية يولد بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية. كإبن الشيوعي المخضرم شي ژونگشون، أمضى شي جنپنگ سنوات في مقاطعة فوجيان في مطلع حياته العملية. وعـُيـِّن لاحقاً رئيساً للحزب في مقاطعة ژجيانگ المجاورة، ثم عـُيـِّن رئيساً للحزب في شانغهاي إثر طرد تشن ليانگيو. معروف بمواقفه الشديدة تجاه الفساد وبالانفتاح الصريح حول الاصلاحات السياسية واقتصاد السوق، جمع شي للمناصب يجعله الوريث المفترض للأمين العام والرئيس الحالي هو جينتاو والزعيم البازغ للجيل الخامس من زعامات الحزب الشيوعي الصيني.
منذ توليه السلطة، عمل شي إضفاء الشرعية على دعم سلطة الحزب الشيوعي بتقديم إجراءات واسعة النطاق لفرض النظام على الحزب وتأمين الوحدة الداخلية. فبدأ حملة على الفساد غير مسبوقة وواسعة النطاق، أدت إلى سقوط مسئولين بارزين حاليين ومتقاعدين. كما فرض شي مزيداً من القيود على المجتمع المدني والحوار الأيديولوجي، مروّجاً لمفهوم "السيادة في الإنترنت"، وهي الفكرة القائلة بأن كل بلد له الحق في السيطرة على فضائها المحلي على الإنترنت عبر الرقابة.
ويعتبر شي الشخصية المركزية الجيل الخامس من القادة بالجمهورية الشعبية، وقد استجمع شي بشكل بارز سلطات مؤسساتية بتولي نطاق واسع من المناصب القيادية، بما في ذلك ترؤس مفوضية الأمن القومي المشكـّلة حديثاً، وكذلك اللجان القيادية الحديثة للإصلاح الاقتصادي والاجتماعي ، والإصلاح العسكري، والإنترنت. كما نادى شي بالمزيد من اصلاحات السوق الاقتصادية، للحوكمة طبق القانون ولتقوية المؤسسات القانونية، بتركيز على التطلعات الفردية والوطنية تحت شعار "الحلم الصيني". كما قاد شي سياسة خارجية أكثر إصراراً، خصوصاً فيما يتعلق بالعلاقات الصينية اليابانية، ومطالب الصين في بحر الصين الجنوبي، ودورها كمدافع رئيسي عن حرية التجارة والعولمة. كما سعى لتوسيع النفوذ الإقليمي للصين عبر مبادرة السير والطريق، ولعب دوراً قيادياً في مكافحة التغير المناخي، واستثمر بقدر كبير في الطاقة والموارد الطبيعية. وفي آخر عام 2017، أطلقت عليه مجلة الإكونومست لقب “أقوى رجل في العالم”.
- 1 النشأة
- 2 الارتقاء إلى السلطة
- 3 عضو اللجنة القائمة في المكتب السياسي
- 4 الزعامة
- 5 المواقف السياسية
- 6 الحياة الشخصية
- 7 التكريم
- 8 تسجيلات مرئية
- 9 انظر أيضاً
- 10 الهامش
- 11 وصلات خارجية
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وُلِد شي جنپنگ في بكين في 15 يونيو 1953. بعد تأسيس الدولة الشيوعية في 1949، شغل والد شي سلسلة من المناصب، منها رئيس الپروپاگندا، نائب رئيس الوزراء، ونائب رئيس مؤتمر الشعب الوطني. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Shaanxi, and Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. He is the second son of Xi Zhongxun and his wife Qi Xin.
وحين كان شي في العاشرة من عمره، أقيل أبوه من الحزب وأُرسِل للعمل في مصنع في لوويانگ، خنان. In May 1966, Xi's secondary education was cut short by the Cultural Revolution, when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Xi was age 15 when his father was jailed in 1968 during the Cultural Revolution. Without the protection of his father, Xi was sent to work in Yanchuan County, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. After a few months, unable to stand rural life, he ran away to Beijing. He was arrested during a crackdown on deserters from the countryside and sent to a work camp to dig ditches. He later became the Party branch secretary of the production team, leaving that post in 1975. When asked about this experience later by Chinese state television, Xi recalled, "It was emotional. It was a mood. And when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."
From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's prestigious Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", where engineering majors spent about one-fifth of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought, doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army".
From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the then vice premier and secretary-general of the Central Military Commission. This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study U.S. agriculture, he visited the town of Muscatine, Iowa. This trip, and his two-week stay with a U.S. family, has been considered influential in his views on the United States.
From 1998 to 2002, he studied Marxist philosophy and ideological education in an "on-the-job" postgraduate programme at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, again at Tsinghua University, and obtained a Doctor of Law (LLD) degree, which was a degree covering fields of law, politics, management, and revolutionary history, though commentators have questioned this qualification.
