صينيو الهان

(تم التحويل من Han Chinese)
صينيو الهان
/
漢人/汉人
Laozi.jpg Confucius - Project Gutenberg eText 15250.jpg Enchoen27n3200.jpg Mozi drawing.jpg Shangyang.jpg
لاوزي كونفوشيوس سون تزو موزي شانگ يانگ
Qinshihuang.jpg Li Bing Statue 2.JPG 漢武帝.jpg Sima Qian (painted portrait).jpg Cai-lun.jpg
تشين شي هوانگ لي بينگ وو من هان سيما چيان تساي لون
Zhang Heng.jpg Zhuge Kongming Sancai Tuhui.jpg Juchungzi.jpg Sui Wendi Tang.jpg TangTaizong.jpg
ژانگ هنگ ژوگه ليانگ زو تشونگ‌ژي ون من سوي تاي‌زونگ من تانگ
A Tang Dynasty Empress Wu Zetian.JPG Libai touxiang.jpg Su shi.jpg 蘇頌全身.jpg Shen Kua sketch.jpg
وو زى‌تيان لي باي سو شي سو سونگ شن كوو
Yue fei.jpg 明太祖画像.jpg Wang-yang-ming.jpg Yuan Chonghuan.jpg Liu Yongfu.jpg
يوى فـِيْ هونگ‌وو الامبراطور وانگ يانگ‌منگ يوان تشونگ‌هوان ليو يونگ‌فو
Qiu jin.jpg Lu Xun 1936.jpg Sun Yat-sen 2.jpg Bruce Lee as Kato 1967.jpg Yuan Longping in 1962.jpg
چيو جين لو شون صن يات-سن بروس لي يوان لونگ‌پينگ
Deng Xiaoping.jpg TD Lee.jpg Madame Tussauds HK andylau.JPG Yuan T. Lee 1-1.jpg YaoMingonoffense2.jpg
دنگ شياوپنگ تسونگ-داو لي أندي لاو يوان تسي لي ياو مينگ
إجمالي التعداد
حوالي 1.300 بليون نسمة[1]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg الصين 1.240 بليون[2]
 تايوان 22,575,365
Flag of تايلند تايلند 9,392,792[3]
Flag of ماليزيا ماليزيا 6,650,000[4][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of الولايات المتحدة الولايات المتحدة 3,794,673[5]
Flag of إندونسيا إندونسيا 2,832,510[6]
Flag of سنغافورة سنغافورة 2,547,300[7]
Flag of بورما بورما 1,637,540[8]
Flag of كندا كندا 1,487,580[9]
Flag of the Philippines الفلپين 1,350,000[10][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of پيرو پيرو 1,300,000[11]
Flag of كمبوديا كمبوديا 1,180,000[12]
 كوريا الجنوبية 898,113[13][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of أستراليا أستراليا 866,200[14][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of ڤيتنام ڤيتنام 823,070[15]
Flag of اليابان اليابان 655,377[16]
Flag of المملكة المتحدة المملكة المتحدة 433,150[17]
Flag of ڤنزويلا ڤنزويلا 400,000[18][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of جنوب أفريقيا جنوب أفريقيا 350,000[19]
Flag of إيطاليا إيطاليا 333,986[20]
Flag of روسيا روسيا 998,000[11]
Flag of فرنسا فرنسا 230,515[11]
Flag of ألمانيا ألمانيا 204,828[21][22][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of إسپانيا إسپانيا 197,214[بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of الهند الهند 189,470[11]
Flag of لاوس لاوس 185,765[11]
Flag of البرازيل البرازيل 151,649[11]
Flag of نيوزيلندا نيوزيلندا 147,510[23][بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of هولندا هولندا 144,928[11]
Flag of پنما پنما 135,000[24][25]
Flag of كوبا كوبا ~150[26]
Flag of كوستاريكا كوستاريكا 9,170[27]
Flag of فنلندا فنلندا 15,722[بحاجة لمصدر]
Flag of جمهورية أيرلندا أيرلندا 11,218[28]
Flag of ترنيداد وتوباگو ترنيداد وتوباگو 6,003
Flag of جامايكا جامايكا 30,000[29]
Flag of جزيرة عيد الميلاد جزيرة عيد الميلاد ~940[30]
اللغات
Chinese
الأديان
غير متدين، الديانة الشعبية الصينية (بما فيها الطاوية وعبادة السلف، الكونفوشية, وآخرون)، بوذية المهايانا، المسيحية and other faiths.[31]
الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة
Other Sino-Tibetan peoples, such as Hui

