ژانگ هنگ

Zhongwen.svg هذه المقالة تحتوي على نصوص بالصينية.
بدون دعم الإظهار المناسب, فقد ترى علامات استفهام ومربعات أو رموز أخرى بدلاً من الحروف الصينية.
هذا هو اسم صيني؛ لقب العائلة هو Zhang.
Zhang Heng (張衡)
Zhang Heng.jpg
وُلِدَ78
توفي139 (aged 60–61)
اللقبSeismometer, hydraulic-powered armillary sphere, pi calculation, shi, universe model, lunar eclipse and solar eclipse theory
السيرة العلمية
المجالاتAstronomy, mathematics, seismology, hydraulics, geography, ethnography, mechanical engineering, calendrical science, metaphysics, poetry

ژانگ هنگ (الصينية المبسطة: 张衡الصينية التقليدية: 張衡پن‌ين: Zhāng Héng; ويد-جايلز: Chang Hêng؛ بالإنگليزية: Zhang Heng؛ 78139 م) كان فلكياً وعالم رياضيات ومخترع وجغرافي ورسام خرائط ورسام وشاعر ورجل دولة وباحث أدبي صيني من نان‌يانگ، خنان. وقد عاش في عهد أسرة هان الشرقية (25–220 م) في الصين. وقد تعلم في العواصم لوويانگ وچانگ‌آن، وبدأ حياته العملية كموظف مدني صغير في نان‌يانگ. Eventually, he became Chief Astronomer, Prefect of the Majors for Official Carriages, and then Palace Attendant at the imperial court. His uncompromising stances on certain historical and calendrical issues led to Zhang being considered a controversial figure, which prevented him from becoming an official court historian. His political rivalry with the palace eunuchs during the reign of الامبراطور شون (r. 125–144) led to his decision to retire from the central court to serve as an administrator of Hejian, in Hebei. He returned home to Nanyang for a short time, before being recalled to serve in the capital once more in 138. وقد توفي هناك بعد عام في 139.

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Life of Zhang Heng


Early life

A 2nd-century lacquer-painted scene on a basket box showing famous figures from Chinese history who were paragons of filial piety; Zhang Heng became well-versed at an early age in the Chinese classics and the philosophy of China's earlier sages.


حياته كمسئول

A Western Han terracotta cavalier figurine wearing robes and a hat. As Chief Astronomer, Zhang Heng earned a fixed salary and rank of 600 bushels of grain (which was mostly commuted to payments in coinage currency or bolts of silk), and so he would have worn a specified type of robe, ridden in a specified type of carriage, and held a unique emblem that marked his status in the official hierarchy.[1][2]


A pottery miniature of a palace made during the Han Dynasty; as a palace attendant, Zhang Heng had personal access to Emperor Shun and the right to escort him

الأدب والشعر

An Eastern Han earthenware figurine of the Queen Mother of the West. Zhang fantasized about her in his "Rhapsody on Contemplating the Mystery" (思玄賦), yet the pleasures of the flesh and immortality that she could offer were not tempting enough to sway his heart which was set elsewhere.[3]
A Han terracotta figurine of a serving lady. In his poetry, Zhang Heng expressed his affinity for gracious and commendable women. As well as being a painter, Zhang also crafted figurine sculptures similar to this one.[4]

In Taishan stays my dear sweetheart,
But Liangfu keeps us long apart;
Looking east, I find tears start.
She gives me a sword to my delight;
A jade I give her as requite.
I'm at a loss as she is out of sight;
Why should I trouble myself all night?

Zhang Heng[5]

In another poem of his called "Stabilizing the Passions" (定情賦) — preserved in a Tang Dynasty (618–907) encyclopedia, but referred to earlier by Tao Qian (365–427) in praise of Zhang's lyrical minimalism — Zhang displays his admiration for an attractive and exemplary woman.[6] This simpler type of fu poem influenced later works by the prominent official and scholar Cai Yong (132–192).[7] Zhang wrote:

Ah, the chaste beauty of this alluring woman!
She shines with flowery charms and blooming face.
She is unique among all her contemporaries.
She is without a peer among her comrades.

