المنطقة الاقتصادية الخالصة

(تم التحويل من منطقة اقتصادية خالصة)
الحقوق الدولية في مياه البحار

حسب قانون البحار، المنطقة الاقتصادية الخالصة Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ هي منطقة بحرية تمارس عليها دولة حقوقاً خاصة في الاستغلال واستخدام مواردها البحرية.

The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

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التعريف

The World's EEZs, shown as a white extension of land territory

يختلف المعنى القانوني للبحار عن معناها الجغراف، فعلماء الجغرافيا يعتبرون أن العنصر المميز للبحر هو ملوحة الماء، فكل مياه مالحة تعتبر بحراً من وجهة النظر الجغرافية، أما البحر من وجهة نظر فقهاء القانون الدولي فيختلف عن التعريف الجغرافي، فالبعض يعرفه بأنه المساحات المائية التي تتصف بوحدة المياه، ويضيف البعض الآخر لهذا التعريف صفة الملوحة، وبذلك نجد أن البحر الميت لا يعتبر بحراً من وجهة النظر الدولية نظراً لافتقاره للعنصر الثاني وهو وحدة المياه، أي أنه لا يكون وحدة واحدة متصلة مع غيره من البحار في الكرة الأرضية.

وقواعد القانون الدولي التي تحكم وتنظم العنصر البحري من إقليم الدولة يطلق عليها قانون البحار ولقد أصبح هذا الفرع من فروع القانون الدولي العام يشكل أهمية كبرى لأنه ينظم البحار التي تعتبر من أهم طرق المواصلات الدولية وكمصدر حيوي للثروات بمختلف أنواعها.[1]

لقد ظهرت في القانون الدولي مدرستان:

الأولى: تدعو إلى وجوب تحرير البحار من الخضوع لسيادة أي دولة من الدول ومن المدافعين عن ذلك جرسيوس مستنداً إلى أن البحر غير قابل للحيازة الفعلية، وأن البحار لا تنضب مواردها وهي متجددة باستمرار وتكفي الجميع.

الثانية: تدافع عن إبقاء البحار خاضعة للسيادة الوطنية للدول التي تستطيع أن تفرض سيادتها عليها. وبعد صراع طويل بين المدرستين استقر مبدأ حرية البحار وأصبح قاعدة من قواعد القانون الدولي العام المسلم بها من كافة دول العالم.


ترتيبات حسب المساحة

EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 kم) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 kم) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[2] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[3]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 kم) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 kم) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[4] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 kم) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

الأصل

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 kم (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 kم) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the الولايات المتحدة in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial [ك‍]. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[5]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

النزاعات

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.


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النزاعات المحتملة

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[33]

حل النزاعات

المخزونات العابرة للحدود

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[37] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[38]

By country

الأرجنتين

Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²

أستراليا

Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[39][40] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[41][42] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[43] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[42]

EEZ Area (km2)[42]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
 جزيرة عيد الميلاد 463,371
 جزر كوكوز 325,021
 جزيرة نورفوك 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]
Total 10,148,250


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البرازيل

Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZ Area (km2)[44]
 البرازيل 2 570 917
Bandeira de Fernando de Noronha.png Fernando de Noronha 363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total 3 830 955

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[45]

كندا

Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 kم2 (6.026796×1013 قدم2), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[46] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 ميل بحريs (560 kم; 350 ميل) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

تشيلي

Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[47] Land area Total
Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
Desventuradas 449 836 5 449 841
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524 100 502 624
Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453

الصين

People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone: ██ China's EEZ877,019 km2 ██ EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan ██ EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

قبرص

Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[48] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[49][50]

الدنمارك

The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[51] Land area Total
 الدنمارك 105 989 42 506 149 083
 جزر فارو 260 995 1 399 262 394
 گرينلاند 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