Some sources refer to Han Chinese directly as "Chinese" or group them with other Chinese peoples.


صينيو الهان
بالصينية المبسطة: 汉族
بالصينية التقليدية: 漢族
خريطة عام 1983 للجماعات العرقية اللغوية في البر الرئيسي للصين وتايوان (الهان باللون الأخضر الزيتوني)[Note 1]

صينيو الهان، شعب الهان[32][33][34] أو ببساطة هان[33][34][35] (漢族; پن‌ين: Hànzú، وتعني حرفياً "عرقية هان"[36] أو "جماعة هان العرقية"؛[37] أو 漢人; پن‌ين: Hànrén، وتعني حرفياً "شعب هان"[38]) هم جماعة عرقية موطنها شرق آسيا. ويشكلون نحو 92% من سكان الصين،[2] 95% من تعداد تايوان (تايوانيو الهان[39] 76% من تعداد المواطنين في سنغافورة، و 23% من تعداد ماليزيا[4] ونحو 18% من إجمالي تعداد البشر في العالم. وصينيو الهان هم أكبر جماعة عرقية في العالم بما يزيد عن 1.3 بليون نسمة.

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المصطلحات وأصل الكلمة

الاسم هان اشتـُق أصلاً من أسرة هان،[40] which succeeded the short-lived Qin dynasty, and historically considered to be the first golden age of China's العصر الامبراطوري due to its power and influence projected over معظم شرق آسيا وشمال شرق آسيا وجنوب شرق آسيا وآسيا الوسطى. As a result of the dynasty's prominence, in inter-ethnic and (pre-modern) international matters, many Chinese began identifying themselves as the "people of Han" (الصينية التقليدية: 漢人پن‌ين: Hàn Rén),[بحاجة لمصدر] a name that has been carried down. وبالمثل، فإن اللغة الصينية أصبحت تسمى "لغة الهان" (الصينية المبسطة: 汉语الصينية التقليدية: 漢語) منذ ذلك الحين. In the Oxford Dictionary, the Han are defined as "The dominant ethnic group in China".[41] In the Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, the Han are "the dominant population" in "China, as well as in Taiwan and Singapore."[42] According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the Han are "the Chinese peoples especially as distinguished from non-Chinese (as Mongolian) elements in the population".[43]

The Han dynasty's founding emperor, Liu Bang, was originally hailed as the king of the Hanzhong region after overthrowing the Qin dynasty, a title that was later shortened to "the King of Han" (漢王) during the Chu-Han contention. The name "Hanzhong", in turn, was derived from the Han River,[35] which flows through the region's plains. The Han River, in turn, derived its name from expressions such as Tianhan (الصينية التقليدية: 天漢, "the heavenly river"), Yinhan (الصينية التقليدية: 銀漢, "the silver river"), Xinghan (الصينية التقليدية: 星漢, "the star river") or Yunhan (الصينية التقليدية: 雲漢, "the cloud river"), all ancient Chinese poetic nicknames for the Milky Way first mentioned in the Classic of Poetry.

