گان‌سو

Gansu Province

甘肃省
الكتابة بـName
 • Chinese甘肃省 (Gānsù Shěng)
 • AbbreviationGS / or (pinyin: Gān / Lǒng)
Map showing the location of Gansu Province
Map showing the location of Gansu Province
الإحداثيات: 38°N 102°E / 38°N 102°E / 38; 102Coordinates: 38°N 102°E / 38°N 102°E / 38; 102
السَمِيْ gān: Ganzhou District, Zhangye
/ : Suzhou District, Jiuquan
Capital
(and largest city)
Lanzhou
Divisions14 prefectures، 86 counties، 1344 townships
الحكم
 • SecretaryLin Duo
 • GovernorTang Renjian
المساحة
 • الإجمالية453٬700 كم² (175٬200 ميل²)
ترتيب المساحة7th
أعلى ارتفاع5٬830 m (19٬130 ft)
التعداد(2010)[1]
 • الإجمالي25٬575٬254
 • الترتيب22nd
 • الكثافة56/km2 (150/sq mi)
 • ترتيب الكثافة27th
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition[بحاجة لمصدر]Han: 91%
Hui: 5%
Dongxiang: 2%
Tibetan: 2%
 • Languages and dialectsZhongyuan Mandarin, Lanyin Mandarin, Amdo Tibetan
ISO 3166 codeCN-GS
GDP (2017[2])CNY 767.70 billion
USD 113.70 billion (27th)
 • per capitaCNY 29,326
USD 4,343 (31st)
HDI (2018) 0.691[3]
medium · 27th
الموقع الإلكترونيGansu.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
گان‌سو
Gansu (Chinese characters).svg
"Gansu" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
اسم صيني
صينية مبسطة 甘肃
صينية تقليدية 甘肅
المعني الحرفي "Gan (zhou) and Su (zhou)"
اسم تبتي
التبتية ཀན་སུའུ་

گان‌سو  (صينية مبسطة: 甘肃; صينية تقليدية: 甘肅; پن‌ين: Gānsù; ويد-گايلز: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) هي مقاطعة تقع في الشمال الغربي لجمهورية الصين الشعبية. وتقع بين چينگ‌هاي ومنغوليا الداخلية و Huangtu Plateaus, وتحدها منغوليا إلى الشمال وشين‌جيانگ إلى الغرب. النهر الأصفر يمر عبر الجزء الجنوبي من المقاطعة. ويبلغ عدد سكانها نحو 26 مليون (2004) وبها نسبة تركز عالية من الصينيين الهوي. عاصمة المقاطعة هي لانژو, التي تقع في الجزء الجنوبي الشرقي من گانسو. گانسو كثيراً ما تُختصر إلى گان Gan أو لونگ Long (陇/隴), وتـُعرف كذلك باسم غرب جبال لونگ Long West أو يمين جبال لونگ Long Right, وتلك الجبال تقع إلى الشرق من گان‌سو. Part of Gansu's territory is located in the Gobi Desert. The Qilian mountains are located in the south of the Province.

Gansu has a population of 26 million, ranking 22nd in China. Its population is mostly Han, along with Hui, Dongxiang and Tibetan minorities. The most common language is Mandarin. Gansu is among the poorest administrative divisions in China, ranking 31st in GDP per capita. Most of Gansu's economy is based on the mining industry and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. Tourism also plays a role in Gansu's economy.

The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu and went on to form the first known Empire in what is now China. The Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor, which passes through Gansu, resulting in it being an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire.

The city of Jiayuguan, the second most populated city in Gansu, is known for its section of the Great Wall and the Jiayuguan Pass fortress complex.

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الاسم

گان‌سو هو اسم مركـَّب استـُعمِل لأول مرة في أسرة سونگ الصين, من محافظتين من أسرتي سوي و تانگ (州): Gan (around Zhangyi) and Su (around Jiuquan).

Gansu is a compound of the names of Gānzhou (now the main urban district and seat of Zhangye) and Sùzhou (an old name and the modern seat of Jiuquan), formerly the two most important Chinese settlements in the Hexi Corridor.

