رجب طيب إردوغان

رجب طيب إردوغان
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 2019 (cropped).jpg
رئيس تركيا رقم 12
المُنتخب
Taking office
28 أغسطس 2014
يخلـُف عبد الله گول
رئيس وزراء تركيا رقم 25
في المنصب
14 مارس 2003 – 28 أغسطس 2014
الرئيس أحمد نجدت سيزر
عبد الله گول
نائب
سبقه عبد الله گول
زعيم حزب العدالة والتنمية
الحالي
تولى المنصب
14 أغسطس 2001
سبقه تأسيس المنصب
عمدة إسطنبول رقم 28
في المنصب
27 مارس 1994 – 6 نوفمبر 1998
سبقه نور الدين سوزن
خلفه علي مفتي گورتونا
عضو المجلس الوطني الأكبر
في المنصب
9 مارس 2003 – 28 أغسطس 2014
الدائرة الانتخابية
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد 26 فبراير 1954
قاسم‌پاشا، إسطنبول، تركيا
الحزب حزب الخلاص الوطني
(قبل 1981)
حزب الرفاه (1983–1998)
حزب الفضيلة (1998–2001)
حزب العدالة والتنمية (2001–الآن)
الزوج أمينة گولبران (1978–الآن)
الأنجال أحمد بُراق
نجم الدين بلال
إسراء
سمية
الجامعة الأم جامعة مرمرة[1][2][3][4][أ]
الدين مسلم سني
التوقيع
الموقع الإلكتروني موقع الحكومة
الموقع الشخصي
هذه المقالة هي جزء من سلسلة عن
رجب طيب إردوغان
النشأة والسيرة • التاريخ الانتخابي
الوزارة الأولى • وزارة إردوغان • الوزارة الثالثة
العلاقات المدنية العسكرية • المبادرة الديمقراطية
السياسة الخارجية • الرحلات الخارجية • الرؤية 2023
حزب العدالة والتنمية
معرض صور: صور، تسجيلات صوتية ومرئية
Flag of Turkey.svg
هذه المقالة هي جزء من سلسلة عن
سياسة وحكومة
تركيا

رجب طيب إردوغان (النطق التركي: [ɾeˈd͡ʒep tɑjˈjip ˈæɾdo(ɰ)ɑn] ( استمع)؛ وُلد 26 فبراير 1954)، هو رئيس تركيا منذ تقلده المنصب في 2014. كان رئيس وزراء تركيا من 2003 حتى 2014 وعمدة إسطنبول من 1994 حتى 1998. أسس حزب العدالة والتنمية في 2001، ليقوده إلى الانتصار في انتخابات 2002، 2007، 2011 قبل أن يدفعه إلى منصب الرئاسة في 2014. آتياً من خلفية سياسية إسلامية وكما يصف نفسه بأنه ديمقراطي محافظ، أشرفت إدارته على السياسات المحافظة الاجتماعية والليبرالية الاقتصادية.[5]

لعب إردوغان كرة القدم مع نادي قاسم‌پاشا قبل أن يُنتخب عمدة لإسطنبول عن حزب الرفاه الإسلامي عام 1994. تم تجريده من منصبه، حرمانه من المنصب السياسي، وسُجن لأربعة أشهر، لإلقاءه قصيدة ضمن خطاب عام 1998،[6] بعدها تخلى علنياً عن السياسات الإسلامية وأسس حزب العدالة والتنمية المحافظ المعتدل عام 2001. في أعقاب الانتصار الساحق لحزب العدالة والتنمية عام 2002، أصبح الشريك المؤسس في الحزب، عبد الله گول رئيساً للوزراء حتى ألغت حكومته منع إردوغان من تقلد المناصب السياسية. أصبح إردوغان رئيساً للوزراء في مارس 2003 بعد فوزه في انتخابات سرت.[7]

أشرفت حكومة إردوغان على مفاوضات عضوية تركيا في الاتحاد الأوروپي، الانتعاش الاقتصاي في أعقاب الأزمة المالية 2001، تغييرات الدستور عن طريق استفتاء في 2007 و2010، السياسة العثمانية الجديدة الخارجية والاستثمارات في البنية التحتية وتشمل الطرق، المطارات، وشبكة القطارات فائقة السرعة.[8][9] بمساعدة حركة الخدمة بقيادة الواعظ فتح الله گولن، تمكن إردوغان من كبح سلطة الجيش عن طريق محكمتي Sledgehammer وErgenekon. في أواخر 2012، بدأت حكومته مفاوضات السلام مع حزب العمال الكردستاني لإنهاء تمرد حزب العمال الكردستاني المستمر والذي بدأ منذ 1978. تم إختراق وقف إطلاق النار في 2015، مما أدى إلى تجدد الاشتباكات. في 2016، وقعت محاولة اانقلاب فاشلة على إردوغان والمؤسسات الحكومية التركية. تلى هذا عمليات تطهير وفُرضت حالة الطوارئ.

في مايو 2013، بدأت الاحتجاجات في جميع أنحاء البلاد ضد الاستبداد المتصور لحكومة أردوغان، مع حملة شنتها الشرطة والتي لاقت انتقادات دولية وأسفرت عن سقوط 22 قتيل وإيقاف مفاوضات عضوية الاتحاد الأوروپي. بعد الانقسام مع گولن، أصدر إردوغان إصلاحات قضائية شاملة وأصر على الحاجة لتطهير المتعاظفين مع گولن، لكن هذه الإصلاحات واجهت انتقادات لتهديدها استقلال القضاء. فضيحة فساد بقيمة 100 بليون دولار أدت إلى اعتقال حلفاء قريبين من إردوغان، وتجريم إروغان.[10][11][12]

منذ ذلك الحين أصبحت حكومته في مرمى النار بسبب انتهاكات حقوق الإنسان المزعومة والهجوم على الصحافة ووسائل الإعلام الاجتماعية، وحظر الدخول على تويتر، فيسبوك ويوتيوب في عدد من المناسبات.[13] تخلت حكومة إردوغان عن الحظر على أوامر المحاكم.[14][15][16] انتقد الصحفيون توجهاته الاستبدادية؛ ويتعرض الصحفيون للسجن في تركيا أكثر من أي بلد آخر.[17] أعلن المعلقون السياسيون أن جهود أردوغان المتواصلة لتوسيع صلاحياته التنفيذية مع التقليل من مسؤولياته التنفيذية تؤدي إلى حد كبير إلى "سقوط الديمقراطية التركية"، بينما يؤكد أنصار إردوغان أن تركيا لا تزال ديمقراطية أغلبية، زاعمين أن انتخابات الحكومة المتنازع عليها في أبريل 2017 هي انتخابات شرعية.[18][19][20][21][22]


فهرست

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حياته الشخصية والتعليم

إردوغان وعبد الله گول وزوجاتهم.

ولد في 26 فبراير 1954 في إسطنبول. تعود أصوله لمدينة طرابزون[23]، أمضى طفولته المبكرة في محافظة ريزة على البحر الأسود ثم عاد مرة أخرى إلى إسطنبول وعمرهُ 13 عاماً.[24] نشأ أردوغان في أسرة فقيرة فقد قال في مناظرة تلفزيونية مع دنيز بايكال رئيس الحزب الجمهوري ما نصه: "لم يكن أمامي غير بيع البطيخ والسميط في مرحلتي الابتدائية والإعدادية؛ كي أستطيع معاونة والدي وتوفير قسم من مصروفات تعليمي؛ فقد كان والدي فقيرًا" [25].

درس في مدارس "إمام خطيب" الإسلامية الدينية، ثم تخرج من كلية الاقتصاد والعلوم الإدارية في جامعة مرمرة.


العمل السياسي المبكر

انضم أردوغان إلى حزب الخلاص الوطني بقيادة نجم الدين أربكان في نهاية السبعينات، لكن مع الانقلاب العسكري الذي حصل في 1980، تم إلغاء جميع الأحزاب، وبحلول عام 1983 عادت الحياة الحزبية إلى تركيا وعاد نشاط أردوغان من خلال حزب الرفاه، خاصةً في محافظة اسطنبول.

في عام 1989 دخل حزب الرفاه الانتخابات البلدية، وبدأ يحقق نتائج جيدة، وقد ترشح أردوغان في بلدية باي أوغلو"سنة، نظرا لديناميته وحيويته وقدرته الفائقة على التحرك، وهدم الحواجز التي كان يضعها أعضاء الحزب بينهم وبين الشعب. لكنه خسر تلك الانتخابات، وبحلول عام 1994 رشح حزب الرفاه أردوغان إلى منصب عمدة إسطنبول، واستطاع أن يفوز في هذه الانتخابات خاصةً مع حصول حزب الرفاه في هذه الانتخابات على عدد كبير من المقاعد.[26]


عمدة إسطنبول (1994–98)

في الانتخابات المحلية التي أجريت في 27 مارس 1994، انتخب أردوغان عمدة لإسطنبول، بأغلبية (25.19%) من الأصوات. كان أردوغان پراگماتياً في منصبه، حيث عالج العديد من المشكلات المزمنة في إسطنبول بما في ذلك نقص المياه والتلوث والفوضى المرورية. تم حل مشكلة نقص المياه من خلال مد مئات الكيلومترات من خطوط الأنابيب الجديدة. وحُلت مشكلة القمامة بإنشاء مرافق إعادة التدوير الحديثة. بينما كان أردوغان في منصبه، تم تقليل تلوث الهواء من خلال خطة طُورت للانتقال نحو استخدام الغاز الطبيعي. قام بتغيير الحافلات العامة إلى حافلات صديقة للبيئة. وقل ازدحام المرور والنقل في المدينة من خلال أكثر من خمسين جسراً وجسوراً وطرق سريعة. اتخذ أردوغان الاحتياطات اللازمة لمنع الفساد، مستخدماً تدابير لضمان استخدام الأموال البلدية بحكمة. قام بسداد جزءاً كبيراً من ديون بلدية إسطنبول البالغة ملياري دولار واستثمر أربعة مليارات دولار في المدينة.[27]

بدأ أردوغان اجتماع المائدة المستديرة الأول لرؤساء البلديات خلال مؤتمر إسطنبول، والذي أدى إلى حركة عالمية منظمة لرؤساء البلديات. منحت لجنة تحكيم دولية من سبعة أعضاء من الأمم المتحدة بالإجماع أردوغان جائزة الأمم المتحدة للموائل.[28]

السجن

عام 1998، أُعلن أن عدم دستورية حزب الرفاه الأصولي على خلفية تهديده للعلمانية التركية وأغلقته المحكمة الدستورية التركية. أصبح أردوغان متحدثاً مفوهاً في المظاهرات التي خرج فيها زملائه بالحزب.[29]

في ديسمبر 1997 في سعرت، ألقى أردوغان قصيدة من تأليف ضياء گوق‌ألپ، ناشط قومي تركي من أوائل القرن 20.[30] تضمنت كلمته تلاوة أبيات ترجمتها من التركية: "المساجد هي ثكناتنا، والقباب خوذاتنا، والمآذن حرابنا والمؤمنون جنودنا...."[31] التي لم تكن موجودة في النسخة الأصلية من القصيدة. وقال أردوغان أن القصيدة حصلت على موافقة وزارة التعليم لنشرها في الكتب المدرسية.[32] بموجب المادة 312/2 من قانون العقوبات التركي اعتبرت خطبته تحريضاً على العنف والكراهية الدينية أو العنصرية.[33] He was given a ten-month prison sentence of which he served four months, from 24 March 1999 to 27 July 1999.[6] بسبب إدانته، اضطر أردوغان للتخلي عن منصب عمدة إسطنبول. كما نصت الإدانة على حظره من ممارسة الأنشطة السياسية ومن المشاركة في الانتخابات البرلمانية.[34] طلب أردوغان تخفيف الحكم إلى غرامة مالية، لكن تم تخفيضه للسجن 120 يوم.[35] عام 2017، كان حياة أردوغان في تلك الفترة موضوعاً لفيلم بعنوان ريس.[36]


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تأسيس حزب العدالة والتنمية

عام 1998 اتهُم أردوغان بالتحريض على الكراهية الدينية تسببت في سجنه ومنعه من العمل في الوظائف الحكومية ومنها الترشيح للانتخابات العامة بسبب اقتباسه أبياتاً من شعر تركي أثناء خطاب جماهيري [37] يقول فيه:

مساجدنا ثكناتنا
قبابنا خوذاتنا
مآذننا حرابنا
والمصلون جنودنا
هذا الجيش المقدس يحرس ديننا
[38]

لم تثنِ هذه القضية أردوغان عن الاستمرار في مشواره السياسي بل نبهته هذه القضية إلى كون الاستمرار في هذا الأمر قد يعرضه للحرمان الأبدي من السير في الطريق السياسي كما حدث لأستاذه نجم الدين أربكان، فاغتنم فرصة حظر حزب الفضيلة لينشق مع عدد من الأعضاء منهم عبد الله غول وتأسيس حزب العدالة والتنمية في 14 أغسطس 2001.[37] ومنذ البداية أراد أردوغان أن يدفع عن نفسه أي شبهة باستمرار الصلة الحزبية والفكرية مع أربكان وتياره الإسلامي الذي أغضب المؤسسات العلمانية مرات عدة، فأعلن أن حزب العدالة والتنمية سيحافظ على أسس النظام الجمهوري ولن يدخل في مماحكات مع القوات المسلحة التركية وقال "سنتبع سياسة واضحة ونشطة من أجل الوصول إلى الهدف الذي رسمه أتاتورك لإقامة المجتمع المتحضر والمعاصر في إطار القيم الإسلامية التي يؤمن بها 99% من مواطني تركيا.[39]

رئاسة الوزراء (2003–14)

إردوغان يصدر بيان إعلامي في مكتب رئيس الوزراء في أنقرة.