Prior to the Han dynasty, Chinese scholars used the term هواشيا (الصينية المبسطة: 华夏الصينية التقليدية: 華夏پن‌ين: Huá Xià, "the magnificent شيا") in ancient texts to describe China proper as an area of illustrious prosperity and culture,[بحاجة لمصدر] while the Chinese populus were referred to as either the "various Hua" (諸華) or the "various Xia" (諸夏). This gave rise to a term commonly used nowadays by overseas Chinese for ethnic identity — Huaren (صينية مبسطة: 华人; صينية تقليدية: 華人; پن‌ين: Huá Rén, "the Hua people"), as well as a literary name for ChinaZhonghua (صينية مبسطة: 中华; صينية تقليدية: 中華; پن‌ين: zhōnghuá, "the central Hua").[35]

Among some southern Han Chinese varieties such as Cantonese, Hakka, Minnan and Teochew, a different term exists — Tang Chinese (الصينية التقليدية: 唐人پن‌ين: Táng Rén, literally "the people of Tang"), derived from a later dynasty, the Tang dynasty, regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization. The term is used in everyday conversation and is also an element in the Cantonese word for Chinatown: "street of the Tang people" (唐人街, Jyutping: tong4 jan4 gaai1, پن‌ين: Táng Rén Jiē. The phrase Huá Bù 華埠 is also used to describe the same area).


التوزيع

جمهورية الصين الشعبية

The vast majority of Han Chinese – over 1.2 billion – live in areas under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC), where they constitute about 92% of its population. Within the People's Republic of China, Han Chinese are the majority in every province, municipality, and autonomous region except for the autonomous regions of Xinjiang (45% in 2010) and التبت (8% in 2014), where Uighurs and Tibetans are the majority respectively. Han Chinese also constitute the majority in both of the special administrative regions of the PRC, about 95% of the population of هونگ كونگ[44] and about 96% of the population of Macau.[45]


التاريخ

مقال رئيسي: تاريخ الصين

Because of the overwhelming numerical and cultural dominance of the Han people in China, most of the written history of China can be read as "a history of the Han Chinese", with only passing references to the ethnic minorities in China.[46]

قبل التاريخ

مقال رئيسيs: Yanhuang and هواشيا

الثقافة

مقال رئيسي: الثقافة الصينية


China is one of the world's oldest and most complex civilizations. Chinese culture dates back thousands of years. Han Chinese maintain cultural affinities to Chinese lands outside of their locale by ancestor worship and Chinese clan associations, which often identify famous figures from Chinese history or myth as ancestors of current members.[47] Such patriarchs include the Yellow Emperor and Yan Emperor, who according to legend lived thousands of years ago and gave Han people the sobriquet "Descendants of Yan and Huang Emperor" (炎黃子孫; 炎黄子孙), a phrase which has reverberative connotations in a divisive political climate, as in that between mainland China and Taiwan.

Zhang Zeduan's painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival captures the daily life of people from the Song period at the capital, Bianjing, today's Kaifeng.

Throughout the history of China, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. Credited with shaping much of Chinese thought, Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, institutionalizing values like filial piety which implied the performance of certain shared rituals. Thus, villagers lavished on funeral and wedding ceremonies that imitated the Confucian standards of the Emperors.[47] Mastery of Confucian texts provided the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy, but even those degree-holders who did not enter the bureaucracy or who left it held increased social influence in their home areas, contributing to the homogenizing of Han Chinese culture. Other factors contributing to the development of a shared Han culture included urbanization and geographically vast but integrated commodity markets.[47]


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اللغة

مقال رئيسي: اللغة الصينية

Han Chinese speak various forms of the Chinese language that are descended from a common early language;[47] one of the names of the language group is Hanyu (صينية مبسطة: 汉语; صينية تقليدية: 漢語), literally the "Han language". Similarly, Chinese characters, used to write the language, are called Hanzi (صينية مبسطة: 汉字; صينية تقليدية: 漢字), أو "حروف الهان".

الطعام

مقال رئيسي: المطبخ الصيني

The cuisine of Han people varies from Sichuan's famously spicy food to Guangdong's Dim Sum and fresh seafood. Analyses revealed their main staple to be rice. During China's neolithic period, southernwestern rice growers transitioned to millet in the northwest when they could not find a suitable northwestern ecology, where it was typically dry and cold, to sustain the generous yields for their staple as well as it could in other areas such as along the eastern Chinese coast.[48]

الأدب

مقال رئيسي: الأدب الصيني

Han people have a rich history of classical literature dating back to three thousand years. Important early works include classics texts such as Classic of Poetry, Analects of Confucius, I Ching, Tao Te Ching, and the Art of War. Some of the most important Han Chinese poets in the pre-modern era include Li Bai, Du Fu, and Su Dongpo. The most important novels in Chinese literature, or the Four Great Classical Novels, are: Dream of the Red Chamber, Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, and Journey to the West.

