المجلس الوطني الأكبر لتركيا

المجلس الوطني الأكبر لتركيا

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi
برلمان تركيا رقم 27
Coat of arms or logo
شعار البرلمان التركي
النوع
النوع
التاريخ
تأسس23 أبريل 1920; منذ 102 سنة (1920-04-23
سبقهالمجلس العمومي للدولة العثمانية
الهيئة التمثيلية
الزعامة
مصطفى شن‌طوپ (AKP)
منذ 24 فبراير 2019
tr (Süreyya Sadi Bilgiç) (AKP)
منذ 24 فبراير 2019
tr (Haydar Akar) (CHP)
tr (Nimetullah Erdoğmuş) (HDP)
جلال أدان (MHP)
منذ 12 يوليو 2018
زعيم المجلس
ناجي بستانجي (AKP)
منذ 7 يوليو 2018
كمال قليچ‌دارأوغلو (CHP)
منذ 22 مايو 2010
الهيكل
المقاعد600
Turkish Parliament 2020 (update) .svg
المجموعات السياسية
الحكومة (289)
  •      AKP (289)

الدعم والتأييد (49)

المعارضة (246)

شاغر (16)

  •      شواغر (16)
طول المدة
5 سنوات (الانتخابات الخاطفة ممكنة)
الراتب₺25,000 (شهرياً) with benefits
الانتخابات
Party-list proportional representation
D'Hondt method with 10% electoral threshold
آخر انتخابات
24 يونيو 2018
الانتخابات المقبلة
25 يونيو 2023
إعادة ترسيم الدوائرالمجلس الانتخابي الأعلى
الشعار
Egemenlik Kayıtsız Şartsız Milletindir
الحاكمية، بلا قيد أو شرط، للشعب
مكان الانعقاد
Grand National Assembly of Turkey.jpg
المجلس الوطني الأكبر لتركيا
بكانليك‌لار
أنقرة، 06543
تركيا
الموقع الإلكتروني
المجلس الوطني الأكبر لتركيا

الجمعية الوطنية الكبرى أو المجلس الوطني الأكبر أو البرلمان التركي هو الهيئة التشريعية الوحيدة المخولة النظر وتعديل الدستور التركي. تأسس في أنقرة في 23 أبريل 1920 في خضم حرب الإستقلال التركية. يتكون من 550 عضو ينتخبون كل خمس سنوات في 85 دائرة مقسمة حسب المحافظات الإحدى والثمانين بإضافة إلى أن اسطنبول تنقسم إلى ثلاث دوائر انتخابيه بينما أنقرة وأزمير وتنقسم إلى قسمين وذلك بسبب كثرة عدد السكان.

منظر جوي للمبنى الحالي للبرلمان التركي، الذي صممه في 1938 المعماري النمساوي الشهير كلمنز هولتس‌مايستر

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التاريخ

لتركيا تاريخ من الحكم الدستوري قبل تأسيس البرلمان الوطني الحالي. These include attempts at curbing absolute monarchy during the Ottoman Empire through constitutional monarchy, as well as establishments of caretaker national assemblies immediately prior to the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 but after the de facto dissolution of the Ottoman Empire earlier in the decade.


الحياة البرلمانية قبل العصر الجمهوري

الدولة العثمانية

افتتاح مجلس مبعوثان (البرلمان) العثماني 1876

There were two periods of parliamentary governance during the Ottoman Empire. The First Constitutional Era lasted for only two years, elections being held only twice. After the first elections, there were a number of criticisms of the government due to the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878 by the representatives, and the assembly was dissolved and an election called on 28 June 1877. The second assembly was also dissolved by the Sultan Abdul Hamid II on 14 February 1878, the result being the return of absolute monarchy with Abdul Hamid II in power and the suspension of the Ottoman constitution of 1876, which had come with the democratic reforms resulting in the First Constitutional Era.[1]

The Second Constitutional Era began on 23 July 1908 with the Young Turk Revolution. The constitution that was written for the first parliament included control of the sultan on the public and was removed during 1909, 1912, 1914 and 1916, in a session known as the "declaration of freedom". Most of the modern parliamentary rights that were not granted in the first constitution were granted, such as the abolition of the right of the Sultan to deport citizens that were claimed to have committed harmful activities, the establishment of a free press, a ban on censorship. Freedom to hold meetings and establish political parties was recognized, and the government was held responsible to the assembly, not to the sultan.[2]

During the two constitutional eras of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman parliament was called the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire and was bicameral. The upper house was the Senate of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were selected by the sultan.[3] The role of the Grand Vizier, the centuries-old top ministerial office in the empire, transformed in line with other European states into one identical to the office of a Prime Minister, as well as that of the speaker of the Senate. The lower chamber of the General Assembly was the Chamber of Deputies of the Ottoman Empire, the members of which were elected by the general public.[4]

تأسيس البرلمان الوطني

مصطفى كمال أتاتورك أمام البرلمان التركي في الذكرى السابعة لتأسيس الجمهورية التركية (1930)