فرنسا

Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second largest EEZ in the world, covering 10,165,095 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), the EEZ of the United States is the first largest (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[42] Land area Total
 البر الرئيسي لفرنسا 334,604 551,695 886,299
 گويانا الفرنسية 133,949 83,846 217,795
 گوادلوپ 95,978 1,628 97,606
 مارتينيك 47,640 1,128 48,768
 ريونيون 315,058 2,512 317,570
 پولينيزيا الفرنسية 4,767,242 4,167 4,771,409
 سان پيير وميكلون 12,334 242 12,576
 مايوطة 63,078 376 63,454
 والس وفوتونا 258,269 264 258,533
 سان مارتن 1,000 53 1,053
 سانت بارتليمي 4,000 21 4,021
 كاليدونيا الجديدة 1,422,543 18,575 1,441,118
 جزيرة كليپرتون 431,263 6 431,269
Crozet Islands 574,558 352 574,910
Kerguelen Islands 567,732 7,215 574,947
Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509,015 66 509,081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352,117 44 352,161
Tromelin Island 270,455 1 270,456
Total 10,160,835 675,417 12,366,417

اليونان

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[52]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[53] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[54]

الهند

India's exclusive economic zones

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[55]

إسرائيل

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

اليابان

Japan's exclusive economic zones:██ Japan's EEZ██ Joint regime with Republic of Korea██ EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others
EEZ Area (km2)
Marcus Island 428,875
Nanpō Islands 862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan) 1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676
Sea of Japan 630,721
Daito Islands 44
Senkaku Islands 7
Sea of Okhotsk 235
Total[56] 4,479,674

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[57][58] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

المكسيك

Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[59] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

نيوزيلندا

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 kم2 (4.395705×1013 قدم2),[60][61] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[62] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

كوريا الشمالية

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[63] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[64] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[65]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[66] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[67]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[68] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[69] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[68]

النرويج

Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[70]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[71]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

الفلبين

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 kم2 (874,064 ميل2).[72]

بولندا

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 kم2 (3.2865×1011 قدم2) within the Baltic Sea.[73]

البرتغال

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[74]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[75] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[76] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[77]

روسيا

Russia's exclusive economic zone
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[78]

الصومال

Somalia's exclusive economic zone
  • 825,052 km2

جنوب أفريقيا

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[79]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

كوريا الجنوبية

South Korean exclusive economic zone:██ Korean EEZ██ EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan██ Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

المملكة المتحدة

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[80]
British Isles EEZ

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[81] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.

The UK was late to establish an EEZ, relying on overlapping maritime zones for fisheries, pollution control, and energy matters. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 gave the powers to establish an EEZ, with the zone defined by The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013 which came into force on 31 March 2014.[82][83]

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Crown dependencies and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[79]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 8.32778×1012 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 9.9220×1011
Ascension Island 441,658 4.75397×1012
Bermuda 450,370 4.8477×1012
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 6.87349×1012 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 8.6237×1011
Cayman Islands 119,137 1.28238×1012
Channel Islands 11,658 1.2549×1011
Falkland Islands 550,872 5.92954×1012 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 4.59×109 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 8.161×1010
Pitcairn Island 836,108 8.99979×1012
Saint Helena 444,916 4.78904×1012
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 1.560263×1013 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 8.1237×1012
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 1.65837×1012
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

الولايات المتحدة الامريكية

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[84]

Total: 11,351,000 kم2 (4,383,000 ميل2)

فيتنام

Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.

Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 kم2 (161,261 ميل2). It includes the Paracel Islands and Spratley Islands. It has disputes mainly with الصين due to the Nine-Dash Line.