Gansu is abbreviated as "" (Gān) or "" (Lǒng), and was also known as Longxi (الصينية المبسطة: 陇西; حرفياً ""[land] west of Long"") or Longyou (الصينية المبسطة: 陇右; حرفياً ""[land] right of Long"") prior to early Western Han dynasty, in reference to the Long Mountain (the modern day Liupan Mountain's southern section) between eastern Gansu and western Shaanxi.[بحاجة لمصدر]


التاريخ

The ruins of a Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk Road

Gansu's name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty. It is a combination of the names of two prefecture () in the Sui and Tang dynasty: Gan (around Zhangye) and Su (around Jiuquan). Its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.

گان‌سو القديمة

In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC.[5] The Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively.

The Yuezhi originally lived in the very western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE.

The State of Qin, known in China as the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu, specifically the Tianshui area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, in part, from the area.[6][7] Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County.[8]

العصر الامبراطوري

Xindian culture era jar with two lug handles uncovered in Gansu, dating to around 1,000 BC
The ruins of a gate at Yumen Pass, built during the Jin dynasty (265–420)

In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province. The Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan (Jade Gate Pass, near Dunhuang) and Yangguan fort towns along it. Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi, Wusun, and other nomadic tribes dwelt (Shiji 123), occasionally figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics.

By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period.[9]

After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur (Uyghur) state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD.

Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and Buddhist grottoes[10] such as those at Mogao Caves ('Caves of the Thousand Buddhas') and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and historically revealing murals.[11] An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006.[12]

The Xixia or Western Xia dynasty controlled much of Gansu as well as Ningxia.

The province was also the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862–77. Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims. The revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai.

There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896.


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الصين الجمهورية

As a result of frequent earthquakes, droughts and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was significantly slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people mostly in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, and another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932.[13]

The Muslim Conflict in Gansu (1927–1930) was a conflict against the Guominjun.

While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was previously his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.[14] Xinjiang came under Kuomintang (Nationalist) control after their soldiers entered via Gansu.[15] Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight.[16]

Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang.[17] Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War.[18] Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua (Ürümqi).[19] Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway.[when?][20]

The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China (1950–1958) was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu.

الجغرافيا

The fall of the Daxia River into the Yellow River's Liujiaxia Reservoir, in Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture

Gansu has an area of 454,000 kiloمتر مربعs (4.89×1012 قدم2), and the vast majority of its land is more than 1,000 مترs (3,300 قدم) above sea level. It lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province) to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, and Xinjiang to the west. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. The province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at 35°50′40.9″N 103°27′7.5″E / 35.844694°N 103.452083°E / 35.844694; 103.452083 (Geographical centre of China).[21]

Part of the Gobi Desert is located in Gansu, as well as small parts of the Badain Jaran Desert and the Tengger Desert.

The Yellow River gets most of its water from Gansu, flowing straight through Lanzhou. The area around Wuwei is part of Shiyang River Basin.[22]

The landscape in Gansu is very mountainous in the south and flat in the north. The mountains in the south are part of the Qilian Mountains, while the far western Altyn-Tagh contains the province's highest point, at 5,830 مترs (19,130 قدم).

A natural land passage known as Hexi Corridor, stretching some 1,000 kiloمترs (3,300,000 قدم) from Lanzhou to the Jade Gate, is situated within the province. It is bound from north by the Gobi Desert and Qilian Mountains from the south.

Gansu generally has a semi-arid to arid continental climate (Köppen BSk or BWk) with warm to hot summers and cold to very cold winters, although diurnal temperature ranges are often so large that maxima remain above 0 °م (32 °ف) even in winter. However, due to extreme altitude, some areas of Gansu exhibit a subarctic climate (Dwc) – with winter temperatures sometimes dropping to −40 °م (−40 °ف). Most of the limited precipitation is delivered in the summer months: winters are so dry that snow cover is confined to very high altitudes and the snow line can be as high as 5,500 مترs (18,040 قدم) in the southwest.


