جزر سليمان

(تم التحويل من جزر سولومون)
جزر سليمان

علم جزر سليمان
العلم
{{{coat_alt}}}
الدرع
الشعار الحادي: "القيادة تعني الخدمة"
موقع جزر سليمان
العاصمةهونيارا
9°25′55″S 159°57′20″E / 9.43194°S 159.95556°E / -9.43194; 159.95556
أكبر مدينةالعاصمة
اللغات الرسميةالإنگليزية
الجماعات العرقية
(تعداد 2009)
الدين
(2016)[2]
صفة المواطنسكان جزر سليمان
الحكومةملكية دستورية برلمانية مركزية
إليزابث الثانية
ديڤد ڤونگاي
مناسا سوگاڤار
التشريعالبرلمان الوطني
الاستقلال
7 يوليو 1978
المساحة
• الإجمالية
28.400 kم2 (10.965 ميل2) (رقم 139)
• الماء (%)
3.2%
التعداد
• تقدير 2016
599,419[3] (167th)
• الكثافة
18.1/كم2 (46.9/ميل2) (200th)
ن.م.إ. (ق.ش.م.)تقدير 2019 
• الإجمالي
1.479 بليون دولار [4]
• للفرد
2.307 دولار [4]
ن.م.إ.  (الإسمي)تقدير 2019 
• الإجمالي
$1.511 billion[4]
• للفرد
2.357 دولار [4]
جيني (2013)37.1[5]
medium
م.ت.ب. (2019)0.567[6]
medium · رقم 151
العملةدولار جزر سليمان (SBD)
التوقيتUTC+11
جانب السواقةاليسار
مفتاح الهاتف+677
النطاق العلوي للإنترنت.sb

Solomon Islands is a sovereign country[7][8] consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. It has a land area of 28,400 kiloمتر مربعs (11,000 ميل2), and a population of 652,858.[9] Its capital, Honiara, is located on the largest island, Guadalcanal. The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands (a part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as the Santa Cruz Islands and Rennell and Bellona.

The islands have been settled since at least some time between 30,000 and 28,800 BC, with later waves of migrants, notably the Lapita people, mixing and producing the modern indigenous Solomon Islanders population. In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit them, naming them the Islas Salomón.[10] Mendaña returned decades later, in 1595, and another Spanish expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, visited the Solomons in 1606. Britain defined its area of interest in the Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893, when Captain Gibson R.N., of إتش‌إم‌إس Curacoa, declared the southern Solomon Islands a British protectorate.[11][12] During World War II, the Solomon Islands campaign (1942–1945) saw fierce fighting between the United States, Commonwealth forces and the Empire of Japan, including the Battle of Guadalcanal.

The official name of the then-British administration was changed from the British Solomon Islands Protectorate to the Solomon Islands in 1975, and self-government was achieved the following year. Independence was obtained, and the name changed to just "Solomon Islands" (without the definite article), in 1978. At independence, Solomon Islands became a constitutional monarchy. The Queen of Solomon Islands is Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor-General.

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التسمية

في 1568، كان الملاح الاسباني ألڤارو دى مندانيا أول أوروپي يزور أرخبيل جزر سليمان، وأسماها Islas Salomón ("جزر سليمان") على اسم النبي الملك التوراتي سليمان.[10] It is said that they were given this name in the mistaken assumption that they contained great riches,[13] and he believed them to be the Bible-mentioned city of Ophir.[14] During most of the colonial period, the territory's official name was "British Solomon Islands Protectorate" until 1975, when it was changed to "Solomon Islands".[15][16] The definite article, "the", is not part of the country's official name but is sometimes used, both within and outside the country. Colloquially the islands are referred to simply as "the Solomons".[17]


التاريخ

ما قبل التاريخ

مقاتلان في زي الحرب (1895)

The human history of Solomon Islands begins with the first Papuan settlement at least 30,000 years ago from New Guinea. They represented the furthest expansion of humans into the Pacific until the expansion of Austronesian-language speakers through the area around 4000 BC, bringing new agricultural and maritime technology. Most of the languages spoken today in Solomon Islands derive from this era, but some thirty languages of the pre-Austronesian settlers survive. Most of the people that settled there back then were Papuans (انظر لغات شرق پاپوا).

