شآن‌شي

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Shaanxi Province

陕西省
الترجمة اللفظية بالـ Name
 • Chinese陕西省 (Shǎnxī Shěng)
 • AbbreviationSN / or (پن‌ين: Shǎn / Qín)
Map showing the location of Shaanxi Province
Map showing the location of Shaanxi Province
الإحداثيات: 35°36′N 108°24′E / 35.6°N 108.4°E / 35.6; 108.4Coordinates: 35°36′N 108°24′E / 35.6°N 108.4°E / 35.6; 108.4
العاصمة
(وأكبر مدينة)
شي‌آن
التقسيمات10 prefectures، 107 counties، 1745 townships
الحكومة
 • SecretaryHu Heping
 • GovernorLiu Guozhong
المساحة
 • الإجمالي205٬800 كم² (79٬500 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة11th
أعلى منسوب
3٬767٫2 m (12٬359٫6 ft)
التعداد
 (2010)[2]
 • الإجمالي37٬327٬378
 • الترتيب16th
 • الكثافة180/km2 (470/sq mi)
 • ترتيب الكثافة21st
Demographics
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 99.5%
Hui – 0.4%
 • Languages and dialectsZhongyuan Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Jin
ISO 3166 codeCN-SN
GDP (2017[3])CNY 2.19 trillion
USD 324.34 billion (15th)
 • per capitaCNY 57,266
USD 8,482 (12th)
HDI (2018) 0.756[4]
high · 14th
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.shaanxi.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)
شآن‌شي
Shaanxi (Chinese characters).svg
"Shaanxi" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
اسم صيني
صينية مبسطة 陕西
صينية تقليدية 陝西
هان‌يو پن‌ين Shǎnxī 
المعني الحرفي "West of the Shǎn (Pass)"
اسم دونگاني
دونگان Шанщи

شآن‌شي  (الصينية المبسطة: 陕 西الصينية التقليدية: 陝 西پن‌ين: Shǎnxī; ويد-جايلز: Shan-hsi; تهجي الخريطة البريدية: Shensi) هي مقاطعة في منطقة شمال غرب الصين من جمهورية الصين الشعبية، وتضم أجزاءً من هضبة لوس في الجزء الأوسط من مجرى النهر الأصفر وكذلك جبال چين‌لينگ عبر الجزء الجنوبي من المقاطعة. وهي الموطن التاريخي، مع گان‌سو، للهجة الدونگان، الذين هم من الهوي الذين هاجروا إلى آسيا الوسطى.


Shaanxi covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (2.206601635425×1012 قدم2) with about 37 million people, the 16th highest in China. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital as well as the largest city in Northwest China[5] and also one of the oldest cities in China and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, being the capital for the Western Zhou, Western Han, Jin, Sui and Tang dynasties.[6] Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is just north across Wei River. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.

Shaanxi is geographically divided into three parts, namely Northern, Central and Southern Shaanxi. Northern Shaanxi (or "Shaanbei") makes up the southeastern portion of the Ordos Basin, and mainly comprises the two prefectural cities of Yulin and Yan'an on the northern Loess Plateau, demarcated from the Ordos Desert and the grasslands of Inner Mongolia's Ordos City by the Ming Great Wall. Central Shaanxi (or "Shaanzhong") is also known as the Guanzhong region, and comprises the drainage basin of lower Wei River east of Mount Long and north of the Qinling Mountains, where the majority of Shaanxi's population reside. Southern Shaanxi (or "Shaannan") comprises of the three prefectural cities in the edge of the historical Bashu region south of the Qinling Mountains, and includes the three mountainous cities of Hanzhong, Ankang and Shangluo. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi and Henan provinces, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.

The vast majority of the population of Shaanxi is Han Chinese. Mandarin is mainly spoken in Shaanxi, including Zhongyuan Mandarin and Southwestern Mandarin; another variety of Chinese, Jin, is also spoken.