الارتقاء إلى السلطة
Xi joined the Communist Youth League of China in 1971 and the Communist Party of China in 1974. In 1982, he was sent to Zhengding County in Hebei as deputy Party Secretary of Zhengding County. He was promoted in 1983 to Secretary, becoming the top official of the county. Xi subsequently served in four provinces during his regional political career: Hebei (1982–1985), Fujian (1985–2002), Zhejiang (2002–2007), and Shanghai (2007).
عضو اللجنة القائمة في المكتب السياسي
Xi was appointed to the nine-man Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China at the 17th Party Congress in October 2007. Xi was ranked above Li Keqiang, an indication that he was going to succeed Hu Jintao as China's next leader. In addition, Xi also held the top-ranking membership of the Communist Party's Central Secretariat. This assessment was further supported at the 11th National People's Congress in March 2008, when Xi was elected as Vice-President of the People's Republic of China.
Following his elevation, Xi has held a broad range of portfolios. He was put in charge of the comprehensive preparations for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, as well as being the central government's leading figure in Hong Kong and Macau affairs. In addition, he also became the new President of the Central Party School of the Communist Party of China, the cadre-training and ideological education wing of the Communist Party. In the wake of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, Xi visited disaster areas in Shaanxi and Gansu. Xi made his first foreign trip as vice president to North Korea, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Yemen from 17 to 25 June 2008. After the Olympics, Xi was assigned the post of Committee Chair for the preparations of the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of the founding of the People's Republic of China. He was also reportedly at the helm of a top-level Communist Party committee dubbed the 6521 Project, which was charged with ensuring social stability during a series of politically sensitive anniversaries in 2009.
Xi is considered to be one of the most successful members of the Crown Prince Party, a quasi-clique of politicians who are descendants of early Chinese Communist revolutionaries. Former Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, when asked about Xi, said he felt he was "a thoughtful man who has gone through many trials and tribulations." Lee also commented: "I would put him in the Nelson Mandela class of persons. A person with enormous emotional stability who does not allow his personal misfortunes or sufferings affect his judgment. In other words, he is impressive". Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson described Xi as "the kind of guy who knows how to get things over the goal line." Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said that Xi "has sufficient reformist, party and military background to be very much his own man." Former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton tweeted, "Xi hosting a meeting on women's rights at the UN while persecuting feminists? Shameless."
الرحلات كنائب رئيس وحادث تعليق المكسيك
In February 2009, in his capacity as vice-president, Xi Jinping embarked on a tour of Latin America, visiting Mexico, Jamaica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil to promote Chinese ties in the region and boost the country's reputation in the wake of the global financial crisis. He also visited Valletta, Malta, before returning to China.
On 11 February, while visiting Mexico, Xi spoke in front of a group of overseas Chinese and explained China's contributions to the financial crisis, saying that it was "the greatest contribution towards the whole of human race, made by China, to prevent its 1.3 billion people from hunger". Xi went on to remark: "There are some bored foreigners, with full stomachs, who have nothing better to do than point fingers at us. First, China doesn't export revolution; second, China doesn't export hunger and poverty; third, China doesn't come and cause you headaches. What more is there to be said?" The story was reported on some local television stations. The news led to a flood of discussions on Chinese internet forums. It was reported that the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs was caught off-guard by Xi's remarks, as the actual video was shot by some accompanying Hong Kong reporters and broadcast on Hong Kong TV, which then turned up in various internet video websites.
Xi continued his international trips, some say to burnish his foreign affairs credentials prior to taking the helm of China's leadership. In the European Union, Xi visited Belgium, Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 7 October to 21 2009. Xi visited Japan, South Korea, Cambodia, and Myanmar on his Asian trip from 14 to 22 December 2009.
Xi visited the United States, Ireland and Turkey in February 2012. The visit included meeting with then U.S. President Barack Obama at the White House and then Vice President Joe Biden; and stops in California and Iowa, where he met with the family which previously hosted him during his 1985 tour as a Hebei provincial official.
A few months before his ascendancy to the party leadership, Xi Jinping disappeared from official media coverage for several weeks beginning on 1 September 2012. On 4 September, he cancelled a meeting with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and later also cancelled meetings with Singapore's Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and a top Russian official. It was said that Xi effectively "went on strike" in preparation for the power transition in order to install political allies in key roles. The Washington Post reported that Xi may have been injured in an altercation during a meeting of the "red second generation" which turned violent.
الصعود إلى المناصب العليا
الحملة على الفساد
الرحلات الأجنبية كرئيس
] Archived 11 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.</ref> In October 2015, Xi made a state visit to the United Kingdom, the first by a Chinese leader for a decade. This followed a visit to China in March 2015 by the Duke of Cambridge. During the state visit, Xi met Queen Elizabeth II, British Prime Minister David Cameron and other dignitaries. Increased customs, trade and research collaborations between China and the UK were discussed, but more informal events also took place including a visit to Manchester City's football academy.
In March 2016, Xi visited the Czech Republic on his way to United States of America. In Prague, he met with the Czech president, prime minister and other representatives, to promote relations and economic cooperation between the Czech Republic and the People's Republic of China. His visit was met by a considerable number of protests by Czech people.