There are preserved numerous pre-European cultural monuments in Solomon Islands, notably Bao megalithic shrine complex (13th century AD), Nusa Roviana fortress and shrines (14th – 19th century), Vonavona Skull island – all in Western province. Nusa Roviana fortress, shrines and surrounding villages served as a hub of regional trade networks in 17th – 19th centuries. Skull shrines of Nusa Roviana are sites of legends. Better known is Tiola shrine – site of legendary stone dog which turned towards the direction where enemy of Roviana was coming from.[18] This complex of archaeological monuments characterises fast development of local Roviana culture, through trade and head hunting expeditions turning into regional power in 17th – 18th centuries.[19]

وصول الأوروپيين (1568–1886)

Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira (1542–1595), the first European to sight the Solomons
Solomon Island warriors, armed with spears, on board an ornamented war canoe (1895)

Ships of the Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira first sighted Santa Isabel island on 7 February 1568. Finding signs of alluvial gold on Guadalcanal, Mendaña believed he had found the source of King Solomon's wealth, and consequently named the islands "The Islands of Solomon".

In 1595 and 1605 Spain again sent several expeditions to find the islands and establish a colony; however these were unsuccessful. In 1767 Captain Philip Carteret rediscovered the Santa Cruz Islands and Malaita. Later, Dutch, French and British navigators visited the islands; their reception was often hostile.

Museums with significant collections of Solomon Islands artifacts include the Bishop Museum, the Peabody Museum of Salem and the South Sea Islands Museum.

الاستعمار (1886–1978)

Sikaiana, then known as the Stewart Islands, was annexed to the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1856. Hawai'i did not formalize the annexation, and the United States refused to recognize Hawaiian sovereignty over Sikaiana when the United States annexed Hawai'i in 1898.

Missionary activity then started at the mid 19th century and European colonial ambitions led to the establishment of a German Protectorate over the North Solomon Islands, which covered parts of what is now Solomon Islands, following an Anglo-German Treaty of 1886. A British Solomon Islands Protectorate over the southern islands was proclaimed in June 1893. German interests were transferred to the United Kingdom under the Samoa Tripartite Convention of 1899, in exchange for recognition of the German claim to Western Samoa.

In 1927 District Commissioner William R. Bell was killed on Malaita, along with a cadet named Lillies and 13 Solomon Islanders in his charge. A massive punitive expedition, known as the Malaita massacre, ensued; at least 60 Kwaio were killed, nearly 200 detained in Tulagi (the protectorate capital),and many sacred sites and objects were destroyed or desecrated. Basiana, who had killed Bell, was hanged publicly on 29 June 1928.



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World War II



Post-war period and the lead-up to independence



Independence era (1978-present)

Early post-independence years

Ethnic violence (1998-2003)

Australian troops, as part of the RAMSI peacekeeping mission, burn weapons confiscated from or surrendered by militias in 2003


Solomon Islanders at a peace protest in 2003




Post-conflict era

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السياسة

Solomon Islands' National Parliament building was a gift from the United States.
Ministry of the Interior



السلطة القضائية


العلاقات الخارجية

Solomon Islands Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare meets with the President of Taiwan Tsai Ing-wen July 2016.



Military

Administrative divisions

For local government, the country is divided into ten administrative areas, of which nine are provinces administered by elected provincial assemblies and the tenth is the capital Honiara, administered by the Honiara Town Council.

Rank Province/Territory Capital Premier Area
(km2)
Population
census 1999
Population
per km2 (2009)
Population
census 2009
1 Flag of Central Province Solomon Islands.png Central Province Tulagi Patrick Vasuni 615 21,577 42.4 26,051
2 Flag of Choiseul.png Choiseul Province Taro Island Jackson Kiloe 3,837 20,008 6.9 26,371
3 Flag of Guadalcanal.png Guadalcanal Province[1] Honiara Anthony Veke 5,336 60,275 17.5 93,613
4 Flag of Isabel Province Solomon Islands.png Isabel Province Buala James Habu 4,136 20,421 6.3 26,158
5 Flag Makira and Ulawa.png Makira-Ulawa Province Kirakira Stanley Siapu 3,188 31,006 12.7 40,419
6 Flag of Malaiita.png Malaita Province Auki Peter Ramohia 4,225 122,620 32.6 137,596
7 Flag of Rennell and Bellona Province.svg Rennell and Bellona Province Tigoa George Tuhaika 671 2,377 4.5 3,041
8 Temotu province flag.svg Temotu Province Lata Fr. Charles Brown Beu 895 18,912 23.9 21,362
9 Flag of Western Province Solomon Islands.png Western Province Gizo David Gina 5,475 62,739 14.0 76,649
10 Flag of Honiara.svg Capital Territory Honiara Mua (Mayor) 22 49,107 2,936.8 64,609
  Solomon Islands Honiara 28,400 409,042 14.7 515,870