Shaanxi is China's 15th largest economy, ranking within the middle among China's administrative divisions. The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi Province. The high technology sector includes aircraft and aerospace industries, and Shaanxi produces more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial aviation industry.[7]

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الاسم

The name "Shaanxi" is an irregular romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese name 陕西, meaning "[Land] West of the Shan Pass". This pass in Henan, now part of Sanmenxia's Shanzhou District, was considered to be the place where the Yellow River left the Loess Plateau and entered the North China Plain.

Because the Mandarin pronunciation of Shaanxi and its eastern neighbor Shanxi differs only in tone, their spelling in pinyin romanization differs only by tone marks (Shǎnxī and Shānxī, respectively). The People's Republic of China therefore adopted the special official spelling "Shaanxi". The first syllable is derived from Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization[بحاجة لمصدر], which reflects the tones of the words' vowels in their spelling.[8] Before the adoption of pinyin, Shaanxi was romanized as Shensi in the Chinese postal romanization scheme. When tone marks are noted, it is spelled Shǎnxī rather than Shǎanxī or Shaǎnxī.

The Shaanxi–Shanxi ambiguity only occurs in Mandarin and other northern varieties of Chinese that have lost the -m syllable ending. In Cantonese, for example, the two provinces' names are Sím-sāi and Sāan-sāi, and in Hokkien they are Siám-sai and Soaⁿ-sai.

The name first appeared as a lu (circuit) established by the Song dynasty in 997.[9]


التاريخ

Shaanxi is considered one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Thirteen feudal dynasties established their capitals in the province during a span of more than 1,100 years, from the Zhou dynasty to the Tang dynasty.

The province's principal city and current capital, Xi'an, is one of the four great ancient capitals of China and is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, which leads to Europe, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa.

Under the Han dynasty, the Northern Silk Road was expanded to advance exploration and military purposes to the west. This Northern Silk Road is the northernmost of the Silk Roads and is about 2,600 kiloمترs (1,600 ميل) in length. It connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Pass to Wuwei and emerging in Kashgar before linking to ancient Parthia.[10]

The Northern Song dynasty established a Shaanxi Lu, (circuit) in the area, governed from modern Xi'an in 997. The Yuan dynasty established Shaanxi Province (Yuan dynasty), governed by a Branch Secretariat in 1286.[9]

Under the Ming dynasty, Shaanxi was established with the founding of the Saanxi Provincial Administration Commission in 1376, whose administration also included the modern provinces of Gansu, Ningxia, and part of Qinghai.[9]

One of the most devastating earthquakes in history occurred near Hua Shan, in south-eastern part of Shaanxi Province on January 23, 1556, killing an estimated 830,000 people (see 1556 Shaanxi earthquake).

After the founding of the Qing dynasty, Gansu was split from Shaanxi, but both provinces were governed under the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan.

The end of the short-lived Jiangxi Soviet signaled the beginning of the Long March by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communists to the Shaanxi Soviet at Yan'an.

موقع من قبل التاريخ

The Lantian Man site, with hominin fossils of one million years ago, was found in Lantian County in northwestern Shaanxi province, near the city of Xi'an. Scientists classify Lantian Man as a subspecies of Homo erectus. The fossils are displayed at the Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an, China.

الجغرافيا

The geography of the area is described as being part of the Ordos Desert in the north along the border with Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau in the central part of the province, the Qin Mountains (Qinling) running east to west in the south central part, and subtropical climate south of the Qinling. In between the Loess Plateau and the Qinling lies the Wei River Valley, or Guanzhong, a cradle of early Chinese civilization.

Going clockwise, Shaanxi borders Shanxi (E, NE), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). In terms of number of bordering provincial-level divisions, Shaanxi ties Inner Mongolia.

Due to its large span in latitude, Shaanxi has a variety of climates. Under the Köppen climate classification, the northern parts, including the Loess Plateau, have either a cold arid (Köppen BWk) or cold semi-arid (Köppen BSk), with cold and very dry winters, dry springs and autumns, and hot summers. The area known as Guanzhong is mostly semi-arid, though there are a few areas with a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool to cold winters, and hot, humid summers that often see early-season heatwaves. The southern portion is much more humid and lies in the humid subtropical zone, with more temperate winters and long, hot, humid summers. Annual mean temperature is roughly between 8 to 16 °م (46 to 61 °ف), with January temperatures ranging from −11 to 3.5 °م (12.2 to 38.3 °ف) and July temperatures ranging from 21 to 28 °م (70 to 82 °ف).