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التقسيمات الإدارية

Gansu is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities and two autonomous prefectures:

التقسيمات الادارية لـگان‌سو
Division code[23] Division Area in km2[24] Population 2010[25] Seat Divisions[26]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
620000 Gansu Province 425800.00 25,575,254 Lanzhou city 17 58 7 4
620100 Lanzhou city 13,103.04 3,616,163 Chengguan District 5 3
620200 Jiayuguan city* 2,935.00 231,853 Shengli Subdistrict
620300 Jinchang city 7,568.84 464,050 Jinchuan District 1 1
620400 Baiyin city 20,164.09 1,708,751 Baiyin District 2 3
620500 Tianshui city 14,312.13 3,262,548 Qinzhou District 2 4 1
620600 Wuwei city 32,516.91 1,815,054 Liangzhou District 1 2 1
620700 Zhangye city 39,436.54 1,199,515 Ganzhou District 1 4 1
620800 Pingliang city 11,196.71 2,068,033 Kongtong District 1 6
620900 Jiuquan city 193,973.78 1,095,947 Suzhou District 1 2 2 2
621000 Qingyang city 27,219.71 2,211,191 Xifeng District 1 7
621100 Dingxi city 19,646.14 2,698,622 Anding District 1 6
621200 Longnan city 27,856.69 2,567,718 Wudu District 1 8
622900 Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture 8,116.57 1,946,677 Linxia city 5 2 1
623000 Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 38,311.56 689,132 Hezuo city 7 1
* – direct-piped cities – does not contain any county-level divisions

The fourteen Prefecture of Gansu are subdivided into 82 county-level divisions (17 districts, 4 county-level cities, 58 counties, and 3 autonomous counties).

المناطق الحضرية

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[27] District area[27] City proper[27] Census date
1 Lanzhou 2,438,595 2,628,426 3,616,163 2010-11-01
2 Tianshui 544,441 1,197,174 3,262,549 2010-11-01
3 Baiyin 362,363 486,799 1,708,752 2010-11-01
4 Wuwei 331,370 1,010,295 1,815,059 2010-11-01
5 Jiuquan 255,739 428,346 1,095,947 2010-11-01
6 Pingliang 248,421 504,848 2,068,033 2010-11-01
7 Linxia 220,895 274,466 part of Linxia Prefecture 2010-11-01
8 Zhangye 216,760 507,433 1,199,515 2010-11-01
9 Jiayuguan 216,362 231,853 231,853 2010-11-01
10 Jinchang 195,409 228,561 464,050 2010-11-01
11 Qingyang 181,780 377,528 2,211,191 2010-11-01
12 Dingxi 158,062 420,614 2,698,624 2010-11-01
13 Longnan 136,468 555,004 2,567,718 2010-11-01
14 Dunhuang 111,535 186,027 see Jiuquan 2010-11-01
(15) Huating[أ] 88,454 189,333 see Pingliang 2010-11-01
16 Yumen 78,940 159,792 see Jiuquan 2010-11-01
17 Hezuo 57,384 90,290 see Gannan Prefecture 2010-11-01
  1. ^ Huating County is currently known as Huating CLC after census.

مشروع مكافحة التصحر

بنك التنمية الآسيوي يعمل حالياً مع State Forestry Administration of China on the Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration project, designed to prevent degradation and desertification in Gansu. It is estimated to cost up to US$150 million.

السياسة

Gates of a provincial government complex in Lanzhou

Secretaries of the CPC Gansu Committee: The Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee is the highest ranking office within Gansu Province. [28]

  1. Zhang Desheng (张德生): 1949-1954
  2. Zhang Zhongliang (张仲良): 1954-1961
  3. Wang Feng (汪锋): 1961-1966
  4. Hu Jizong (胡继宗): 1966-1967
  5. Xian Henghan (冼恒汉): 1970-1977
  6. Song Ping (宋平): 1977-1981
  7. Feng Jixin (冯纪新): 1981-1983
  8. Li Ziqi (李子奇): 1983-1990
  9. Gu Jinchi (顾金池): 1990-1993
  10. Yan Haiwang (阎海旺): 1993-1998
  11. Sun Ying (孙英): 1998-2001
  12. Song Zhaosu (宋照肃): 2001-2003
  13. Su Rong (苏荣): 2003-2007
  14. Lu Hao (陆浩): April 2007[28] - incumbent

الاقتصاد

النهر الأصفر كما يبدو من متنزه الپاگودا البيضاء.

