هونان

الإحداثيات: 27°30′N 111°30′E / 27.500°N 111.500°E / 27.500; 111.500

Hunan Province
بالصينية : 湖南省
Húnán Shěng
إختصارات: 湘  (پن‌ين: Xiāng)
Hunan موضحة في هذه الخريطة
أصل الاسم 湖 hú - lake
南 nán - south
"south of Lake Dongting"
نوع الإدارة المقاطعة
العاصمة
(وأكبر مدينة)
Changsha
أمين عام لجنة الحزب الشيوعي الصيني Zhang Chunxian
الحاكم Zhou Qiang
المساحة 211800 كم² (10th)
تعداد السكان (2004)
 - الكثافة
66,980,000 (7th)
{{{PopDensity}}}/كم² (13th)
الناتج المحلي الإجمالي GDP (2008)
 - للفرد
CNY 1.12 trillion (11th)
CNY 17,521 (21st)
مؤشر التنمية البشرية HDI (2006) 0.762 (medium) (19th)
القوميات الرئيسية Han - 90%
Tujia - 4%
Miao - 3%
Dong - 1%
Yao - 1%
مستوى المحافظة 14 أقسام
مستوى المركز 122 أقسام
مستوى المدينة 2576 أقسام
ISO 3166-2 CN-43
الموقع الرسمي
http://www.enghunan.gov.cn/ (الإنگليزية)
مصدر التعداد وبيانات ن.م.إ.:
《中国统计年鉴—2005》 China Statistical Yearbook 2005
ISBN 7503747382
مصدر بيانات القوميات:
《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》 Tabulation on nationalities of 2000 إحصاء تعداد الصين
ISBN 7105054255
حسبما كانت في 31 ديسمبر, 2004

هونان  (صينية تقليدية: 湖南; پن‌ين: Húnán) هي مقاطعة في الصين، تقع إلى الجنوب من القطاع الأوسط لنهر يانگتسه وجنوب بحيرة دونگتنگ (ولذلك الاسم هونان ، يعني "جنوب البحيرة"[1]). هونان تـُسمى أحياناً (پن‌ين: Xiāng) اختصاراً لنهر شيانگ الذي يجري عبر المقاطعة.

Hunan borders Hubei in the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong to the south, Guangxi to the southwest, Guizhou to the west, and چوڠ‌چيڠ to the northwest. The capital is چاڠ‌شا.

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التاريخ

Western Han painting on الحرير was found draped over the coffin in the grave of Lady Dai (c. 168 BC) at Mawangdui near Changsha في مقاطعة هونان.

Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia, Dong and Yao peoples. It entered the written history of China around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou Dynasty, it became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Han dynasty. At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, it was a magnet for migration of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced or assimilated the indigenous people, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.[2] The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods.[3] To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Southern and Northern Dynasties Periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.

During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu.

As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976.

Former Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji is also Hunanese, as are the late President Liu Shaoqi and the late Marshal Peng Dehuai.


الجغرافيا

Furong Ancient Town, located in Yongshun County of Xiangxi

Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. It covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 sq mi)*, making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. The mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the area and plains comprises less than 20% of the whole province.

The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.

Lake Dongting is the largest lake in the province and the second largest freshwater lake of China.

Fenghuang Ancient Town, located in Fenghuang County of Xiangxi

The Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure prominently in Chinese poetry and paintings, particularly during the Song Dynasty when they were associated with officials who had been unjustly dismissed.[4]


الأقسام الادارية

Hunan is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions, of which thirteen are prefecture-level cities and the remaining division an autonomous prefecture. The prefecture-level cities are:

الخريطة # الاسم هان‌زي هانيو پن‌ين النوع
HunanMap.png
1 Changsha 长沙市 Chángshā Shì Prefecture-level city
2 Changde 常德市 Chángdé Shì Prefecture-level city
3 Chenzhou 郴州市 Chénzhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
4 Hengyang 衡阳市 Héngyáng Shì Prefecture-level city
5 Huaihua 怀化市 Huáihuà Shì Prefecture-level city
6 Loudi 娄底市 Lóudǐ Shì Prefecture-level city
7 Shaoyang 邵阳市 Shàoyáng Shì Prefecture-level city
8 Xiangtan 湘潭市 Xiāngtán Shì Prefecture-level city
9 Yiyang 益阳市 Yìyáng Shì Prefecture-level city
10 Yongzhou 永州市 Yǒngzhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
11 Yueyang 岳阳市 Yuèyáng Shì Prefecture-level city
12 Zhangjiajie 张家界市 Zhāngjiājiè Shì Prefecture-level city
13 Zhuzhou 株州市 Zhūzhōu Shì Prefecture-level city
14 Xiangxi (Tujia & Miao) 湘西土家族苗族自治州 Xiāngxī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Autonomous Prefecture

الاقتصاد

As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb, musk, honey, tobacco, hemp, and birds.[5] The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang.[6]

The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China.[بحاجة لمصدر]


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الثقافة

Wulingyuan
Zhangjiajie

الهامش

  1. ^ بالصينية: {{{1}}} Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online.
  2. ^ Harold Wiens. Han Expansion in South China. (Shoe String Press, 1967).
  3. ^ Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T'oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362
  4. ^ Alfreda Murck (2000). Poetry and Painting in Song China: The Subtle Art of Dissent. Harvard Univ Asia Center. ISBN  978-0-674-00782-6 .
  5. ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 123.
  6. ^ http://www.thechinaperspective.com/topics/province/hunan-province/

وصلات خارجية

قالب:County-level divisions of Hunan