الإسهامات للبشرية

Han Chinese have played a major role in the development of the arts, sciences, philosophy, and mathematics throughout history. In ancient times, the scientific accomplishments of China included seismological detectors, multistage rocket, rocket for recreational and military purposes, gunpowder, firearms, fire lance, cannon, landmine, naval mines, continuous flame thrower, fire arrow, trebuchet, crossbow, fireworks, pontoon bridge, matches, paper, printing, paper-printed money, insurance, civil service examination system, the raised-relief map, biological pest control, the multi-tube seed drill, rotary winnowing fan, blast furnace, cast iron, petroleum and natural gas as fuel, deep drilling for natural gas, oil drilling, porcelain, lacquer, lacquerware, silk fabric, dry docks, the pound lock, Grand Canal, the magnetic compass, south-pointing chariot, odometer, fishing reel, Su Song water-driven astronomical clock tower, chain pump, escapement, sliding calipers, trip hammer, kites, sunglasses, toothbrush, inoculation etc. Paper, printing, the compass, and gunpowder are celebrated in Chinese culture as the Four Great Inventions. Chinese astronomers were also among the first to record observations of a supernova.

Chinese art, Chinese cuisine, Chinese philosophy, and Chinese literature all have thousands of years of development, while numerous Chinese sites, such as the Great Wall of China and the Terracotta Army, are World Heritage Sites. Since the start of the program in 2001, aspects of Chinese culture have been listed by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Throughout much of history, successive Chinese Dynasties have exerted influence on their neighbors in the areas of art, music, religion, food, dress, philosophy, language, government, and culture. In modern times, Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in China, while an overseas Chinese diaspora numbering in the tens of millions has settled in and contributed to countries throughout the world.

In modern times, Han Chinese have continued to contribute to mathematics and sciences. Among them are Nobel Prize recipients Steven Chu, Samuel C. C. Ting, Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee, Yuan T. Lee, Daniel C. Tsui, Roger Y. Tsien, and Charles K. Kao (known as the "Godfather of Broadband" and "Father of Fiber Optics");[49] Fields Medal recipients Terence Tao and Shing-Tung Yau, and Turing Award recipient Andrew Yao. Tsien Hsue-shen was a prominent rocket scientist who helped to found NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.[50] Chien-Shiung Wu, nicknamed the "First Lady of Physics" contributed to the Manhattan Project and radically altered modern physical theory and changed the accepted view of the structure of the universe.[51] Ching W. Tang was the inventor of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) and is widely considered the "Father of Organic electronics".[52] Others include David Ho, one of the first scientists to propose that AIDS was caused by a virus, thus subsequently developing combination antiretroviral therapy to combat it. Dr. Ho was named Time Magazine Person of the Year in 1996.[53] Min Chueh Chang was the co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and is known for his pioneer work and significant contributions to the development of in vitro fertilization at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology.[54][55] Tu Youyou is a prominent medical scientist and chemist who became the first native Chinese in history to receive the Nobel Prize in natural sciences when she received the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering artemisinin (also known as qinghaosu) and dihydroartemisinin, used to treat malaria, which has saved millions of lives across the world.[56] Choh Hao Li discovered Growth hormone (and subsequently used it to treat a form of Dwarfism caused by Growth hormone deficiency), Beta-endorphin (the most powerful of the body's natural painkillers), Follicle-stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone (the key hormone used in Fertility testing, an example is the ovulation home test).[57][58][59] Joe Hin Tjio was a cytogeneticist renowned as the first person to recognize the normal number of human chromosomes, a breakthrough in karyotype genetics.[60][61] Yuan-Cheng Fung, is regarded as the "Father of modern biomechanics" for pioneering the application of quantitative and analytical engineering principles to the study of the human body and disease.[62][63] The geometer Shiing-Shen Chern was one of the leaders in differential geometry of the 20th century and was awarded the 1984 Wolf Prize in mathematics. China's system of Barefoot doctors was among the most important inspirations for the World Health Organisation conference in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in 1978, and was hailed as a revolutionary breakthrough in international health ideology emphasizing primary health care and preventive medicine.[64][65]