الترتيب حسب المنطقة

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[79] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
-  الاتحاد الأوروپي 25,000,000 1,346,878 30,000,000
1  فرنسا 11,691,000 579,422 12,366,417
2  الولايات المتحدة 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
3  أستراليا 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
4  روسيا 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
5  المملكة المتحدة 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
6  إندونيسيا 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
7  كندا 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
8  اليابان 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
9  نيوزيلندا 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
10  البرازيل 3,830,955 774,563 12,345,832
11  تشيلي 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
12  كيريباس 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
13  المكسيك 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
14  ميكرونزيا 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
15  الدنمارك 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
16  پاپوا غينيا الجديدة 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
17  النرويج 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
18  الهند 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
19  جزر مارشال 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
20  الپرتغال 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
21  الفلپين 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
22  جزر سولومون 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23  جنوب أفريقيا 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
24  سيشل 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
25  موريشيوس 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
26  فيجي 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
27  مدغشقر 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
28  الأرجنتين 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[85]
29  الإكوادور 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
30  إسپانيا 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
31  المالديڤ 923,322 34,538 923,622
32  پيرو 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
33  الصين 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
34  الصومال 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
35  كولومبيا 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
36  الرأس الأخضر 800,561 5,591 804,594
37  آيسلندا 751,345 108,015 854,345
38  توڤالو 749,790 3,575 749,816
39  ڤانواتو 663,251 11,483 675,440
40  تونگا 659,558 8,517 660,305
41  البهاما 654,715 106,323 668,658
42  پالاو 603,978 2,837 604,437
43  موزمبيق 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
44  المغرب 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
45  كوستاريكا 574,725 19,585 625,825
46  ناميبيا 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
47  اليمن 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
48  إيطاليا 541,915 116,834 843,251
49  عُمان 533,180 59,071 842,680
50  ميانمار 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
51  سريلانكا 532,619 32,453 598,229
52  أنگولا 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
53  اليونان 505,572 81,451 637,529
54  كوريا الجنوبية 475,469 342,522 575,469
55  ڤنزويلا 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
56  ڤيتنام 417,663 365,198 748,875
57  أيرلندا 410,310 139,935 480,583
58  ليبيا 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
59  كوبا 350,751 61,525 460,637
60  پنما 335,646 53,404 411,163
61  ماليزيا 334,671 323,412 665,474
62  ناورو 308,480 41 308,501
63  غينيا الإستوائية 303,509 7,820 331,560
64  تايلند 299,397 230,063 812,517
65  پاكستان 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
66  مصر 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
67  تركيا 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
68  جامايكا 258,137 9,802 269,128
69  جمهورية الدومنيكان 255,898 10,738 304,569
70  ليبريا 249,734 17,715 361,103
71  هندوراس 249,542 68,718 362,034
72  تنزانيا 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
73  غانا 235,349 22,502 473,888
74  السعودية 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