خاض حزب العدالة والتنمية الانتخابات التشريعية عام 2002 وفاز منه 363 نائبا مشكلا بذلك أغلبية ساحقة، لكن لم يستطع أردوغان ترأس حكومته بسبب تبعات سجنه وقام بتلك المهمة عبد الله غول. وتمكن في مارس عام 2003، من تولي رئاسة الحكومة بعد إسقاط الحكم عنه.

بعد توليه رئاسة الوزراء، عمل على الاستقرار والأمن السياسي والاقتصادي والاجتماعي في تركيا، وتصالح مع الأرمن بعد عداء تاريخي، وكذلك فعل مع اليونان، وفتح جسورا بينه وبين أذربيجان وبقية الجمهوريات السوفيتية السابقة، وأرسى تعاونا مع العراق وسوريا وفتح الحدود مع عدد من الدول العربية ورفع تأشيرة الدخول، وفتح أبوابا اقتصاديا وسياسيا واجتماعيا وثقافيا مع عدد من البلدان العالمية، وأصبحت مدينة إسطنبول العاصمة الثقافية الأوروبية عام 2009، ولقد أعاد لمدن وقرى الأكراد أسمائها الكردية بعدما كان ذلك محظورا، وسمح رسميا بالخطبة باللغة الكردية.[40]


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الانتخابات العامة

ملصق الحملة الانتخابية لإردوغان: "إسطنبول مستعدة، هدف 2023"، ميدان تقسيم، إسطنبول.

The elections of 2002 were the first elections in which Erdoğan participated as a party leader. All parties previously elected to parliament failed to win enough votes to re-enter the parliament. The AKP won 34.3% of the national vote and formed the new government. Turkish stocks rose more than 7% on Monday morning. Politicians of the previous generation, such as Ecevit, Bahceli, Yılmaz and Çiller, resigned. The second largest party, the CHP, received 19.4% of the votes. The AKP won a landslide victory in the parliament, taking nearly two-thirds of the seats. Erdoğan could not become Prime Minister as he was still banned from politics by the judiciary for his speech in Siirt. Gül became the Prime Minister instead. In December 2002, the Supreme Election Board canceled the general election results from Siirt due to voting irregularities and scheduled a new election for 9 February 2003. By this time, party leader Erdoğan was able to run for parliament due to a legal change made possible by the opposition Republican People's Party. The AKP duly listed Erdoğan as a candidate for the rescheduled election, which he won, becoming Prime Minister after Gül handed over the post.[41]

ملصقات الدعاية الانتخابية لإردوغان منافسه أكمل الدين إحسان اوغلي أثناء الانتخابات الرئاسية 2014، إسطنبول.

On 14 April 2007, an estimated 300,000 people marched in Ankara to protest against the possible candidacy of Erdoğan in the 2007 presidential election, afraid that if elected as President, he would alter the secular nature of the Turkish state.[42] Erdoğan announced on 24 April 2007 that the party had nominated Abdullah Gül as the AKP candidate in the presidential election.[43] The protests continued over the next several weeks, with over one million people reported to have turned out at a 29 April rally in Istanbul,[44] tens of thousands at separate protests on 4 May in Manisa and Çanakkale,[45] and one million in İzmir on 13 May.[46]

The stage of the elections of 2007 was set for a fight for legitimacy in the eyes of voters between his government and the CHP. Erdoğan used the event that took place during the ill-fated Presidential elections a few months earlier as a part of the general election campaign of his party. On 22 July 2007, the AKP won an important victory over the opposition, garnering 46.7% of the popular vote. 22 July elections marked only the second time in the Republic of Turkey's history whereby an incumbent governing party won an election by increasing its share of popular support.[47] On 14 March 2008, Turkey's Chief Prosecutor asked the country's Constitutional Court to ban Erdoğan's governing party.[48] The party escaped a ban on 30 July 2008, a year after winning 46.7% of the vote in national elections, although judges did cut the party's public funding by 50%.[49]

In the June 2011 elections, Erdoğan's governing party won 327 seats (49.83% of the popular vote) making Erdoğan the only prime minister in Turkey's history to win three consecutive general elections, each time receiving more votes than the previous election. The second party, the Republican People's Party (CHP), received 135 seats (25.94%), the nationalist MHP received 53 seats (13.01%), and the Independents received 35 seats (6.58%).[50]

القضية الكردية

In 2009, Prime Minister Erdoğan's government announced a plan to help end the quarter-century-long Turkey–Kurdistan Workers' Party conflict that had cost more than 40,000 lives. The government's plan, supported by the European Union, intended to allow the Kurdish language to be used in all broadcast media and political campaigns, and restored Kurdish names to cities and towns that had been given Turkish ones.[51] Erdoğan said, "We took a courageous step to resolve chronic issues that constitute an obstacle along Turkey's development, progression and empowerment".[51] Erdoğan passed a partial amnesty to reduce penalties faced by many members of the Kurdish guerrilla movement PKK who had surrendered to the government.[52] On 23 November 2011, during a televised meeting of his party in Ankara, he apologised on behalf of the state for the Dersim massacre, where many Alevis and Zazas were killed.[53]

مذبحة درسيم

في 23 نوفمبر 2011 قدم أردوغان خلال اجتماع لحزب العدالة والتنمية في أنقرة اعتذارا تاريخيا باسم دولة تركيا حول الأحداث المأساوية التي وقعت بين سنوات (1936- 1939) في منطقة درسيم، التي ارتكبتها الحكومة التركية آنذاك ممثلة بالحزب الجمهوري بحق الأكراد العلويين في نهاية الثلانينات من القرن الماضي[54]. وقوبل هذا الاعتذار بترحيب شديد من قبل رئاسة إقليم كوردستان والتي رحبت بتصريحات اردوغان وقالت ان هذا التصريح يدفع بعملية الانفتاح الديمقراطي في تركيا إلى مرحلة أكثر تقدما[55].

التطهير العرقي الأرمني

في 2011، أمر رجب طيب إردوغان بتدمير نصب تذكاري للإنسانية، التمثال المكرس لتعزيز العلاقات الأرمنية التركية.

Prime Minister Erdoğan expressed multiple times that Turkey would acknowledge the mass killings of up to 1.5 million Armenians during World War I as genocide only after a thorough investigation by a joint Turkish-Armenian commission consisting of historians, archaeologists, political scientists and other experts.[56][57][بحاجة لمصدر أفضل] In 2005, Erdoğan and the main opposition party leader Deniz Baykal wrote a letter to Armenian President Robert Kocharian, proposing the creation of a joint Turkish-Armenian commission.[58] Armenian Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian rejected the offer because he asserted that the proposal itself was "insincere and not serious." He added: "This issue cannot be considered at historical level with Turks, who themselves politicized the problem."[59][60]

In December 2008, Erdoğan criticised the I Apologize campaign by Turkish intellectuals to recognize the Armenian Genocide, saying, "I neither accept nor support this campaign. We did not commit a crime, therefore we do not need to apologise ... It will not have any benefit other than stirring up trouble, disturbing our peace and undoing the steps which have been taken."[61] In November 2009, he said, "it is not possible for those who belong to the Muslim faith to carry out genocide."[62][63]

In 2011, Erdoğan ordered the tearing-down of the Statue of Humanity, a Turkish-Armenian friendship monument in Kars, which was commissioned in 2006 and represented a metaphor of the rapprochement of the two countries after many years of dispute over the events of 1915. Erdoğan justified the removal by stating that the monument was offensively close to the tomb of an 11th-century Islamic scholar, and that its shadow ruined the view of that site, while Kars municipality officials said it was illegally erected in a protected area. However, the former mayor of Kars who approved the original construction of the monument said the municipality was destroying not just a "monument to humanity" but "humanity itself". The demolition was not unopposed; among its detractors were several Turkish artists. Two of them, the painter Bedri Baykam and his associate, Pyramid Art Gallery general coordinator Tugba Kurtulmus, were stabbed after a meeting with other artists at the Istanbul Akatlar cultural center.[64]

On 23 April 2014, Erdoğan's office issued a statement in nine languages (including two dialects of Armenian), offering condolences for the mass killings of Armenians and stating that the events of 1915 had inhumane consequences. The statement described the mass killings as the two nations' shared pain and said: "Having experienced events which had inhumane consequences – such as relocation – during the First World War, (it) should not prevent Turks and Armenians from establishing compassion and mutually humane attitudes among one another".[65] The Ottoman Parliament of 1915 had previously used the term "relocation" to describe the purpose of the Tehcir Law, which resulted in the deaths of anywhere between 800,000 and over 1,800,000 Armenian civilians in what is commonly referred to as the Armenian Genocide.[66]

Pope Francis in April 2015, at a special mass in St. Peter's Basilica marking the centenary of the events, described atrocities against Armenian civilians in 1915–1922 as "the first genocide of the 20th century". In protest, Erdoğan recalled the Turkish ambassador from the Vatican, and summoned the Vatican's ambassador, to express "disappointment" at what he called a discriminatory message. He later stated "we don’t carry a stain or a shadow like genocide". US President Barack Obama called for a "full, frank and just acknowledgement of the facts", but again stopped short of labelling it "genocide", despite his campaign promise to do so.[67][68][69]

حقوق الإنسان

الرئيس جورج دبليو بوش يلتقي إردوغان في المكتب البيضاوي في 5 نوفمبر 2007.

During Erdoğan's time as Prime Minister, the far-reaching powers of the 1991 Anti-Terror Law were reduced and the Democratic initiative process was initiated, with the goal to improve democratic standards in general and the rights of ethnic and religious minorities in particular. However, after Turkey's bid to join the European Union stalled, European officials noted a return to more authoritarian ways,[70] notably on freedom of speech,[71][72][73] freedom of the press[74][75][76] and Kurdish minority rights.[77][78][79][80] Demands by activists for the recognition of LGBT rights were publicly rejected by government members,[81] and members of the Turkish LGBT community were insulted by cabinet members.[82]

Reporters Without Borders observed a continuous decrease in Freedom of the Press during Erdoğan's later terms, with a rank of around 100 on the Press Freedom Index during his first term and a rank of 154 out of a total of 179 countries in 2013.[83] Freedom House saw a slight recovery in later years and awarded Turkey a Press Freedom Score of 55/100 in 2012 after a low point of 48/100 in 2006.[84][85][86][87]

In 2011, Erdoğan's government made legal reforms to return properties of Christian and Jewish minorities which were seized by the Turkish government in the 1930s.[88] The total value of the properties returned reached $2 billion (USD).[89]

Under Erdoğan, the Turkish government tightened the laws on the sale and consumption of alcohol, banning all advertising and increasing the tax on alcoholic beverages.[90]


الاقتصاد

معدل البطالة في تركيا ما بين 2000 و2014.