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الديانة

مقال رئيسي: الدين في الصين
تمثيل تقليدي لذائقي الخل، الصورة الرمزية التي تمثل البوذيين والكونفوشيين والطاويين.

الثقافة الصينية اتسمت لزمن طويل بالتعددية الدينية. فـالديانة الشعبية الصينية حافظت دوماً على تأثير عميق. فتتشارك الكونفوشية والطاوية، الناشئتان في الصين، في كونهما فلسفة أو دين، وأن كلاهما لا يتطلب الإتباع الحصري دون الديانات الأخرى، مما أسفر عن ثقافة تسامج وsyncretism حيث يقوم نفس الفرد بممارسة العديد من الديانات والمعتقدات في تناغم، بجانب العادات والتقاليد المحلية. كما تأثرت ثقافة الهان الصينية لزمن طويل بالبوذية، بينما في القرون الأخيرة حصلت المسيحية على موطئ قدم في الشعب.

الكونفوشية، a governing philosophy and moral code with some religious elements like عبادة السلف, is deeply ingrained in Chinese culture and was the official state philosophy in China منذ أسرة هان حتى سقوط الصين الامبراطورية في القرن العشرين.

الديانة الشعبية الصينية is the set of worship traditions of the ethnic deities of the Han people. It involves worship of various figures in Chinese mythology, folk heroes such as Guan Yu and Qu Yuan، الكائنات الأسطورية مثل التنين الصيني، أو الأسرة والعشيرة والسلف الوطنية. These practices vary from region to region, and do not characterize an organized religion, though many traditional Chinese holidays such as the Duanwu (or Dragon Boat) Festival, Qingming, and the عيد منتصف الخريف come from the most popular of these traditions.

Taoism, another indigenous religion, is also widely practiced in both its folk religion forms and as an organized religion, and has influenced Chinese art, poetry, philosophy, الطب، الفلك والخيمياء والطبخ وmartial arts, and العمارة الصينية. Taoism was the state religion of the early Han Dynasty, and also often enjoyed state patronage under subsequent emperors and dynasties.

In Han Dynasty, Confucian ideals were the dominant ideology. Near the end of the dynasty, Buddhism entered China and later gained popularity. Historically, Buddhism alternated between state tolerance and even patronage, and persecution. In its original form, Buddhism was at odds with the native Chinese religions, especially the elite, as certain Buddhist values often conflicted with Chinese sensibilities. However, through centuries of assimilation, adaptation, and syncretism, البوذية الصينية gained an accepted place in the culture. Buddhism would come to be influenced by Confucianism and Taoism, and exerted influence in turn, such as in the form of الكونفوشية الجديدة.

Though التأثير المسيحي في الصين existed as early as the 7th century, Christianity did not begin to gain a significant influence in China until contact with Europeans during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Chinese practices at odds with Christian beliefs resulted in the Chinese Rites controversy, and subsequent reduction in Christian influence. Christianity grew considerably following the حرب الأفيون الأولى, after which foreign missionaries in China enjoyed the protection of the Western powers, and widespread proselytism took place.[بحاجة لمصدر]