Besides the provincial capital of Xi'an, other cities include: Baoji, Hanzhong, Lintong, Tongchuan, Xianyang, Yan'an and Ankang.

التقسيمات الادارية

Shaanxi consists of nine prefecture-level cities and one sub-provincial city:

الخريطة # الاسم هان‌زي هان‌يو پن‌ين Administrative Seat
Shaanxi prfc map.png
Sub-provincial city
1 شي‌آن 西安市 شي‌آن شي Weiyang District
مدينة بمستوى محافظة
2 Ankang 安康市 Ānkāng Shì Hanbin District
3 باوجي 宝鸡市 Bǎojī Shì Weibin District
4 Hanzhong 汉中市 Hànzhōng Shì Hantai District
5 Shangluo 商洛市 Shāngluò Shì Shangzhou District
6 Tongchuan 铜川市 Tóngchuān Shì Yaozhou District
7 Weinan 渭南市 Wèinán Shì Linwei District
8 Xianyang 咸阳市 Xiányáng Shì Qindu District
9 Yan'an 延安市 Yán'ān Shì Baota District
10 Yulin 榆林市 Yúlín Shì Yuyang District

See List of administrative divisions of Shaanxi for a complete list of county-level divisions.


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الديمغرافيا

Nearly all the people in Shaanxi are ethnic Han Chinese, with pockets of Hui population in the northwestern region (adjacent to Ningxia). Shaanxi province is one of the centers of ancient Chinese civilization. The southern part of Shaanxi, known as Guanzhong, where the provincial capital Xi'an is located, is more populated compared to the northern part.

Historical population
السنةتعداد±%
1912[11] 9٬364٬000—    
1928[12] 11٬802٬000+26.0%
1936–37[13] 9٬780٬000−17.1%
1947[14] 10٬011٬000+2.4%
1954[15] 15٬881٬281+58.6%
السنةتعداد±%
1964[16] 20٬766٬915+30.8%
1982[17] 28٬904٬423+39.2%
1990[18] 32٬882٬403+13.8%
2000[19] 35٬365٬072+7.6%
2010[20] 37٬327٬378+5.5%
Xi'an part of Shaanxi Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Shaanxi Province.

الأديان

Religion in Shaanxi[21][note 1] ██ Chinese ancestral religion (7.58%)██ Christianity (1.57%)██ Other religions or not religious people[note 2] (90.85%)

The predominant religions in Shaanxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 7.58% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 1.57% of the population identifies as Christian.[21] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.85% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.

الثقافة

مطبخ شآن‌شي


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السياحة

جيش التـِراكوتا

انظر أيضاً

تذييل

  1. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[21] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. ^ This may include:

الهامش

  1. ^ "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  3. ^ 陕西省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Shaanxi on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in الصينية). Statistical Bureau of Shaanxi. 2018-03-09. Archived from the original on 2018-06-22. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  5. ^ 最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查). www.elivecity.cn (in الصينية). Archived from the original on 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  6. ^ "Xi'an - MSN Encarta". 2008-02-28. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة thechinaperspective.com
  8. ^ "The State Council of the People's Republic of China". Archived from the original on 2010-02-12. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  9. ^ أ ب ت Dictionary of the Ben cao gang mu, Volume 2: Geographical and Administrative Designations First Edition, Paul Unschuld, Series Editor Edition by Hua Linfu (Author), Paul D. Buell (Author), Paul U. Unschuld (Editor)
  10. ^ "Silk Road, North China, C.Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham". Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  11. ^ 1912年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  12. ^ 1928年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  13. ^ 1936–37年中国人口. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  14. ^ 1947年全国人口. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  15. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.
  16. ^ 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.
  17. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.
  18. ^ 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.
  19. ^ 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.
  20. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.
  21. ^ أ ب ت China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.

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