في 2002، ورث إردوغان الاقتصاد التركي الذي بدأ في التعافي من الركود نتيجة للإصلاحات التي قام بها كمال درويش.[91] دعم إردوغان وزير المالية علي باباجان في تنفيذ سياسات الاقتصاد الكلي. حاول إردوغان جذب المزيد من المستثمرين الأجانب إلى تركيا ورفع الكثير من القيود الحكومية. تدفق النقد للاقتصاد التركي ما بين 2002 و2012 تسبب في نمو بنسبة 64% في الناتج المحلي الإجمالي الحقيقي و43% زيادة في الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للفرد؛ أرقام مرتفعة بشكل ملحوظ لكنها لم تكنها لم account for تضخم الدولار الأمريكي ما بين 2002 و2012.[92] متوسط النمو السنوي في الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للفرد وصل إلى 3.6%. النمو في الناتج المحلي الإجمالي ما بين 2002 و2012 كان أعلى من نظيره في البلدان المتقدمة، لكنه كان قريباً من متوسط ن.م.إ. في البلدان النامية، الأمر الذي تم وضعه في الحسبان. خلال ذلك العقد، انتقل ترتيب الاقتصاد التركي من حيث ن.م.إ. من 17 إلى 16. التسلسل الرئيسي للسياسات ما بين 2002 و2012 تسبب في اتساع عجز الحساب الجاري من 600 مليون دولار إلى 58 بليون دولار (تقديرات 2013).[93]

إردوغان، ڤلاديمير پوتن وسيلڤيو برلسكوني في مراسم افتتاح خط أنابيب الغاز التيار الأزرق، نوفمبر 2005.

منذ 1961، وقعت تركياً على 19 اتفاقية قروض من صندوق البنك الدولي. أثناء إدارته، وفت حكومة إردوغان بالميزانية ومتطلبات السوق للبندين وحصلت على كامل القروض، وكانت تلك هي المرة الوحيدة التي تقوم فيها الحكومة التركية بذلك.[94] ورث إردوغان ديناً بقيمة 23.5 بليون دولار لصندوق البنك الدولي، والذي انخفض إلى 0.9 بليون دولار في 2012. قرر إردوغان توقيع اتفاقية جديدة. ومن ثم فقد أُعلن أن الدين التركي لصندوق النقد الدولي سيتم تسديده بالكامل وأعلن بأن صندوق النقد الدولي سيقترض من تركيا.[95] في 2010، تداولت مقايضات الائتمان الافتراضي الخماسية للدين السيادي التركي عن مستوى قياسي منخفض بقيمة 1.17%، أقل من أي من أعضاء الاتحاد الأوروپي التسعة وروسيا.

في 2002، كان هناك احتياطيات بقيمة 26.4 بليون دولار في البنك المركزي التركي. وصل المبلغ إلى 92.2 بليون دولار في 2011. أثناء زعامة إردوغان، انخفض التضخم من 32% إلى 9.0% في 2004. منذ ذلك الوقت، استمر التضخم في التذبذب حول 9% ولا يزال واحداً من أعلى مستويات التضخم في العالم.[96]

الدين العام التركي كنسبة مئوية من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي السنوي انخفض من 74% في 2002 إلى 39% في 2009. في 2012، كان معدل الدين العام التركي منخفضاً عن الناتج المحلي الإجمالي أقل 21 من 27 من أعضاء الاتحاد الأوروپي وعجز ميزاني أقل من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي أقل 23 من تلك البلدان.[97]

ارتفع معدل البطالة من 10.3% في 2002 إلى 11.0% في 2010.[98]

حقوق العمال

في 2003، مررت حكومة إردوغان عبر قانون العمل، إصلاح شامل لقوانين العمال التركية. قانون العمل الجديد الذي يوسع لحد كبير من حقوق العمال، يؤسس أسبوع عمل 45 ساعة ويقصر ساعات العمل الإضافية على 270 ساعة سنوياً، يعطي الحماية القانونية ضد التمييز على أساس الجنس، الدين، أو الانتماء السياسي، يمنع التمييز بين العمال الدائمين والمؤقتين، entitled employees terminated without "valid cause" to compensation, ويتعهد بعقود مكتوبة لتعاقدات العمل تستمر لسنة أو أكثر.[99][100]

التعليم

زاد إردوغان ميزانية وزارة التعليم من 7.5 بليون ليرة في 2002 إلى 34 بليون ليرة في 2011، أعلى حصة في الميزانية القومية يتم منحها لواحدة من الوزارات.[101] قبل توليه رئاسة الوزراء حصل الجيش على أعلى حصة في الميزانية الوطنية. زادت عدد سنوات التعليم الإلزامي من ثمان سنوات إلى اثنى عشر سنة.[102] في 2003، الحكومة التركية، بالتعاون مع اليونسكو، بدأت حملة أطلقت عليها اسم "هيا يا فتيات، فلنذهب للمدرسة!" (بالتركية: Haydi Kızlar Okula!). كان هدف هذه الحملة سد الفجوة بين الجنسين في الالتحاق بالمدارس الابتدائية من خلال توفير تعليم أساسي جيد لجميع الفتيات، خاصة في جنوب شرق تركيا.[103]

في 2005، منح البرلمان عفواً للطلاب الذين فُصلوا من الجامعات قبل 2003. شمل العفو الطلاب الذين تم فصلهم لأسباب أكاديمية أو تأديبية.[104] في 2004، أصبحت الكتب الدراسية بالمجان ومنذ 2008 أصبح لكل محافظة تركية الجامعة الخاصة بها.[105] أثناء تولي إردوغان رئاسة الوزراء، تضاعف عدد الجامعات في تركيا، من 98 في 2002 إلى 186 في أكتوبر 2012.[106]

وفى رئيس الوزراء بوعوده الانتخابية من خلال بدأ مشروع الفاتح والذي حصلت من خلالها جميع المدارس الحكومية، من الابتدائية للثانوية، على إجمالي 620.000 لوح ذكي، بينما تم توزيع الحواسب اللوحية على 17 مليون طالب وحوالي مليون مدرس وإداري.[107]

البنية التحتية

تحت إدارة حكومة إردوغان، ازداد عدد المطارات في تركيا من 26 إلى 50.[108] ما بين تأسيس جمهورية تركيا عام 1923 و2002، أنشئت 6000 كم من الطرق المزدوجة. ما بين 2002 و2011، بُني 13500 كم إضافيين من الطرق السريعة. نتيجة لتلك التدابير، انخفضت حوادث السيارات بنسبة 50 بالمائة.[109] لأول مرة في التاريخ التركي، أنشئت سكك حديدية فائقة السرعة، وفي 2009 بدأت خدمة القطار فائق السرعة.[110] في غضون ثمان سنوات، بُنيت 1076 كم من السكك الحديدية وتجديد 5449 كم. إنشاء مرماري، نفق السكك الحديدية تحت البحر أسفل مضيق البسفور، بدأ في 2004. عند اكتماله، سيكون أعمق نفق أنبوبي منغمس تحت البحر في العالم.[بحاجة لمصدر] في 2002، بدأ انشاء جسر السلطان سليم الأول بطول 1.0 كم 1.9.[111] أدى اختيار هذا الاسم لجسر إلى انطلاع احتجاجات من قبل العلويين في تركيا بسبب أن السلطان سليم الأول، وكنيته "الغريم| بسبب وحشيته، لعب دوراً في اضطهاد العثمانيين للعلويين.[112]


العدالة

In March 2006, the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors (HSYK) held a press conference to publicly protest the obstruction of the appointment of judges to the high courts for over 10 months. The HSYK said Erdoğan wanted to fill the vacant posts with his own appointees. Erdoğan was accused of creating a rift with Turkey's highest court of appeal, the Yargıtay, and high administrative court, the Danıştay. Erdoğan stated that the constitution gave the power to assign these posts to his elected party.[113]

In May 2007, the head of Turkey's High Court asked prosecutors to consider whether Erdoğan should be charged over critical comments regarding the election of Abdullah Gül as President.[113] Erdoğan said the ruling was "a disgrace to the justice system", and criticized the Constitutional Court which had invalidated a presidential vote because a boycott by other parties meant there was no quorum. Prosecutors investigated his earlier comments, including saying it had fired a "bullet at democracy". Tülay Tuğcu, head of the Constitutional Court, condemned Erdoğan for "threats, insults and hostility" towards the justice system.[114]


المرأة والديموغرافيا

Erdoğan supported the continuation of Turkey's high population growth rate and, in 2008, commented that to ensure the Turkish population remained young every family would need to have at least three children.[115][116] He repeated this statement on numerous occasions.[117] In 2010, Turkey's population was estimated at 73,700,000, with a growth rate of 1.21% per annum (2009 figure).[118]

On 26 May 2012, answering the question of a reporter after a UN conference on population and development in Turkey, Erdoğan said that abortion is murder, saying, "You either kill a baby in the mother's womb or you kill it after birth. In many cases [not all], there's no difference."[119]

Erdoğan has stated that he opposes Turkey's high and growing rate of caesarean section births because he believes that they reduce the fertility of Turkish women, and he is in favor of limiting the number of such births in Turkish hospitals.[120][121]

In a 2010 meeting with women NGO representatives, asked why he kept addressing them exclusively as mothers, Erdoğan said: "I do not believe in the equality of men and women. I believe in equal opportunities. Men and women are different and complementary."[122] In 2014, he addressed the Istanbul Women and Justice Summit of the Women and Democracy Association (بالتركية: Kadın ve Demokrasi Derneği, or KADEM): "Our religion [Islam] has defined a position for women [in society]: motherhood. You cannot explain this to feminists because they don't accept the concept of motherhood." Calling for "equivalency" between the genders, he stated: "You cannot bring women and men into equal positions; that is against nature because their nature is different," while reaffirming that full equality regardless of gender before the law should be maintained.[123]


الرعاية الصحية

After assuming power in 2003, Erdoğan's government embarked on a sweeping reform program of the Turkish healthcare system, called the Health Transformation Program (HTP), to greatly increase the quality of healthcare and protect all citizens from financial risks. Its introduction coincided with the period of sustained economic growth, allowing the Turkish government to put greater investments into the healthcare system. As part of the reforms, the "Green Card" program, which provides health benefits to the poor, was expanded in 2004.[124] The reform program aimed at increasing the ratio of private to state-run healthcare, which, along with long queues in state-run hospitals, resulted in the rise of private medical care in Turkey, forcing state-run hospitals to compete by increasing quality.

In April 2006, Erdoğan unveiled a social security reform package demanded by the International Monetary Fund under a loan deal. The move, which Erdoğan called one of the most radical reforms ever, was passed with fierce opposition. Turkey's three social security bodies were united under one roof, bringing equal health services and retirement benefits for members of all three bodies. The previous system had been criticized for reserving the best healthcare for civil servants and relegating others to wait in long queues. Under the second bill, everyone under the age of 18 years was entitled to free health services, irrespective of whether they pay premiums to any social security organization. The bill also envisages a gradual increase in the retirement age: starting from 2036, the retirement age will increase to 65 by 2048 for both women and men.[125]

In January 2008, the Turkish Parliament adopted a law to prohibit smoking in most public places. Erdoğan is outspokenly anti-smoking.[126]


الاستفتاء الدستوري 2007 و2010

After the opposition parties deadlocked the 2007 presidential election by boycotting the parliament, the ruling AKP proposed a constitutional reform package. The reform package was first vetoed by president Sezer. Then he applied to the Turkish constitutional court about the reform package, because the president is unable to veto amendments for the second time. The Turkish constitutional court did not find any problems in the packet and 68.95% of the voters supported the constitutional changes.[127] The reforms consisted of: electing the president by popular vote instead of by parliament, reducing the presidential term from seven years to five, allowing the president to stand for re-election for a second term, holding general elections every four years instead of five and reducing the quorum of lawmakers needed for parliamentary decisions from 367 to 184.