الهجرة التاريخية لهان الجنوبية من هان الشمالية

The term "Huaxia" was used to describe the shared ethnicity of all Chinese during the Warring States era by Confucius's contemporaries.[66] Chinese people called themselves Hua Ren.[67] Southern Han people such as the Hoklo, Cantonese and Hakka all claim northern Chinese ancestral origins, from ancestors who migrated from Northern China's Yellow River Valley during the 4th-12th centuries, Hoklo clans living in southeastern coastal China, such as in Chaozhou and Quanzhou–Zhangzhou, originated from northern China's Henan province during the Tang dynasty.[68] The Han people migrated to southeastern and southern China multiple times throughout history.[69] The origin of the Cantonese is said to be northern Chinese who moved to Guangdong while the indigenous Yue (Baiyue) descendants were the minorities who practiced tattooing, as written in "The Real Yue People" 真越人 (Zhen Yueren) essay by Qu Dajun 屈大均, a Cantonese scholar who extolled the Cantonese people's Chineseness.[70] Vietnam, Guangdong, and Yunnan all experienced a major surge in Han Chinese migrants in Wang Mang's reign.[69]:126 Hangzhou's coastal regions and the Yangtze valley were settled in the 4th century by noble Northern Chinese families.[69]:181 Special "commanderies of immigrants" and "white registers" were created for the massive amount of northern origin Han Chinese who moved south during the Eastern Jin dynasty.[69]:182 The southern Chinese aristocracy was formed from the offspring these migrants.[71] Celestial Masters and the nobility of northern China subdued the nobility of southern China during the Eastern Jin and Western Jin in Jiangnan in particular.[72] The most populous region of China was southern China after the depopulation of the north and the migration of northern Chinese to southern China.[73][74] Different waves of migration of aristocratic Chinese from northern China to the south at different times resulted in distinct groups of lineages, with some lineages arriving in the 300s-400s and others in the 800s-900s.[75] During the 700's Han migrants from northern China flooded into the south during the Tang dynasty.[76] Hong Kong history textbooks recall migrations of the Song and Tang dynasties to the south which resulted in Hong Kongers who are descended from ethnic Han settlers who originated from northern China.[77] Since it was during the Tang dynasty that Guangdong was subjected to settlement by Han people, many Cantonese, Hokkien and Teochew call themselves Tang.[78]

تحليل الدنا

Y-chromosome haplogroup O3 is a common DNA marker in Han Chinese, as it appeared in China in prehistoric times. It is found in more than 50% of Chinese males, and ranging up to over 80% in certain regional subgroups of the Han ethnicity.[79] However, the mitochondrial DNA of Han Chinese increases in diversity as one looks from northern to southern China, which suggests that male migrants from northern China married with women from local peoples after arriving in modern-day Guangdong, Fujian, and other regions of southern China.[80][81] Despite this, tests comparing the genetic profiles of northern Han, southern Han and southern natives determined that haplogroups O1b-M110, O2a1-M88 and O3d-M7, which are prevalent in southern natives, were only observed in some southern Hans (4% on average), but not in northern Hans. Therefore, this proves that the male contribution of southern natives in southern Hans is limited, assuming that the frequency distribution of Y lineages in southern natives represents that before the expansion of Han culture that started two-thousand years ago.[80][82] In contrast, there are consistent strong genetic similarities in the Y chromosome haplogroup distribution between the southern and northern Chinese population, and the result of principal component analysis indicates almost all Han populations form a tight cluster in their Y chromosome. However, other research has also shown that the paternal lineages Y-DNA O-M119,[83] O-P201,[84] O-P203[84] and O-M95[85] are found in both southern Han Chinese and South Chinese minorities, more common in the latter. In fact, these paternal markers are in turn less frequent in northern Han Chinese.[86][87][88] Another study puts Han Chinese into two groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese, and it finds that the genetic characteristics of nowadays northern Han Chinese was already formed prior to three-thousand years ago in the Central Plain area.[89]

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Source: United States Central Intelligence Agency, 1983. The map shows the distribution of ethnolinguistic groups according to the historical majority ethnic groups by region. Note this does not represent the current distribution due to age-long internal migration and assimilation.

الهامش

  1. ^ 1.24 بليون (92% من إجمالي السكان) في جمهورية الصين الشعبية (CIA Factbook تقدير 2014)، ونحو 22 مليون في تايوان, ونحو 50 مليون الصينيون وراء البحار
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قالب:Han subgroups

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).