In January 2017, Xi became the first Chinese President to plan to attend the World Economic Forum in Davos. On January 17, Xi addressed the forum in a high-profile keynote, addressing globalization, the global trade agenda, and China's rising place in the world's economy and international governance; he made a series of pledges about China's defense of "economic globalization" and climate change accords. Premier Li Keqiang attended the forum in 2015 and Vice-President Li Yuanchao did so in 2016. During the three day state visit to the country in 2017 Xi also visited the World Health Organization, the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee. --->
الحكم مدى الحياة
في 18 مارس 2018، قام مؤتمر الشعب الوطني بتمرير مجموعة من التعديلات الدستورية والتي تشمل إزالة الحدود المفروضة على فترة حكم الرئيس ونائب الرئيس، تأسيس لجنة إشراف وطنية، وكذلك تعزيز الدور المركزي للحزب الشيوعي. في 17 مارس 2018، أُعيد تعيين شي من قبل المجلس التشريعي الصيني كرئيس، بدون قيود على فترة الولاية، وعُين وانگ تشيشان نائباً للرئيس. في اليوم التالي أُعيد تعيين لي كهتشييانگ وزيراً أول وتم التصويت على تحالفات طويلة الأجل بين شي شو تشيليانگ وژانگ يوشيا كنائب لرئيس اللجنة العسكرية. كذلك تم ترقية وزير الخارجية وانگ يي كمستشاراً للدولة والجنرال وي فنگهى كوزيراً للدفاع.
كما تحدث شي بشكل غير مباشر عن "المحور الإستراتيجي" الأمريكي إلى آسيا.
In April 2015, new satellite imagery revealed that China was rapidly constructing an airfield on Fiery Cross Reef in the Spratly Islands of the South China Sea. In May 2015, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter warned the government of Xi Jinping to halt its rapid island-building in disputed territory in the South China Sea.
In spite of what seemed to be a tumultuous start of Xi Jinping's leadership vis-à-vis the United-States, on 13 May 2017 Xi said at the Belt and Road Forum in Beijing: “We should foster a new type of international relations featuring 'win-win cooperation', and we should forge a partnership of dialogue with no confrontation, and a partnership of friendship rather than alliance. All countries should respect each other's sovereignty, dignity and territorial integrity; respect each other's development path and its social systems, and respect each other's core interests and major concerns... ...What we hope to create is a big family of harmonious coexistence.”
دور الحزب الشيوعي
In the 19th Party Congress held in 2017, Xi reaffirmed six out of the nine principles that had been affirmed continuously since the 16th Party Congress in 2002, with the notable exception of "Placing hopes on the Taiwan people as a force to help bring about unification". According to the Brookings Institution, Xi used stronger language on potential Taiwan independence than his predecessors towards previous DPP governments in Taiwan. In March 2018, Xi said that Taiwan would face the "punishment of history".
- تكريمات أجنبية
- IOC: الوسام الأولمپي الذهبي (19 نوفمبر 2013)
- بلجيكا: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (30 مارس 2014)
- ڤنزويلا: وسام المحرر (20 يوليو 2014)
- كوبا: Order of José Martí (22 يوليو 2014)
- پاكستان: نيشان پاكستان (21 أبريل 2015)
- صربيا: Grand Collar of the Order of the Republic of Serbia (18 يونيو 2016)
- بلاروس: Order for Promotion of Peace and Friendship (29 سبتمبر 2016)
- السعودية: وسام الملك عبد العزيز (2016)
- روسيا: وسام القديس أندرو (3 يوليو 2017)
- مفتاح المدينة
- مسكاتين، آيوا، الولايات المتحدة (1985)
- مسكاتين، آيوا، الولايات المتحدة (14 فبراير 2012)
- مونتگو باي، جامايكا (13 فبراير 2009)
- 25px سان خوسيه، كوستاريكا (3 يونيو 2013)
- مكسيكو سيتي، المكسيك (5 يونيو 2013)
- بوينس آيرس، الأرجنتين (19 يوليو 2014)
- خطاب شي جنپنگ أمام جامعة الدول العربية في 21 يناير 2016
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- ^ Original (Chinese): الصينية المبسطة: 在国际金融风暴中，中国能基本解决13亿人口吃饭的问题，已经是对全人类最伟大的贡献; الصينية التقليدية: 在國際金融風暴中，中國能基本解決13億人口吃飯的問題，已經是對全人類最偉大的貢獻-In Chinese
- ^ Original: الصينية المبسطة: 有些吃饱没事干的外国人，对我们的事情指手画脚。中国一不输出革命，二不输出饥饿和贫困，三不折腾你们，还有什么好说的？; الصينية التقليدية: 有些吃飽沒事干的外國人，對我們的事情指手畫腳。中國一不輸出革命，二不輸出飢餓和貧困，三不折騰你們，還有什麽好說的？
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