Reforming the Constitution was one of the main pledges of the AKP during the 2007 election campaign. The main opposition party CHP was not interested in altering the Constitution on a big scale, making it impossible to form a Constitutional Commission (Anayasa Uzlaşma Komisyonu).[128] The amendments lacked the two-thirds majority needed to instantly become law, but secured 336 votes in the 550 seat parliament – enough to put the proposals to a referendum. The reform package included a number of issues such as the right of individuals to appeal to the highest court, the creation of the ombudsman's office, the possibility to negotiate a nationwide labour contract, gender equality, the ability of civilian courts to convict members of the military, the right of civil servants to go on strike, a privacy law, and the structure of the Constitutional Court. The referendum was agreed by a majority of 58%.[129]

With the new Turkish constitution which got approved in the constitutional referendum on 16 April 2017, Turkey became a country with a Presidential system, the office of prime minister got abolished and the age of candidacy to the parliament was lowered from 25 to 18.[130]

احتجاجات منتزه گزي

Demonstrators in Taksim Square in June 2013 during the Gezi Park protests

2013 Gezi Park protests against the perceived authoritarianism of Erdoğan and his policies, starting from a small sit-in in Istanbul in defense of a city park.[131] After the police's intense reaction with tear gas, the protests grew each day. Faced by the largest mass protest in a decade, Erdoğan made this controversial remark in a televised speech: "The police were there yesterday, they are there today, and they will be there tomorrow." After weeks of clashes in the streets of Istanbul, his government at first apologized to the protestors[132] and called for a plebiscite, but then ordered a crackdown on the protesters.[131][133]

اعتقالات الفساد 2013

In December 2013, Turkish police detained more than 50 people[134] and arrested 16 others, including the general manager of Halkbank and the sons of three government ministers, on charges of corruption.[135] Although Erdoğan blamed foreign ambassadors and pro-Erdoğan newspapers accused the United States or Israel of a plot, outside analysts attribute the arrests to a power struggle between the Prime Minister and Fethullah Gülen. Gülen, who lives in the U.S., leads a religious movement that had supported the AKP's rise to power. In late 2013, Erdoğan's government proposed shutting down Turkish private schools, many of which are funded by Gülen. Gülen's supporters are believed to have wide influence in the police and judiciary in Turkey.[136]

In late December, Hürriyet and Yeni Şafak papers published comments by Erdoğan stating that he believes he is the ultimate target of a corruption and bribery probe of his allies. The Turkish Prime Minister told journalists that anyone attempting to enmesh him in the scandal would be "left empty handed." Erdoğan reshuffled his Cabinet on 25 December, replacing 10 ministers hours after three ministers, whose sons were detained in relation to the probe, resigned.[137]

تسجيلات الهاتف ووسائل التواصل الاجتماعي

A file containing five audio recordings of conversations between Erdoğan and his son from a 26-hour period beginning 17 December 2013, in which he appeared to be instructing his son to conceal very large amounts of money, was posted to YouTube and widely discussed on social media.[138][139] On 26 February 2014, Erdoğan acknowledged that his telephone had been tapped, but denied that the conversation was real, instead calling it an "immoral montage" that had been "dubbed" by combining other conversations. An analysis by Joshua Marpet of the United States, published by McClatchy, concluded that the recordings were "probably real", and if not, the fabrication was done with a sophistication he had not previously seen.[140]

On the night of 26 February 2014, Turkey's Parliament, dominated by Erdoğan's Justice and Development Party, passed a bill that allowed the government the power to block Internet sites, subject to court review within three days, and granting it access to Internet traffic data. Another bill previously approved by a parliamentary committee would grant the MİT intelligence service access to data held by the government, as well as private institutions and courts. The following day President Abdullah Gül approved placing an investigative agency that appoints judges and prosecutors under the control of Erdoğan's justice minister.[140]

On 20 March, Erdoğan made a speech promising to "rip out the roots" of the Twitter service. Hours later the telecommunications regulator BTK blocked DNS service to the site, citing four court orders the Turkish government had made requiring them to remove content to preserve privacy that had not been heeded. Sources covering the story attributed this to the use of Twitter to share links to the Erdoğan recordings on YouTube.[13][141] Erdoğan also threatened to ban Facebook. However, the block of Twitter proved ineffective, with traffic increasing a record 138%, and #TwitterisblockedinTurkey becoming the top trending term worldwide.[142] To circumvent the block, Google suggested Turks use Google Public DNS at 8.8.8.8 and 8.8.4.4, numbers which were soon graffitied in dozens of locations around Istanbul.[143][144] President Abdullah Gül criticized the Twitter ban, defying it himself.[145][146] Two months later, on 3 June, Turkey's telecommunications watchdog ordered the ban to be lifted, after a ruling by the Constitutional Court.[147]


السياسة الخارجية

Turkey under Erdoğan was named by the Bush Administration as a part of the "coalition of the willing" that was central to the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[148]

On 3 October 2005 negotiations began for Turkey's accession to the European Union.[149]

Under Erdoğan, Iraq and Turkey signed 48 trade agreements on issues including security, energy, and water. The Turkish government attempted to mend relations with Iraqi Kurdistan by opening a Turkish university in Erbil, and a Turkish consulate in Mosul.[150] Erdoğan's government fostered economic and political relations with Irbil, and Turkey began to consider the Kurdistan Regional Government in northern Iraq as an ally against Maliki's government.[151]


Erdoğan with Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou.

Relations between Greece and Turkey were normalized during Erdoğan's tenure as prime minister. In 2007, Erdoğan and Greek Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis inaugurated the Greek-Turkish natural gas pipeline giving Caspian gas its first direct Western outlet.[152] Erdoğan and his party strongly supported the EU-backed referendum to reunify Cyprus in 2004.[153] Negotiations about Turkey's possible EU membership came to a standstill in 2009 and 2010, when Turkish ports were closed to Cypriot ships in "revenge" for the economic isolation of the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the failure of the EU to end the isolation, as it had promised in 2004.[154] The Turkish government continues its refusal to recognize the Republic of Cyprus.[155]

Erdoğan condemned the Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain and characterized the Saudi movement as "a new Karbala." He demanded withdrawal of Saudi forces from Bahrain.[156]

Erdoğan visited Egypt on 12 September 2011, soon after Turkey had ejected Israeli ambassadors, cutting off all diplomatic relations with Israel because Israel refused to apologize for the Gaza flotilla raid which killed eight Turkish and one Turco-American.[157] This was the first visit to Egypt by a Prime Minister of Turkey after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[157][158]

Erdoğan stated in a 2011 interview that he supported secularism for Egypt, which generated an angry reaction among Islamic movements, especially the Freedom and Justice party – the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood.[159] However, commentators suggest that by forming an alliance with the military junta during Egypt's transition to democracy, Erdoğan may have tipped the balance in favor of an authoritarian government.[159]

Erdoğan walks out of the session at the World Economic Forum in 2009, vows never to return.

Erdoğan visited Israel on 1 May 2005, a gesture unusual for a leader of a Muslim majority country.[160] During his trip, Erdoğan visited the Yad Vashem, Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.[160] The President of Israel Shimon Peres addressed the Turkish parliament during a visit in 2007, the first time an Israeli leader had addressed the legislature of a predominantly Muslim nation.[161] Their relationship worsened at the 2009 World Economic Forum conference over Israel's actions during the Gaza War.[162] Erdoğan was interrupted by the moderator while he was responding to Peres, and left the panel, accusing the moderator of giving Peres more time than all the other panelists combined.[163] Tensions increased further following the Gaza flotilla raid in May 2010. Erdoğan strongly condemned the raid, describing it as "state terrorism", and demanded an Israeli apology.[164] In February 2013, Erdoğan called Zionism a "crime against humanity", comparing it to Islamophobia, antisemitism, and fascism.[165] He later retracted the statement, saying he had been misinterpreted. He said "everyone should know" that his comments were directed at "Israeli policies", especially as regards to "Gaza and the settlements."[166][167] Erdoğan's statements were criticized by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, among others.[168][169] In August 2013, the Hürriyet reported that Erdoğan had claimed to have evidence of Israel's responsibility for the removal of Morsi from office in Egypt.[170] The Israeli and Egyptian governments dismissed the suggestion.[171][172]

Erdoğan among the world leaders seen here at the G8 summit in 2009

On 12 May 2010, Turkey and Russia signed 17 agreements to enhance cooperation in energy and other fields, including pacts to build Turkey's first nuclear power plant and further plans for an oil pipeline from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The leaders of both countries also signed an agreement on visa-free travel, enabling tourists to get into the country for free and stay there for up to 30 days.[173] In May 2010, the Turkish and Somali governments signed a military training agreement, in keeping with the provisions outlined in the Djibouti Peace Process.[174] Turkish Airlines became the first long-distance international commercial airline in two decades to resume flights to and from Mogadishu's Aden Adde International Airport.[175] Turkey also launched various development and infrastructure projects in Somalia including building several hospitals and helping renovate the National Assembly building.[175]

During Erdoğan's term of office, diplomatic relations between Turkey and Syria significantly deteriorated. In 2004, President Bashar al-Assad arrived in Turkey for the first official visit by a Syrian President in 57 years. In late 2004, Erdoğan signed a free trade agreement with Syria. Visa restrictions between the two countries were lifted in 2009, which caused an economic boom in the regions near the Syrian border.[176] However the relationship became strained following the outbreak of conflict in Syria in 2011. Erdoğan said he was trying to "cultivate a favorable relationship with whatever government would take the place of Assad",[177] and began directly supporting the armed opposition in Syria.[178] Erdoğan's policy of providing military training for anti-regime fighters has also created conflict with Syria's ally and neighbor, Iran.[179]


الحملة الانتخابية الرئاسية 2014

On 1 July 2014, Erdoğan was named the AKP's presidential candidate in the Turkish presidential election. His candidacy was announced by the Deputy President of the AKP, Mehmet Ali Şahin.

Erdoğan made a speech after the announcement and used the 'Erdoğan logo' for the first time. The logo was criticised because it was very similar to the logo that U.S. President Barack Obama used in the 2008 presidential election.[180]

Erdoğan was elected as the President of Turkey in the first round of the election with 51.79% of the vote, obviating the need for a run-off by winning over 50%. The joint candidate of the CHP, MHP and 13 other opposition parties, former Organisation of Islamic Co-operation general secretary Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu won 38.44% of the vote. The pro-Kurdish HDP candidate Selahattin Demirtaş won 9.76%.[181]

الفساد الانتخابي

Erdoğan's government developed the SEÇSİS secure vote counting system ostensibly in order to reduce fraud. However, it has been criticised for being prone to manipulation.[182] Particular controversy was generated by the fact that the system was developed in the United States.[183]

The first significant cases of election fraud under Erdoğan's rule were documented during the 2009 local elections, where numerous cases of ballot paper theft were reported in Ankara and Adana.[184][185][186][187]

In the 2011 general election, a minivan containing ballot papers with a pre-stamped vote for the AKP was impounded by police in İzmir.[188] An independent candidate from Yalova also accused officials at polling stations of intimidating voters to vote for the AKP.[189][190]

Map showing provinces suffering from power outages during the counting process for the 2014 local elections[191]

Substantial levels of fraud were documented during the 2014 local elections, including the theft and burning of ballots cast both for and against the AKP and the intimidation of officials counting the votes, including European Union Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, by government forces.[192][193][194][195][196][197] Several cases of opposition votes being counted as invalid and vote totals per ballot box being recorded incorrectly also caused controversy.[بحاجة لمصدر] With an unusually high number of power outages occurring throughout the country while votes were being counted, the government was ridiculed when Energy Minister Taner Yıldız blamed them on cats entering transformers.[198][199][200] Erdoğan was criticised for disregarding the high number of fraud cases and declaring victory none-the-less. Significant cases of misconduct were documented in Yalova, Ankara, Antalya and Ağrı. The Supreme Electoral Council ordered a repeat of the election in Yalova and Ağrı, both of which the AKP had initially narrowly lost to the CHP and BDP respectively.