Zhang Heng[6]
Eastern Han tomb models of watchtowers; the one on the left has crossbowmen in the top balcony. Zhang wrote that Western Han emperors were entertained by displays of archery from the balconies of towers along Chang'an's Kunming Lake.
Eastern Han tomb painting of two men engrossed in conversation; Zhang's shelun or hypothetical discourse, involved a written dialogue between imaginary or real persons to demonstrate how one could lead an exemplary life


Those who won this territory were strong;
Those who depended on it endured.
When a stream is long, its water is not easily exhausted.
When roots are deep, they do not rot easily.
Therefore, as extravagance and ostentation were given free rein,
The odour became pungent and increasingly fulsome.

Zhang Heng[5]

Achievements in science and technology

Astronomy and mathematics

Printed star map of Su Song (1020–1101) showing the south polar projection
A Western Han Dynasty Chinese silk banner from a 2nd century BC tomb at Mawangdui; this funerary banner shows a sliver moon in the top left and the sun in the top right, both with their cosmological representations of the toad and raven, respectively.


Zhang supported the "radiating influence" theory to explain solar and lunar eclipses, a theory which was opposed by Wang Chong (AD 27–97).[8] In the Ling Xian, Zhang wrote:

The Sun is like fire and the Moon like water. The fire gives out light and the water reflects it. Thus the moon's brightness is produced from the radiance of the Sun, and the Moon's darkness is due to (the light of) the sun being obstructed. The side which faces the Sun is fully lit, and the side which is away from it is dark. The planets (as well as the Moon) have the nature of water and reflect light. The light pouring forth from the Sun does not always reach the moon owing to the obstruction of the earth itself—this is called 'an-xu', a lunar eclipse. When (a similar effect) happens with a planet (we call it) an occultation; when the Moon passes across (the Sun's path) then there is a solar eclipse.[9]

Extra tank for inflow clepsydra

Han Dynasty paintings on tile; being conscious of time, the Chinese believed in guardian spirits for the divisions of day and night, such as these two guardians here representing 11 pm to 1 am (left) and 5 am to 7 am (right)


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Water-powered armillary sphere

The original diagram of Su Song's (1020–1101) clock tower, featuring an armillary sphere powered by a waterwheel, escapement mechanism, and chain drive


Zhang's seismometer

A replica of Zhang Heng's seismometer, the Houfeng didong yi, featured in the Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland, California


Japanese seismologist Akitsune Imamura, who reconstructed Zhang Heng's seismometer in 1939 while working at Tokyo University


رسم الخرائط

An early Western-Han (202 BC – AD 9) silk map found in tomb 3 of Mawangdui, depicting the Kingdom of Changsha and Kingdom of Nanyue in southern China (note: the south direction is oriented at the top, north at the bottom).


Odometer and South Pointing Chariot

Odometer cart from a stone rubbing of an Eastern Han Dynasty tomb, c. 125

Legacy

Science and technology

A Florentine marble carving of Ptolemy (86–161), who created an Earth-centered universe theory that the scholars Jin Guantao, Fan Hongye, and Liu Qingfeng compare with Zhang Heng's theory published in 125[10]

الأدب الشعري

تكريم بعد وفاته

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة crespigny 2007 1050
  2. ^ Loewe (1968), 38–39 & 42.
  3. ^ Loewe (2005), 37.
  4. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة yan 2007 128
  5. ^ أ ب University of St Andrews, Scotland. (December 2003). Zhang Heng. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  6. ^ أ ب Hightower (1954), 170–171.
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة neinhauser 1986 212
  8. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 3, 411–413.
  9. ^ Needham (1986), Volume 3, 414.
  10. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة jin fan liu 1996 170

وصلات خارجية


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