[1] excluding the Capital Territory of Honiara

Human rights


Geography

Aerial view of Solomon Islands.
Malaita island




Climate

Ecology


Water and sanitation


Earthquakes


الاقتصاد

A proportional representation of Solomon Islands exports, 2019
Plantation of oil palms near Tetere on Guadalcanal
Subsistence agriculture near Honiara
One of the most important roads on the North coast of Guadalcanal in Tamboko



Energy

Infrastructure

Flight connections

Roads

Ferries

Demographics

Population[3]
Year Million
1950 0.09
2000 0.4
2016 0.6

اعتبارا من 2016, there were 599,419 people in Solomon Islands.[3]

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups in The Solomon Islands
Ethnic Groups percent
Melanesian
  
95.3%
Polynesian
  
3.1%
Micronesian
  
1.2%
Chinese
  
0.1%
European
  
0.1%
Other
  
0.1%
Solomon Islander boys from Honiara. People with brown or blond hair are quite common among Solomon Islanders without any European admixture, especially among children.



Languages


Religion

Catholic Church in Tanagai on Guadalcanal




Health

Communicable diseases

Noncommunicable diseases

Sustainable development goals and Solomon Islands

Education

Children at the school in Tuo village, Fenualoa
Kindergarten in Honiara
School in Tanagai on Guadalcanal
Campus of the University of the South Pacific in Honiara



Culture

Traditional painting and wood carving in the National Museum in Honiara





Gender inequality and domestic violence

Literature


Media

Music

A pan flute, nineteenth century, MHNT



الرياضة


انظر أيضاً

المصادر

  1. ^ "National Parliament of Solomon Islands Daily Hansard: First Meeting – Eighth Session Tuesday 9th May 2006" (PDF). www.parliament.gov.sb. 2006. p. 12. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Religions in Solomon Islands | PEW-GRF".
  3. ^ أ ب ت "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  4. ^ أ ب ت ث "Solomon Islands". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Gini Index coefficient". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  6. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  7. ^ "Solomon Islands". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  8. ^ "Definition of Solomon Islands". Dictionary.com. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Population, total - Solomon Islands | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
  10. ^ أ ب "Alvaro de Mendaña de Neira, 1542?–1595". Princeton University Library. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  11. ^ Lawrence, David Russell (October 2014). "Chapter 6 The British Solomon Islands Protectorate: Colonialism without capital" (PDF). The Naturalist and his "Beautiful Islands": Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific. ANU Press. ISBN 9781925022032.
  12. ^ Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 897
  13. ^ "Lord GORONWY-ROBERTS, speaking in the House of Lords, HL Deb 27 April 1978 vol 390 cc2003-19". Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  14. ^ HOGBIN, H. In, Experiments in Civilization: The Effects of European Culture on a Native Community of the Solomon Islands, New York: Schocken Books, 1970
  15. ^ ‘International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law: Instalment 37’ edited by K. Zweigert, S-65
  16. ^ The British Solomon Islands Protectorate (Name of Territory) Order 1975
  17. ^ John Prados, Islands of Destiny, Dutton Caliber, 2012, p,20 and passim
  18. ^ "Nusa Roviana hillfort and shrines". Wondermondo.
  19. ^ Peter J. Sheppard; Richard Walter; Takuya Nagaoka. of %5b%5bpapuans%5d%5d settled there._Sheppard,_Richard_Walter_and_Takuya_Nagaoka,_p_9-38/p1 "The Archaeology of Head-Hunting in Roviana Lagoon, New Georgia" Check |url= value (help). The Journal of the Polynesian Society.

وصلات خارجية