Despite strong surveillance by citizens during the 2014 presidential election, no serious cases of fraud were documented during the voting or counting process.[201] However, Erdoğan was still heavily scrutinised over what was perceived to be excessive media bias in his favour during the campaigning process.[202]

On 14 June 2018, in a video that was leaked to the public, President Erdogan is caught calling his party members to resort to electoral fraud, by "marking" the votes of an opposition party, HDP, in a bid to consolidate a better position for his own party at the 2018 June elections in Turkey.[203]

الرئاسة (2014–الآن)

Erdoğan took the oath of office on 28 August 2014 and became the 12th president of Turkey. He administered the new Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu's oath on 29 August. When asked about his lower-than-expected 51.79% share of the vote, he allegedly responded, "there were even those who did not like the Prophet. I, however, won 52%."[204] Assuming the role of President, Erdoğan was criticized for openly stating that he would not maintain the tradition of presidential neutrality.[205] Erdoğan has also stated his intention to pursue a more active role as President, such as utilising the President's rarely used cabinet-calling powers.[206] The political opposition has argued that Erdoğan will continue to pursue his own political agenda, controlling the government, while his new Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu would be docile and submissive.[5] Furthermore, the domination of loyal Erdoğan supporters in Davutoğlu's cabinet fuelled speculation that Erdoğan intended to exercise substantial control over the government.[207]

السياسة الداخلية

القصر الرئاسي

Erdoğan has also received criticism for the construction of a new palace called Ak Saray (pure white palace), which occupies approximately 50 acres of Atatürk Forest Farm (AOÇ) in Ankara.[208][209] Since the AOÇ is protected land, several court orders were issued to halt the construction of the new palace, though building work went on nonetheless.[210] The opposition described the move as a clear disregard for the rule of law.[211] The project was subject to heavy criticism and allegations were made; of corruption during the construction process, wildlife destruction and the complete obliteration of the zoo in the AOÇ in order to make way for the new compound.[212] The fact that the palace is technically illegal has led to it being branded as the 'Kaç-Ak Saray', the word kaçak in Turkish meaning 'illegal'.[213]

Ak Saray was originally designed as a new office for the Prime Minister. However, upon assuming the presidency, Erdoğan announced that the palace would become the new Presidential Palace, while the Çankaya Köşkü will be used by the Prime Minister instead. The move was seen as a historic change since the Çankaya Köşkü had been used as the iconic office of the presidency ever since its inception. The Ak Saray has almost 1,000 rooms and cost $350 million (€270 million), leading to huge criticism at a time when mining accidents and workers' rights had been dominating the agenda.[214][215]

On 29 October 2014, Erdoğan was due to hold a Republic Day reception in the new palace to commemorate the 91st anniversary of the Republic of Turkey and to officially inaugurate the Presidential Palace. However, after most invited participants announced that they would boycott the event and a mining accident occurred in the district of Ermenek in Karaman, the reception was cancelled.[216]

محاولة انقلاب 2016

المسيرة المناهضة للانقلاب التركي في إسطنبول، 22 يوليو 2016.


في مساء يوم الجمعة 15 يوليو 2016، قامت مجموعة من الجيش التركي بمحاولة الانقلاب العسكري وإسقاط حكومة العدالة والتنمية، وسيطرت مؤقتا على محطة التلفزيون TRT الاولى وأعلنت تسلمها لزمام الحكم وفرض حالة الطوارئ. ولم يحظ الانقلاب بالتأييد وقد اعلنت كافة القوى السياسية ومنها المعارضة العلمانية رفضها لللانقلاب وبعدها ظهر الرئيس أردوغان في بث مباشر عن طريق تطبيق الهاتف المتحرك "فيس تايم - Face Time"، ودعا الشعب للتظاهر ضد الإنقلاب، فخرج الشعب في مظاهرات حاشدة، وقاموا بالقبض على مجموعة من قادة الانقلاب وفشل الإنقلاب في أقل من ثمانية ساعات وتم القبض على المشاركين به. بعدها وجه الرئيس أردوغان خطابا قال فيه جملته :

«أننا قمنا بشراء السلاح للدفاع عن أرضنا وليس حمله في وجه بعضنا كما فعل الانقلابيون»

، كما أوضح أردوغان أن البلاد لم تعد كما كانت من قبل.

كما أبدى العديد من رجالات الدوله رفضهم للإنقلاب ومنهم وزير الدفاع التركي ورئيس الوزراء وجميع أعضاء البرلمان حيث اجتمع رئيس البرلمان بجميع الاعضاء ليلا ودعى لجلسة طارئة صباح يوم السبت رفضا لأي شكل من أشكال محاولة قلب الحكم. كما تكلم الرئيس التركي السابق عبد الله جل عبر تطبيق الهاتف المتحرك "فيس تايم - Face Time" وأبدى غضبه ورفضه الشديد لما جرى من بعض الخارجين على القانون. كما كان للشعب موقفا كبيرا ومؤثرا في مجريات هذه المحاوله عندما خرج الى الشارع مدافعا عن رجب طيب أردوغان والحكومه باعتبار أنهم هم من انتخبوا رئيس الدولة ولا يحق لأحد أيا كان أن ينقلب عليه ويسلب حقهم الديموقراطي. تم إعفاء عدد من القيادات من مناصبها واعتقال أعداد تقدر في المؤسسة العسكرية ستة آلاف جنرال وضابط وجندي اعتقلو، وفصل حوالي ثلاثة آلاف قاضي، بما في ذلك قضاة في المحكمة الدستورية[217] في حركة تحدث البعض عنها انها توظيفا للانقلاب كغطاء لنوايا مسبقة لفصله، و "تغول في الإنتقام" [218]


إسكات الإعلام

Turkish journalists protesting imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day, 10 December 2016

President Erdoğan and his government press for court action against the remaining free press in Turkey. The latest newspaper that has been seized is Zaman, in March 2016.[219] After the seizure Morton Abramowitz and Eric Edelman, former U.S. ambassadors to Turkey, condemned President Erdoğan's actions in an opinion piece published by the Washington Post: "Clearly, democracy cannot flourish under Erdoğan now."[220] "The overall pace of reforms in Turkey has not only slowed down but in some key areas, such as freedom of expression and the independence of the judiciary, there has been a regression, which is particularly worrying," rapporteur Kati Piri said in April 2016 after the European Parliament passed its annual progress report on Turkey.[221]

On 22 June 2016, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said that he considered himself successful in "destroying" Turkish civil groups "working against the state",[222] a conclusion that had been confirmed some days earlier by Sedat Laçiner, Professor of International Relations and rector of the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University: "Outlawing unarmed and peaceful opposition, sentencing people to unfair punishment under erroneous terror accusations, will feed genuine terrorism in Erdoğan's Turkey. Guns and violence will become the sole alternative for legally expressing free thought."[223]

After the coup attempt, over 200 journalists were arrested and over 120 media outlets were closed. Cumhuriyet journalists were detained in November 2016 after a long-standing crackdown on the newspaper. Subsequently, Reporters Without Borders called Erdoğan an "enemy of press freedom" and said that he "hides his aggressive dictatorship under a veneer of democracy".[224]

In April 2017, Turkey blocked all access to Wikipedia over a content dispute.[225]

حالة الطوارئ والتطهير


On 20 July 2016, President Erdoğan declared the state of emergency, citing the coup d'état attempt as justification.[226] It was first scheduled to last three months. The Turkish parliament approved this measure.[227] The state of emergency was later extended for another three months, amidst the ongoing 2016 Turkish purges including comprehensive purges of independent media and detention of tens of thousands of Turkish citizens politically opposed to Erdoğan.[228] More than 50,000 people have been arrested and over 160,000 fired from their jobs by March 2018.[229]

Turkish journalists Can Dündar and Erdem Gül were arrested facing sentences up to life imprisonment.

In August 2016, Erdoğan began rounding up journalists who had been publishing, or who were about to publish articles questioning corruption within the Erdoğan administration, and incarcerating them.[230] The number of Turkish journalists jailed by Turkey is higher than any other country, including all of those journalists currently jailed in North Korea, Cuba, Russia, and China combined.[17] In the wake of the coup attempt of July 2016 the Erdoğan administration began rounding up tens of thousands of individuals, both from within the government, and from the public sector, and incarcerating them on charges of alleged "terrorism."[231][232][233] As a result of these arrests, many in the international community complained about the lack of proper judicial process in the incarceration of Erdoğan's opposition.[234] 

In April 2017 Erdoğan successfully sponsored legislation effectively making it illegal for the Turkish legislative branch to investigate his executive branch of government.[235] Without the checks and balances of freedom of speech, and the freedom of the Turkish legislature to hold him accountable for his actions, many have likened Turkey's current form of government to a dictatorship with only nominal forms of democracy in practice.[236][18] At the time of Erdoğan's successful passing of the most recent legislation silencing his opposition, United States President Donald Trump called Erdoğan to congratulate him for his "recent referendum victory."[237]

On 29 April 2017 Erdoğan's administration began an internal Internet block of all of the Wikipedia online encyclopedia site via Turkey's domestic Internet filtering system. This blocking action took place after the government had first made a request for Wikipedia to remove what it referred to as "offensive content". In response, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales replied via a post on Twitter stating, "Access to information is a fundamental human right. Turkish people, I will always stand with you and fight for this right."[238][239]

In January 2016, more than a thousand academics signed a petition criticizing Turkey's military crackdown on ethnic Kurdish towns and neighbourhoods in the east of the country, such as Sur (a district of Diyarbakır), Silvan, Nusaybin, Cizre and Silopi, and asking an end to violence.[240] Erdoğan accused those who signed the petition of "terrorist propaganda", calling them "the darkest of people". He called for action by institutions and universities, stating, "Everyone who benefits from this state but is now an enemy of the state must be punished without further delay."[241] Within days, over 30 of the signatories were arrested, many in dawn-time raids on their homes. Although all were quickly released, nearly half were fired from their jobs, eliciting a denunciation from Turkey's Science Academy for such "wrong and disturbing" treatment.[242] Erdoğan vowed that the academics would pay the price for "falling into a pit of treachery".[243]

On 8 July 2018, Erdogan sacked 18,000 officials for alleged ties to US based cleric Fethullah Gülen, shortly before renewing his term as an executive president. Of those removed, 9000 were police officers with 5000 from the armed forces with the addition of hundreds of academics.[244]

الاستفتاء الدستوري 2017

On Sunday, 16 April 2017, a constitutional referendum was held, where the voters in Turkey (and Turkish citizens abroad) voted on a set of 18 proposed amendments to the Constitution of Turkey. The amendments include the replacement of the existing parliamentary system with a presidential system. The post of Prime Minister would be abolished, and the presidency would become an executive post vested with broad executive powers. Parliament would be increased from 550 seats to 600 seats. The referendum also called for changes to the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors.[245]

أزمة العملة والديون 2018

The Turkish currency and debt crisis of 2018 was caused by the Turkish economy's excessive current account deficit and foreign-currency debt, in combination with Erdoğan's increasing authoritarianism and his unorthodox ideas about interest rate policy.[246][247][248] Economist Paul Krugman described the unfolding crisis as "a classic currency-and-debt crisis, of a kind we've seen many times", adding: "At such a time, the quality of leadership suddenly matters a great deal. You need officials who understand what's happening, can devise a response and have enough credibility that markets give them the benefit of the doubt. Some emerging markets have those things, and they are riding out the turmoil fairly well. The Erdoğan regime has none of that."[249]

الانتخابات المحلية 2019

In the 2019 local elections, the ruling party AKP lost control of Istanbul and Ankara for the first time in 25 years, as well as 5 of Turkey's 6 largest cities. The loss has been widely attributed to Erdoğan's mismanagement of the Turkish economic crisis, rising authoritarianism as well as alleged government inaction on the Syrian refugee crisis.[250][251] Soon after the elections, the Turkish government ordered a re-election in Istanbul, cancelled Ekrem İmamoğlu's mayoral certificate. The decision led to a significant decrease of Erdoğan's and AKP's popularity and his party lost the elections again in June with an even greater margin.[252][253][254][255] The result was seen as a huge blow to Erdoğan, who had once said that if his party 'lost Istanbul, we would lose Turkey.'[256] The opposition's landslide was characterised as the 'beginning of the end' for Erdoğan,[257][258][259] with international commentators calling the re-run a huge government miscalculation that led to a potential İmamoğlu candidacy in the next scheduled presidential election.[257][259] It is suspected that the scale of the government's defeat could provoke a cabinet reshuffle and early general elections, currently scheduled for June 2023.[260][261]

السياسة الخارجية

داعش

إردوغان في لقاء الرئيس الأمريكي باراك أوباما أثناء قمة ويلز 2013 في نيوپورت، ويلز.
إردوغان في لقاء الرئيس الإيراني حسن روحاني، في نيويورك أثناء اجتماع الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة 68.