الانتاج الزراعي يضم القطن, زيت بذرة الكتان, الذرة, البطيخ (شمام بايلان له شهيرة كبيرة في أرجاء الصين), millet, و القمح. وتشتهر گانسو كمصدر للأعشاب الطبية البرية التي تـُستخدم في الطب الصيني.

إلا أن معظم اقتصاد گانسو يعتمد على التعدين واستخراج المعادن, وخاصة العناصر الترابية النادرة. وتحتوي المقاطعة على رواسب هامة من الأنتيمون, الكروم والفحم والكوبالت والنحاس والفلوريت والجبس والإريديوم والحديد والرصاص والحجر الجيري والزئبق وميرابيليت والنيكل والنفط الخام والبلاتين وترويليت والتنگستن والزنك وغيرها. حقول النفط في يومن وتشانگ تشينگ يعتبروا من الحقول الهامة في الصين.

Industries other than mining include electricity generation, petrochemicals, oil exploration machinery, and building materials.

According to some sources, the province is also a center of China's nuclear industry.

الديمغرافيا

On the streets of Linxia

اللغات

الثقافة

Sheep grazing beside a main road near Jiuquan

السياحة

A terracotta warrior from Gansu, with traces of polychrome and gold, from the Tang Dynasty (618-907)


مركز إطلاق الفضاء

The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center is located in the Gobi desert in Gansu Province.

طوابع البريد

التعليم

الجامعات والكليات

الموارد الطبيعية

الأرض

المعادن

الطاقة

الحياة النباتية والحيوانية[29]

انظر ايضا

المصادر

  1. ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  2. ^ 甘肃省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Statistical Communiqué of Gansu Province on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development] (in الصينية). Statistical Bureau of Gansu. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  4. ^ 1957–, Powers, John (2017). The Buddha party: how the people's Republic of China works to define and control Tibetan Buddhism. New York. pp. Appendix B, page 6. ISBN 9780199358151. OCLC 947145370.
  5. ^ Dadiwan Relics Break Archeological Records
  6. ^ Xinhua – English Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ People's Daily Online – Chinese surname history: Qin
  8. ^ Over 2,200-Year-old Map Discovered in NW China Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ Turghun Almas, "Uygurlar", Kashgar, 1989.
  10. ^ English.people.com.cn
  11. ^ "Artistic treasures of Maiji Mountain caves" by Alok Shrotriya and Zhou Xue-ying. Asianart.com
  12. ^ Xinhuanet.com
  13. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  14. ^ Harrison Forman (19 July 1942). "Moslem War Lord Isolated by China; Ma Pu-ching Sent to Swamps of Tibet With the Title of Reclamation Commissioner Member of a Noted Clan Vital Route to Russia Passes Through Area With 15,000,000 Believers in the Koran". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7.
  16. ^ Alan Armstrong (2006). Preemptive Strike: The Secret Plan that Would Have Prevented the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Lyons Press. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-1-59228-913-4. airfield kansu.
  17. ^ Peter Fleming (19 August 2014). News from Tartary: An Epic Journey Across Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. pp. 264–. ISBN 978-0-85773-495-2.
  18. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. CUP Archive. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
  19. ^ Tetsuya Kataoka (1974). Resistance and Revolution in China: The Communists and the Second United Front. University of California Press. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-0-520-02553-0. airfield kansu.
  20. ^ Ginsburgs (11 November 2013). Communist China and Tibet: The First Dozen Years. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-94-017-5057-8.
  21. ^ English.people.com.cn
  22. ^ FutureWater. "Groundwater Management Exploration Package". # Wageningen, Netherlands. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  23. ^ 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 (in الصينية). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
  24. ^ بالصينية: {{{1}}}Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》 (in الصينية). China Statistics Print. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  25. ^ Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China; Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料 (1 ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
  26. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in الصينية). China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  27. ^ أ ب ت 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Print. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  28. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة xinhua
  29. ^ http://www.gansu.gov.cn/en/BasicDetail.asp?CID=50

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Gansu