75  نيجريا 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
76  سيراليون 215,611 28,625 287,351
77  الگابون 202,790 35,020 470,458
78  بربادوس 186,898 426 187,328
79  ساحل العاج 176,254 10,175 498,717
80  إيران 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
81  موريتانيا 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
82  جزر القمر 163,752 1,526 165,987
83  السويد 160,885 154,604 602,255
84  السنغال 158,861 23,092 355,583
85  هولندا 154,011 77,246 192,345
85  أوكرانيا 147,318 79,142 750,818
86  أوروگواي 142,166 75,327 318,381
87  گويانا 137,765 50,578 352,734
88  ساو تومه وپرنسيپه 131,397 1,902 132,361
89  ساموا 127,950 2,087 130,781
90  سورينام 127,772 53,631 291,592
91  هايتي 126,760 6,683 154,510
92  الجزائر 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
93  نيكاراگوا 123,881 70,874 254,254
94  غينيا-بيساو 123,725 39,339 159,850
95  كنيا 116,942 11,073 697,309
96  گواتيمالا 114,170 14,422 223,059
97  أنتيگا وبربودا 110,089 4,128 110,531
98  تونس 101,857 67,126 265,467
99  قبرص 98,707 4,042 107,958
100  السلڤادور 90,962 16,852 112,003
101  فنلندا 87,171 85,109 425,590
102  بنگلادش 86,392 66,438 230,390
103  تايوان 83,231 43,016 119,419
104  إرتريا 77,728 61,817 195,328
105  ترنيداد وتوباگو 74,199 25,284 79,329
106  تيمور الشرقية 70,326 25,648 85,200
107  السودان 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
108  كمبوديا 62,515 62,515 243,550
109  غينيا 59,426 44,755 305,283
110  كرواتيا 59,032 50,277 115,626
111  الإمارات العربية المتحدة 58,218 57,474 141,818
112  ألمانيا 57,485 57,485 414,599
113  مالطا 54,823 5,301 55,139
114  إستونيا 36,992 36,992 82,219
115  سانت ڤنسنت والگرنادينز 36,302 1,561 36,691
116  بليز 35,351 13,178 58,317
117  بلغاريا 34,307 10,426 145,186
118  بنين 33,221 2,721 145,843
119  قطر 31,590 31,590 43,176
120  الكونغو 31,017 7,982 373,017
121  پولندا 29,797 29,797 342,482
122  دومنيكا 28,985 659 29,736
123  لاتڤيا 28,452 27,772 93,011
124  گرينادا 27,426 2,237 27,770
125  إسرائيل 26,352 3,745 48,424
126  رومانيا 23,627 19,303 262,018
127  گامبيا 23,112 5,581 34,407
128  جورجيا 21,946 3,243 91,646
129  لبنان 19,516 1,067 29,968
130  الكاميرون 16,547 11,420 491,989
131  سانت لوشيا 15,617 544 16,156
132  ألبانيا 13,691 6,979 42,439
133  توگو 12,045 1,265 68,830
134  الكويت 11,026 11,026 28,844
135  سوريا 10,503 1,085 195,683
136  البحرين 10,225 10,225 10,975
137  بروناي 10,090 8,509 15,855
138  سانت كيتس ونڤيس 9,974 653 10,235
139  الجبل الأسود 7,745 3,896 21,557
140  جيبوتي 7,459 3,187 30,659
141  لتوانيا 7,031 7,031 72,331
142  بلجيكا 3,447 3,447 33,975
143  الكونغو الديمقراطية 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
144  سنغافورة 1,067 1,067 1,772
145  العراق 771 771 439,088
146  موناكو 288 2 290
147  فلسطين 256 256 6,276
148  سلوڤنيا 220 220 20,493
149  الأردن 166 59 89,508
150  البوسنة والهرسك 50 50 51,259
151  قزخستان 2,724,900
152  منغوليا 1,564,100
153  تشاد 1,284,000
154  النيجر 1,267,000
155  مالي 1,240,192
156  إثيوپيا 1,104,300
157  بوليڤيا 1,098,581
158  زامبيا 752,612
159  أفغانستان 652,090
160  جمهورية أفريقيا الوسطى 622,984
161  جنوب السودان 619,745
162  بتسوانا 582,000
163  تركمنستان 488,100
164  اوزبكستان 447,400
165  پاراگواي 406,752
166  زيمبابوي 390,757
167  بوركينا فاسو 274,222
168  أوغندا 241,038
169  لاوس 236,800
170  بلاروس 207,600
171  قيرغيزستان 199,951
172  نيپال 147,181
173  طاجيكستان 143,100
174  ملاوي 118,484
175  المجر 93,028
176  أذربيجان 86,600
177  النمسا 83,871
178  التشيك 78,867
179  صربيا 77,474
180  سلوڤاكيا 49,035
181   سويسرا 41,284
182  بوتان 38,394
183  مولدوڤا 33,846
184  لسوتو 30,355
185  أرمنيا 29,743
186  بوروندي 27,834
187  رواندا 26,338
188  شمال مقدونيا 25,713
189  سوازيلاند 17,364
190  كوسوڤو[a] 10,887
191  لوكسمبورگ 2,586
192  أندورا 468
193  ليختنشتاين 160
194  سان مارينو 61
195  الڤاتيكان 0.44
Total  الأمم المتحدة 137,159,222 25,103,204 274,004,586

المصادر

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خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "lower-alpha"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="lower-alpha"/> أو هناك وسم </ref> ناقص
خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "status"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="status"/> أو هناك وسم </ref> ناقص