Amid claims that the Turkish government funds IS fighters, several Kurdish demonstrations broke out near the Turkish-Syrian border in protest against the government's inactivity.[262] These protests escalated during the fighting in the border town of Kobane, with 42 protestors being killed following a brutal police crackdown.[263][264] Voicing concerns that aid to Kurdish fighters would assist PKK rebels in resuming terrorist attacks against Turkey, Erdoğan held bilateral talks with Barack Obama regarding IS during the 5–6 September 2014 NATO summit in Newport, Wales.[265][266] In early October, United States Vice President Joe Biden accused Turkey of funding IS, to which Erdoğan angrily responded, "Biden has to apologize for his statements" adding that if no apology is made, Biden would become "history to me." Biden subsequently apologised.[267] In response to the U.S. request to use İncirlik Air Base to conduct air strikes against IS, Erdoğan demanded that Bashar al-Assad be removed from power first.[268] Turkey lost its bid for a Security Council seat in the United Nations during the 2014 election;[269] the unexpected result[270] is believed to have been a reaction to Erdoğan's hostile treatment of ethnic Kurds fighting ISIS on the Syrian border[271][272] and a rebuke of his willingness to support IS-aligned insurgents opposed to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad.[271][272]

As President, Erdoğan has been a strong advocate of an executive presidency that would boost his own powers and has maintained an active influence over political affairs despite the symbolic nature of his office. In 2016, he was accused of forcing the resignation of Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu due to his scepticism over the proposed presidential system, resulting in his replacement by close ally Binali Yıldırım. He has also come under fire for constructing Ak Saray, the world's largest palace on Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo for his own use as President and has been repeatedly accused of breaching the constitutional terms of his office by not maintaining political neutrality. In 2015, amid consistent allegations that he maintained financial links with Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant militants, revelations that the state was supplying arms to militant groups in Syria in the 2014 National Intelligence Organisation lorry scandal led to accusations of high treason.[273][274][275] In July 2015, Turkey became involved in the war against ISIS. The Turkish military has simultaneously launched airstrikes against Kurdistan Workers' Party bases in Iraq.[276] In July 2015, a raid by US special forces on a compound housing the Islamic State's "chief financial officer", Abu Sayyaf, produced evidence that Turkish officials directly dealt with ranking IS members.[277]

عملية نبع السلام

وفي منتصف أكتوبر كشف الرئيس التركي رجب طيب أردوغان أنه أبلغ نظيره الأمريكي دونالد ترامب أن أنقرة لن تعلن مطلقا وقفا لإطلاق النار في شمال سوريا، وأكد له أنه ليس قلقا من العقوبات الأمريكية على بلاده. [278]


العلاقات مع الولايات المتحدة

أردوغان برفقة الرئيس الأمريكي في ذلك الوقت جورج و. بوش ووزير الدفاع الأمريكي كولين پاول، في 11 ديسمبر 2001.

في 1 مارس 2003 صوت حزب العدالة والتنمية الحائز على 363 مقعد لصالح غزو العراق، بناءاً على إحالة القانون من قبل أردوغان للبرلمان في 25 فبراير 2003، وتم نشر 62.000 جندي أمريكي و255 طائرة حربية و65 مروحية في القواعد التركية وخاصة قاعدة أنجرليك وتم إرسال 5.000 جندي تركي محتشدين عند الحدود التركية العراقية. وفي 6 مارس 2003 أعلن وزير الخارجية الأمريكي كولن پاول أن الفاتورة المقدمة لتركيا تشمل 6 مليار دولار؛ 2 مليار دولار مساعدات عسكرية، و4 مليار مساعدات اقتصادية، مع إمكانية وضع 24 مليار دولار لتركيا كقروض ميسرة الفوائد منهم 8.5 مليار دولار فورية.


حرب غزة والقضية الفلسطينية

أردوغان وحرب غزة 2009

كان موقف أردوغان موقفًا "حازمًا" ضد خرق إسرائيل للمعاهدات الدولية وقتلها للمدنيين أثناء الهجوم الإسرائيلي على غزة (ديسمبر 2010)، فقد قام بجولة في الشرق الأوسط تحدث فيها إلى قادة الدول بشأن تلك القضية، وكان تفاعله واضحاً مما أقلق إسرائيل ووضع تركيا في موضع النقد أمام إسرائيل، وقال رجب أردوغان "إني متعاطف مع أهل غزة".

دعمه للقضية الفلسطينية
إردوغان ورئيس الوزراء اليوناني جورج پاپاندريو.
إردوغان يلقي كلمة في جلسة بالمؤتمر الاقتصادي العالمي 2009، يتعهد بعودة التراجع.



الموقف التركي يؤيد الفصائل الفلسطينية التي تدافع ضد العدوان الإسرائيلي، كما أن أردوغان كان ضد المواقف الإسرائيلية ضد الشعب الفلسطيني الأعزل، وخصوصا في حرب إسرائيل والقوة العسكرية الهائلة لهذه الدولة على مدينة من المدن الفلسطينية كمدينة غزة. كانت المواقف التركية واضحة ضد أفعال الدولة الإسرائيلية في حرب غزة، حيث نادت بأن القضية الفلسطينية هي قضية قومية عربية، و يجب أن تشارك المسؤولية من قبل الدول العربية كافة. تسطرت مواقف الدولة التركية ضد حرب غزة بمواقف كثيرة منها:

أولا: الإدانة الواضحة لإسرائيل من الناحية العسكرية والسياسية لكل عدوان شنته إسرائيل على الدولة الفلسطينية.

ثانياً: دعوة المؤسسات الدولية وعلى رأسها الأمم المتحدة للدعوة إلى وقف إطلاق النار من الجانب الإسرائيلي، والقيام بعدد من الإتصالات والإجتماعات واللقاءات لتحقيق هذا الهدف.

ثالثا: اتصال رئيس الوزراء التركي أردوغان ب خالد مشعل رئيس المكتب السياسي لحركة حماس، التي تقود المواجهة ضد العدوان الإسرائيلي، وما يحمله هذا الاتصال من دلالات سياسية مهمة وواضحة من الجانب التركي.

رابعا: إعلان رئيس الوزراء التركي أردوغان وقف المصالحة، ووقف التعاون مع إسرائيل في حال عدم وقف العدوان والظلم على فلسطين.

خامسا: إعلان رئاسة الوزارة التركية تعليمات واضحة للمؤسسات التركية بتقديم المساعدات للشعب الفلسطيني.

سادسا: مظاهرات واسعة من الشارع التركي تطلب رفع العدوان والظلم عن الشعب الفلسطيني. و من الجدير بالذكر بأن الموقف التركي تجاه القضية الفلسطينية كان مختلفا عن النشاط العربي في مختلف الدول العربية، و كان أنشطها من حيث المساعدات والتحرك السياسي، والذي كان واضحا من خلال أسطول الحرية من الجانب التركي، وكان دليلا على الاهتمام بالقضية الفلسطينية والشعب الفلسطيني.

وفي صفقة تبادل الأسرى بين حركة حماس وإسرائيل عام 2011، استقبل اردوغان العديد من الأسرى المحررين المبعدين من فلسطين.

محاولة كسر حصار غزة 2010

دعم اسطول الحرية المتجه إلى غزة المكون من ست سفن، تضم ثلاث سفن تركية، وسفينتين من بريطانيا، بالإضافة إلى سفينة مشتركة بين كل من اليونان وأيرلندا والجزائر والكويت، تحمل على متنها مواد إغاثة ومساعدات إنسانية، بالإضافة إلى نحو 750 ناشطا حقوقيا وسياسيا، بينهم صحفيون يمثلون وسائل إعلام دولية. قامت جمعيات وأشخاص معارضين للحصار الإسرائيلي المفروض على قطاع غزة منذ العام 2007، ومتعاطفين مع شعبه بتجهيز القافلة وتسييرها،[279]، وفي مقدمة المنظمين لرحلة أسطول الحرية مؤسسة الإغاثة الإنسانية التركية، وتعرض الاسطول لهجوم مباغت من الجيش الإسرائيلي، وقتل فيه عدد من المتضامنين مع غزة.

مؤتمر دافوس 2009

في 29 من يناير غادر أردوغان منصة مؤتمر دافوس احتجاجًا على عدم إعطائه الوقت الكافي للرد على الرئيس الإسرائيلي شيمون بيريز بشأن الحرب على غزة.[280] بعد أن دافع الرئيس الإسرائيلي عن إسرائيل وهاجم حماس وتكلم عن موضوع صواريخ القسام التي تطلق على المستوطنات وتساءل بصوت مرتفع وهو يشير بإصبعه عما كان أردوغان سيفعله لو أن الصواريخ أُطلقت على إسطنبول كل ليلة، وقال أيضاً "إسرائيل لا تريد إطلاق النار على أحد لكن حماس لم تترك لنا خياراً".[281] رد أردوغان على أقوال بيريس بعنف وقال: إنك أكبر مني سناً ولكن لا يحق لك أن تتحدث بهذه اللهجة والصوت العالي الذي يثبت أنك مذنب. وتابع: إن الجيش الإسرائيلي يقتل الأطفال في شواطئ غزة، ورؤساء وزرائكم قالوا لي إنهم يكونون سعداء جداً عندما يدخلون غزة على متن دبابتهم.[282] ولم يترك مدير الجلسة الفرصة لأردوغان حتى يكمل رده على بيريز، فانسحب رئيس الوزراء التركي بعد أن خاطب المشرفين على الجلسة قائلا "شكراً لن أعود إلى دافوس بعد هذا، أنتم لا تتركونني أتكلم وسمحتم للرئيس بيريز بالحديث مدة 25 دقيقة وتحدثت نصف هذه المدة فحسب"، وأضاف أردوغان في المؤتمر الذي عقد بعد الجلسة إنه تحدث 12 دقيقة خلال المنتدى كما تحدث الأمين العام لجامعة الدول العربية عمرو موسى بدوره 12 دقيقة، غير أن بيريز تحدث 25 دقيقة، ولما طلب التعقيب عليه منعه مدير الجلسة.[283]

احتشد الآلاف ليلاً لاستقبال رجب طيب أردوغان بعد ساعات من مغادرة مؤتمر دافوس حاملين الأعلام التركية والفلسطينية ولوحوا بلافتات كتب عليها "مرحبا بعودة المنتصر في دافوس" و"أهلا وسهلا بزعيم العالم".[284] وعلقت حماس على الحادث بالقول "على الحكام العرب ان يقتدوا به".


صورته وتصوراته

Early during his prime ministership, Erdoğan was praised as a role model for emerging Middle Eastern nations due to several reform packages initiated by his government which expanded religious freedoms and minority rights as part of accession negotiations with the European Union.[285] However, his government underwent several crises including the Sledgehammer and Ergenekon cases against the Turkish Armed Forces, corruption scandals, accusations of media intimidation, as well as the pursuit of an increasingly polarising political agenda; the opposition accused the government of inciting political hatred throughout the country.[286] Critics say that Erdogan's government legitimizes homophobia. Erdoğan said empowering LGBT people was "against the values of our nation".[287]


العثمانيون الجدد

هذا المصطلح، "العثمانيون الجدد"، مغلوط ولا أحبذ استخدامه، فضلا عن أنه تعبير خاطئ يبتسر الماضى وينتقص من قدره. كما أنه يستدعى إلى الذاكرة مرحلة اندثرت ولا سبيل إلى إحيائها، وإن جاز لنا أن نتعلم دروسها ونستفيد منها.

ونحن لا نسعى إلى إقامة مستقبل رومانسى يدغدغ مشاعر الناس لكننا نسعى إلى تحقيق أكبر قدر ممكن من التعاون الاقتصادى والتجارى المشترك لأن تبادل المصالح على نحو متكافئ يفتح الباب لاستقرار التعايش والسلام بين الشعوب، وهذه السياسة هى التى مكنت تركيا من تجاوز الأزمة الاقتصادية العالمية، لأنها لم تكن تعتمد على جهة واحدة في تعاملاتها وإنما وزعت أنشطتها على دائرة واسعة في الدول فتنوعت أسواقها ومن ثم تنوعت مواردها الاقتصادية..

رجب طيب أردغان، لفهمي هويدي، في الشروق المصرية، 8 ديسمبر 2009

خلافه مع گولن

استخدم إردوغان تنظيم فتح الله گولن سراً للسيطرة على مفاصل الدولة بأناس ليسوا أعضاءفي حزبه. وكانت أصواتهم (حوالي 2-5 مليون عضو + عائلاتهم) رمانة الميزان بالانتخابات.[288]

دعا گولن لإسلام أكثر اعتدالاً (الحجاب ليس شرط) وسياسة خارجية أقل اصطداماً بإسرائيل. رجال گولن هم من كشفوا شبكة إرگنقون بالجيش للاطاحة بأردغان. تغلغل تنظيم گولن بالجيش والشرطة ولكن لم يتسن له اختراق المخابرات. لذا وقع الصدام حين أصر گولن على تعيين رئيسا للمخابرات من رجاله ورفض أردغان. التعاون بين آق (العدالة والتنمية) وبين تنظيم گولن سار في تناغم لأكثر من 10 سنوات، بمباركة أمريكية.

التوتر السياسي، إن لم يكن "الحرب"، بين حزب العدالة والتنمية وحركة گولن، يعتبر من أهم الموضوعات على الساحة السياسية التركية. غير أن معظم الأجانب يجدون صعوبة في فهم طبيعة هذه المعركة الفريدة، الأمر الذي يربك الأتراك أنفسهم. فيما يلي بعض الإرشادات الأساسية لفهم الصراع.

أليسا مسلمين سنة محافظين؟

نعم، هم كذلك. رجب طيب إردوغان وفتح الله گولن وأتباعهما مسلمون متدينون يأتون من الخلفية الإسلامية السنية (الحنفية) السائد في تركيا. لا عجب أنهم اعتادوا أن يكونوا حلفاء ضد العلمانيين المتسلطين في تركيا. لا عجب أنهم يستخدمون المراجع الدينية هذه الأيام في حججهم.

إلا أن هناك بعض الاختلافات بينهما. يرجع حزب العدالة والتنمية بأصوله إلى تقليد "النظرة الوطنية" (Milli Gorus)، الذي يمكن تعريفه بأنه النسخة التركية من الإسلام السياسي مع النغمات المعادية للغرب والدولة الإسلامية. على الرغم من تخلي حزب العدالة والتنمية بوضوح عن هذه الأيديولوجية خلال تأسيسه قبل أكثر من عقد، إلا أن معظم المراقبين يعتقدون أن إردوغان يعود بشكل تدريجي إلى "النظرة الوطنية" في السنوات القليلة الماضية.

أما حركة گولن، فتنحدر من تقليد العالم الإسلامي سعيد النورسي (1878-1960)، الذي كان يركز على العقيدة والأخلاق وليس السياسة، والذي يخشى أتباعه بصفة عامة الإسلام السياسي. بالتالي، فإن أتباع گولن لم يصوتوا أبداً لصالح النظرة الوطنية واختارو الأحزاب اليمينية-الوسطية. من ثم، يعرف بعض العلماء حركة گولن على أنها "إسلام ثقافي" على عكس الإسلام السياسي.

سبب الخلاف

لو اقتصرت حركة گولن على الإسلام الثقافي فقط، فإن هذا التوتر الحالي سيكون محدوداً. يتفق معظم المراقبين على أن الحركة في الواقع لديها نسختها من المشاركة السياسية: تسعى الحركة أن يحصل أعضائها على وظائف في القضاء والشرطة. وعلى ما يبدو فقد بدأ هذا في السبعينات من القرن الشعرين كمحاولة لتحويل دولة معادية - النظام العلماني القاسي في تركيا - عن طريق الانضمام تدريجياً إلى صفوفها. وبما أنها كانت مهمة سرية، فقد كانت دائماً مسألة مضاربة ومصدراً لنظريات المؤامرة.

عندما أتى حزب العدالة والتنمية إلى السلطة عام 2002، وسرعان ما وجد نفسه مستهدفاً من الحرس العلماني القديم، اندمج أتباع گولن في الشرطة والقضاء كحليف حيادي. وهكذا، غالباً ما يقال، أن أردوغان، مكن هذه المحافظين من زملائه ضد منافسيهم العلمانيين. ومع ذلك، وبمجرد هزيمة المؤسسة القديمة بشكل حاسم، في وقت ما بين عامي 2010 و1، ظهرت خلافات بين حزب العدالة والتنمية وحركة گولن. وكانت نقطة الانهيار الأولى ما يسمى بـ"أزمة المخابرات الوطنية التركية".

في فبراير 2012، حقان فيضان، رئيس المخابرات الوطنية التركية، محل ثقة إردوغان، استدعاه مدعي إسطنبول للشهادة كجزء من التحقيقات الخاصة بحزب العمال الكردستاني. كانت هذه، كما أفادت نيويورك تايمز في ذلك الوقت، "الجولة الأخيرة في صراع على السلطة بين قوات الأمن والمخابرات الوطنية". كما تم تفسيره بشكل كبير على أنه صراع على سلطة بين القضاء/الشرطة الموالية لگولن وحزب العدالة والتنمية. منذ ذلك الحين، يشكو أنصار أردوغان من "الدولة الموازية" داخل الدولة، التي يُزعم أنها تتصرف وفق التسلسل الهرمي الداخلي الخاص بها وتستخدم سلطة الدولة لأغراضها الخاصة.

تصاعد الصراع في نوفمبر 2013

متظاهرون يحتجون ضد حزب العدالة والتنمية الحاكم في تركيا ويطالبون إردوغان بالاستقالة بعد فضيحة الفساد التركية 2013.

منذ "أزمة المخابرات الوطنية" في فبراير 2012، كانت العلاقات بين حزب العدالة والتنمية وحركة گولن متوترة في صمت. لكن في منتصف نوفمبر 2012، تصاعد الصراع بشكل كبير عندما خطط أردوغان لإغلاق "المدارس الإعدادية" أو دورات نهاية الأسبوع التي تعد طلاب المدارس الثانوية للإمتحانات الجامعية. بما أن ربع هذه المدارس كانت تحت ادارة حركة گولن، وهي مصدر للتمويل والوظائف، فإن الحركة اعتبرت هذه الخطوة بمثابة هجوم. عارضت وسائل الإعلام الموالية لگولن "هجوم الحكومة على الشركات الخاصة". وردت الحكومة بتصريحات قاسية، وسرعان ما أعلنت الحرب الكلامية "كحرب مفتوحة".

المعركة بين "القيادة السياسية التي تزيد تسلطاً بمرور الوقت ومنافستها الأكثر عصبية أكثر من أي وقت مضى"، أخذت منحنى جديد في منتصف ديسمبر 2013، عندما تحول لاعب كرة القدم حقان شكر إلى برلماني، واستقال من حزب العدالة والتنمية. شكر، الذي وجه انتقادات شديدة للحكومة بعد استقالته، هو تابع فخور لگولن، ودخول البرلمان عام 2011 اعتبر إشارة للزواج بين الحركة والحزب. وكانت استقالته بمثابة طلاقاً.

في الصباح التالي، انفجرت قنبلة حقيقية: زكريا أوز، مدعي إسطنبول الذي يعتقد أنه عضو في حركة گولن، شن غارة صباحية مبكرة على عشرات الأفراد، من بينهم أبناء ثلاثة وزراء، عمدة من حزب العدالة والتنمية، رجال أعمال وبيروقراطيين. عرضت الصحافة ملايين الدولارات المكدسة داخل صناديق الأحذية، مما يؤكد أن هذه هي أكبر فضيحة فساد في التاريخ التركي الحديث. على مدى ثمانية أيام، استقال الوزراء الأربعة الذين كانوا متهمين. أحدهم، أردوغان بايراكتر، صدم البلاد بالقول إن أردوغان يجب أن يستقيل أيضاً.

منذ بداية فضيحة الفساد، هناك روايتان متعارضتان. يلوم المعسكر الموالي لحزب العدالة والتنمية حركة گولن، أو على الأقل "الدولة الموازية"، لمحاولتها إسقاط حكومة العدالة والتنمية عن طريق قضية الفساد. من وجهة نظرهم، يعتبر هذا نوع من الانقلاب لكن بطريقة قانونية. بينما تلقي وسائل الإعلام والأطراف الاخرى الموالية لگولن بالوم على الحكومة لمحاولتها إخفاء الفساد المستشري باللجوء إلى نظريات المؤامرة وإعاقة حق القضاء في التحقيق في الحكومة.

علاقة إيران وإسرائيل

السبب الرئيسي في فضيحة الفساد هو تجارة الذهب مقابل النفط التركية مع إيران. حسب المزاعم، فإن تركيا عقدت صفقة للتهرب من العقوبات الأمريكية والأوروپية على إيران، وكان بنك خلق المملوك للحكومة التركية العميل الرئيسي لنقل الأموال، ضمن شبكة معقدة. لا عجب أن أحد المشتبه بهم في الحجز هو سليمان أصلان، الرئيس التنفيذي لبنك خلق، الذي زعم أنه عثر على ملايين الدولارات في علب الأحذية الشهيرة. المشتبه به البارز الآخر هو رضا ضراب، رجل أعمال إيراني ثري يتعامل مع الذهب. وهو متهم بإعطاء رشاوى لسياسيين بارزين.

رداً على ذلك، تشير وسائل الإعلام المؤيدة لحزب العدالة والتنمية إلى أن التجارة السرية مع إيران كانت فقط من أجل المصالح القومية التركية، وأن الأموال التي كانت موجودة في المنازل الشخصية كان سيتم استخدامها لأغراض خيرية مثل بناء المدارس. وعلاوة على ذلك، ووفقاً لنفس وسائل الإعلام، فإن الجاني الحقيقي وراء محاولة "الانقلاب" هذه هو إسرائيل. المنطق هو أن العدو الأكبر لإيران، والعلاقات الإيرانية التركية، هو إسرائيل واللوبي الأمريكي، لذا يجب أن تكون هذه القوى وراء تحقيقات الفساد. حقيقة أن حركة گولن قد تجنبت بعناية الانضمام إلى المشاعر المعادية لإسرائيل داخل الأوساط الإسلامية في تركيا (بما في ذلك معارضة گولن لأسطول غزة عام 2010) تم أخذها كدليل على المؤامرة الإسرائيلية. إن وسائل الإعلام المؤيدة لحزب العدالة والتنمية مليئة بالمقالات التي تصور حركة گولن كصف خامس أو حصان طروادة "الصهيوني".

السلطوية

In response to criticism, Erdoğan made a speech in May 2014 denouncing allegations of dictatorship, saying that the leader of the opposition, Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu, who was there at the speech, would not be able to "roam the streets" freely if he were a dictator.[289] Kılıçdaroğlu responded that political tensions would cease to exist if Erdoğan stopped making his polarising speeches for three days.[290] One observer said it was a measure of the state of Turkish democracy that Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu could openly threaten, on 20 December 2015, that, if his party did not win the election, Turkish Kurds would endure a repeat of the era of the "white Toros", the Turkish name for the Renault 12, "a car associated with the gendarmarie's fearsome intelligence agents, who carried out thousands of extrajudicial executions of Kurdish nationalists during the 1990s."[291] In February 2015, a 13-year-old was arrested after allegedly criticising Erdoğan on Facebook.[292] In 2016, a waiter was arrested for not serving tea to Erdoğan.[293]

Erdogan has served as the de facto leader of Turkey since 2002.[294][295][296]

In April 2014, the President of the Constitutional Court, Haşim Kılıç, accused Erdoğan of damaging the credibility of the judiciary, labelling Erdoğan's attempts to increase political control over the courts as 'desperate'.[297] During the chaotic 2007 presidential election, the military issued an E-memorandum warning the government to keep within the boundaries of secularism when choosing a candidate. Regardless, Erdoğan's close relations with Fethullah Gülen and his Cemaat Movement allowed his government to maintain a degree of influence within the judiciary through Gülen's supporters in high judicial and bureaucratic offices.[298][299] Shortly after, an alleged coup plot codenamed Sledgehammer became public and resulted in the imprisonment of 300 military officers including İbrahim Fırtına, Çetin Doğan and Engin Alan. Several opposition politicians, journalists and military officers also went on trial for allegedly being part of an ultra-nationalist organisation called Ergenekon.

Erdoğan's supporters outside the White House in Washington, D.C., 16 May 2017

Both cases were marred by irregularities and were condemned as a joint attempt by Erdoğan and Gülen to curb opposition to the AKP.[300] The original Sledgehammer document containing the coup plans, allegedly written in 2003, was found to have been written using Microsoft Word 2007.[301] Despite both domestic and international calls for these irregularities to be addressed in order to guarantee a fair trial, Erdoğan instead praised his government for bringing the coup plots to light.[302] When Gülen publicly withdrew support and openly attacked Erdoğan in late 2013, several imprisoned military officers and journalists were released, with the government admitting that the judicial proceedings were unfair.[303]

When Gülen withdrew support from the AKP government in late 2013, a government corruption scandal broke out, leading to the arrest of several family members of cabinet ministers. Erdoğan accused Gülen of co-ordinating a "parallel state" within the judiciary in an attempt to topple him from power. He then removed or reassigned several judicial officials in an attempt to remove Gülen's supporters from office. Erdoğan's 'purge' was widely questioned and criticised by the European Union.[304] In early 2014, a new law was passed by parliament giving the government greater control over the judiciary, which sparked public protest throughout the country. International organisations perceived the law to be a danger to the separation of powers.[305]

Several judicial officials removed from their posts said that they had been removed due to their secularist credentials. The political opposition accused Erdoğan of not only attempting to remove Gülen supporters, but supporters of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's principles as well, in order to pave the way for increased politicisation of the judiciary. Several family members of Erdoğan's ministers who had been arrested as a result of the 2013 corruption scandal were released, and a judicial order to question Erdoğan's son Bilal Erdoğan was annulled.[306] Controversy erupted when it emerged that many of the newly appointed judicial officials were actually AKP supporters.[307] İslam Çiçek, a judge who ejected the cases of five ministers' relatives accused of corruption, was accused of being an AKP supporter and an official investigation was launched into his political affiliations.[308] On 1 September 2014, the courts dissolved the cases of 96 suspects, which included Bilal Erdoğan.[309]

اتهامات بمعاداة السامية

Erdoğan referred to the Turkish novelist and Islamist ideologue, Necip Fazıl Kısakürek, as his muse. Kısakürek was regarded by some analysts, such as Günther Jikeli and Kemal Silay, as the source of his views on Jews.[310][311][312] Kısakürek's publications included the Turkish translation of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and praise for industrialist Henry Ford's The International Jew, as well as a political program in which he wrote: "Chief among these treacherous and insidious elements to be cleansed are the Dönmeh and the Jews".[313][314][315] In 1974, as president of the Beyoğlu Youth Group of the Islamist MSP Party, Erdoğan wrote, directed and played the lead role in a play titled "Mas-Kom-Ya" (Mason-Komünist-Yahudi [Mason-Communist-Jew]), which presented freemasonry, communism and Judaism as evil.[316] A 2009 report issued by the Israeli Foreign Ministry, said that Erdoğan "indirectly incites and encourages" antisemitism.[317] In 2013, Erdoğan was placed second on the Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of the year's top ten antisemitic personalities, after Erdoğan blamed the "interest rate lobby" as organizers of the mass protests against him in cities around the country in June 2013.[318] In another quote that was regarded as antisemitic, he said "When the word 'media' is pronounced, Israel and Israel's administration comes to mind. They have the ability to manipulate it as they wish." He then claimed that not only the international press but also Turkish newspapers were run by Israel.[319] During the campaign for the Turkish elections in June 2015, Erdoğan accused The New York Times of being represented by "Jewish capital" after foreign media outlets expressed concern over the corrosion of freedom of expression in Turkey.[320][321][322]

As a younger man, in 1974, Erdogan wrote, directed, and gave himself the lead role in the play Mas-Kom-Ya, which presented freemasonry, communism, and Judaism as world evils.[323][324] The play features a Muslim factory worker, who sent his son to Europe where the son became influenced by the West, ultimately ending with a Jewish "agitator" posing as a Muslim Turk and inciting the workers against the factory owner, who dies; at one climatic moment, a devoutly Muslim character shouts "all evil regimes are inventions of Jews!"[325][326]

When during a televised press conference he was asked if he believed a presidential system was possible in a unitary state. Erdoğan affirmed this and cited Nazi Germany as an example of how this is possible.[327] However, the Turkish president's office said that Erdoğan was not advocating a Hitler-style government when he called for a state system with a strong executive. Furthermore, that the Turkish president had declared the Holocaust, anti-semitism and Islamophobia as crimes against humanity and that it was out of the question for him to cite Hitler's Germany as a good example.[328]

In 2014, in response to the Soma mining disaster which killed 300 people, pro-Erdogan Islamist media accused the "Jewish media" and Israel for culpability,[329] and Erdogan himself was filmed saying "why are you running away, spawn of Israel",[330] in what was considered a "clear anti-Semitic slur" by Kemal Silay and Gunther Jikeli.[323]

قمع المعارضة

An NTV news van covered in anti-AKP protest graffiti in response to their lack of coverage of the Gezi Park protests in 2013

Erdoğan has been criticised for his politicisation of the media, especially after the 2013 protests. The opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) alleged that over 1,863 journalists lost their jobs due to their anti-government views in 12 years of AKP rule.[331] Opposition politicians have also alleged that intimidation in the media is due to the government's attempt to restructure the ownership of private media corporations. Journalists from the Cihan News Agency and the Gülenist Zaman newspaper were repeatedly barred from attending government press conferences or asking questions.[332] Several opposition journalists such as Soner Yalçın were controversially arrested as part of the Ergenekon trials and Sledgehammer coup investigation.[333] Veli Ağbaba, a CHP politician, has called the AKP the 'biggest media boss in Turkey.'[331]

In 2015, 74 US senators sent a letter to US Secretary of State, John Kerry, to state their concern over what they saw as deviations from the basic principles of democracy in Turkey and oppressions of Erdoğan over media.[334]

Notable cases of media censorship occurred during the 2013 anti-government protests, when the mainstream media did not broadcast any news regarding the demonstrations for three days after they began. The lack of media coverage was symbolised by CNN International covering the protests while CNN Türk broadcast a documentary about penguins at the same time.[335] The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) controversially issued a fine to pro-opposition news channels including Halk TV and Ulusal Kanal for their coverage of the protests, accusing them of broadcasting footage that could be morally, physically and mentally destabilising to children.[336] Erdoğan was criticised for not responding to the accusations of media intimidation, and caused international outrage after telling a female journalist (Amberin Zaman of The Economist) to know her place and calling her a 'shameless militant' during his 2014 presidential election campaign.[337] While the 2014 presidential election was not subject to substantial electoral fraud, Erdoğan was again criticised for receiving disproportionate media attention in comparison to his rivals. The British newspaper The Times commented that between 2 and 4 July, the state-owned media channel TRT gave 204 minutes of coverage to Erdoğan's campaign and less than a total of 3 minutes to both his rivals.[338]

Opposition politicians Selahattin Demirtas and Figen Yüksekdağ had been arrested on terrorism charges

Erdoğan also tightened controls over the internet, signing into law a bill which allows the government to block websites without prior court order on 12 September 2014.[339] His government blocked Twitter and YouTube in late March 2014 following the release of a recording of a conversation between him and his son Bilal, where Erdoğan allegedly warned his family to 'nullify' all cash reserves at their home amid the 2013 corruption scandal.[340] Erdoğan has undertaken a media campaign that attempts to portray the presidential family as frugal and simple-living; their palace electricity-bill is estimated at $500,000 per month.[341]

In May 2016, former Miss Turkey model Merve Büyüksaraç was sentenced to more than a year in prison for allegedly insulting the president.[342][343][344] In a 2016 news story, Bloomberg reported, "more than 2,000 cases have been opened against journalists, cartoonists, teachers, a former Miss Turkey, and even schoolchildren in the past two years."[345]

In November 2016, the Turkish government[228] blocked access to social media in all of Turkey[346] as well as sought to completely block internet access for the citizens in the Southeast of the country.[347]

دعوى أحمد أكسوي

In 2009, Turkish sculptor Mehmet Aksoy created the Statue of Humanity in Kars to promote reconciliation between Turkey and Armenia. When visiting the city in 2011, Erdoğan deemed the statue a "freak", and months later it was demolished.[348] Aksoy sued Erdoğan for "moral indemnities", although his lawyer said that his statement was a critique rather than an insult. In March 2015, a judge ordered Erdoğan to pay Aksoy 10,000 lira.[349]


تكريمات

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, with U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden, delivers remarks in honor of Erdoğan, 16 May 2013
Erdoğan joined by his Kosovo counterpart Hashim Thaçi, 3 November 2010

جائزة الملك فيصل العالمية لخدمة الإسلام

منحته السعودية جائزة الملك فيصل العالمية لخدمة الإسلام (لعام 2010 - 1430 هـ). وقال عبد الله العثيمين الأمين العام للجائزة إن لجنة الاختيار لجائزة خدمة الإسلام التي يرأسها في ذلك الوقت ولي العهد السعودي الأمير سلطان بن عبد العزيز اختارت أردوغان لقيامه بجهود بناءة في المناصب السياسية والإدارية التي تولاَّها، "ومن تلك المناصب أنه كان عمدة مدينة إسطنبول حيث حقَّق إنجازات رائدة في تطويرها. وبعد أن تولَّى رئاسة وزراء وطنه تركيا أصبح رجل دولة يشار بالبنان إلى نجاحاته الكبيرة ومواقفة العظيمة؛ وطنياً وإسلاميا وعالمياً". وقد تم منحه شهادة دكتوراة فخرية من جامعة أم القرى بمكة المكرمة في مجال خدمة الإسلام بتاريخ 1431/3/23 هـ [350].

جائزة القذافي لحقوق الإنسان

تسلم رئيس الوزراء التركي رجب طيب أردوغان يوم الإثنين 29 نوفمبر 2010 جائزة القذافي لحقوق الإنسان خلال الحفل الذي تنظمه مؤسسة القذافي العالمية لحقوق الإنسان بمسرح فندق المهاري بطرابلس - ليبيا.

وبدأت مراسم الحفل بكلمة عضو المكتب التنفيذي ورئيس لجنة الترشيحات للجائزة الدكتور أحمد الشريف، تليها كلمة رئيس اللجنة الشعبية الدولية لجائزة القذافي، ليتم بعدها تسليم الجائزة والتي تشمل قراءة براءة الجائزة باللغة العربية والتركية والإنجليزية. يذكر أن أردوغان زار ليبيا للمشاركة في القمة الأفريقية الأوروبية الثالثة بصفته “ضيف شرف” بدعوة رسمية من معمر القذافي[351]. تعرض لنقد لتقبله الجائزة ورفض منتقدين طالبوه بالتنازل عنها [352].

أرودوغان ورئيس روسيا دمتري مدفيدف.


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  352. ^ صحيفة قورينا

قراءات إضافية

(بالألمانية)

  • Çiğdem Akyol: Generation Erdoğan. Die Türkei – ein zerrissenes Land im 21. Jahrhundert. Kremayr & Scheriau, Wien 2015, ISBN 978-3-218-00969-0
  • Çiğdem Akyol: Erdoğan. Die Biografie. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2016, ISBN 978-3-451-32886-2.

وصلات خارجية

Wikiquote-logo.svg اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة برجب طيب إردوغان، في معرفة الاقتباس.
تغطية إعلامية


مناصب سياسية
سبقه
نور الدين سوزن
عمدة إسطنبول
1994–1998
تبعه
علي مفتي گورتانا
سبقه
عبد الله گول
رئيس وزراء تركيا
2003–2014
تبعه
شاغر
رئيس تركيا
المنُنتخب

2014–الآن
الحالي
مناصب حزبية
منصب حديث زعيم حزب العدالة والتنمية
2001–الآن
الحالي
ترتيب الأولوية
سبقه
Cemil Çiçek
بصفته رئيس البرلمان
ترتيب الخلافة التركي
كرئيس للوزراء
تبعه
Işık Koşaner
بصفته رئيس الأركان


خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "lower-alpha"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="lower-alpha"/> أو هناك وسم </ref> ناقص