After World War I, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire through the Treaty of Sèvres.[5] The sovereign existence of the Turkish nation was to be eliminated under these plans, except for a small region. Nationalist Turkish sentiment rose in the Anatolian peninsula, engendering the establishment of the Turkish national movement. The political developments during this period have made a lasting impact which continues to affect the character of the Turkish nation. During the Turkish War of Independence, Mustafa Kemal put forth the notion that there would be only one way for the liberation of the Turkish people in the aftermath of World War I, namely, through the creation of an independent, sovereign Turkish state. The Sultanate was abolished by the newly founded parliament in 1922, paving the way for the formal proclamation of the republic that was to come on 29 October 1923.[6]

العبور للدستور الوطني

العصر الجمهوري

1923 – 1945

الناطق بإسم البرلمان

مقعد الناطق بإسم البرلمان

الناطق الحالي بإسم البرلمان هو كوكسال طوپطان من JDP، والذي اُنتُخب في 9 أغسطس 2007. وهو الناطق بإسم برلمان تركيا الثالث والعشرون.

المجموعات البرلمانية

اللجان

اللجان المتخصصة

  1. Constitution committee (26 members)
  2. Justice committee (24 members)
  3. National Defense committee (24 members)
  4. Internal affairs committee (24 members)
  5. Foreign affairs committee (24 members)
  6. National Education, Culture, Youth and Sports committee (24 members)
  7. Development, reconstruction, transportation and tourism committee (24 members)
  8. Environment committee (24 members)
  9. Health, family, employment, social works committee (24 members)
  10. Agriculture, forestry, rural works committee (24 members)
  11. Industry, Commerce, Energy, Natural Resources, Information and Technology Committee (24 members)
  12. Committee for checking GNAT Accounts (15 members)
  13. Application committee (13 members)
  14. Planning and Budget committee (39 members)
  15. Public enterprises committee (35 members)
  16. Committee on inspection of Human rights (23 members)
  17. Committee on EU Adjustment (21 members) (not available in Parliamentary Procedures)


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لجان البحث البرلمانية


التشكيل الحالي

The 27th Parliament of Turkey took office on 7 July 2018, following the ratification of the results of the general election held on 24 June 2018. The composition of the 27th Parliament, is shown below.

Since the elections, 3 MPs deceased, 5 MPs became ministers, 5 MPs became mayors and 3 MPs lost their memberships.[7]

التغيرات منذ مارس 2020

Turkish Parliament 2020 (update) .svg

الحزب الزعيم الموقف السياسي زعماء الكتل البرلمانية الأعضاء في البداية الأعضاء الحاليون التغير الوضع
AK Parti Justice and Development Party Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Right-wing
Conservative democracy
Naci Bostancı[8]
Bülent Turan
Muhammet Emin Akbaşoğlu
Cahit Özkan
Mehmet Muş
Özlem Zengin
295 / 600
289 / 600
Decrease 6 Government
CHP Republican People's Party Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu Centre-left
Social democracy
Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu
Özgür Özel
Engin Özkoç
Engin Altay
146 / 600
138 / 600
Decrease 8 Opposition
HDP Peoples' Democratic Party Pervin Buldan
Mithat Sancar
Left-wing
Social Democracy
Kurdish nationalism
Mithat Sancar
Saruhan Oluç[9]
Meral Danış Beştaş
67 / 600
56 / 600
Decrease 11 Opposition
MHP Nationalist Movement Party Devlet Bahçeli Far-right
Turkish ultranationalism
Devlet Bahçeli
Erkan Akçay
Muhammed Levent Bülbül
49 / 600
48 / 600
Decrease 1 Given support
İYİ Parti İYİ Party Meral Akşener Centre-right
Turkish nationalism
Liberal conservatism
İsmail Tatlıoğlu
Lütfü Türkkan
Müsavat Dervişoğlu
43 / 600
36 / 600
Decrease 7 Opposition
DP Democrat Party Gültekin Uysal Centre-right
Liberal conservatism
N/A
0 / 600
2 / 600
2 Opposition
TİP Workers' Party of Turkey Erkan Baş Far-left
Communism
N/A
0 / 600
2 / 600
2 Opposition
BBP Great Unity Party Mustafa Destici Far-right
Turkish-Islamic synthesis
N/A
0 / 600
1 / 600
1 Given support
DBP Democratic Regions Party Salihe Aydeniz
Keskin Bayındır
Left-wing N/A
0 / 600
1 / 600
1 Opposition
DEVA Democracy and Progress Party Ali Babacan Centre
Liberalism
N/A
0 / 600
1 / 600
1 Opposition
SAADET Felicity Party Temel Karamollaoğlu Far-right
Millî Görüş
N/A
0 / 600
1 / 600
1 Opposition
YP Innovation Party Öztürk Yılmaz Centre N/A
0 / 600
1 / 600
1 Opposition
IND Independents N/A N/A
0 / 600
8 / 600
8 Opposition
Total 600 584

نتائج آخر انتخابات

e • d {{{2}}} ملخص الانتخابات البرلمانية في 24 يونيو 2018 في تركيا
Parliament of Turkey 2018.svg
الائتلاف الحزب الأصوات المقاعد
# % ± # ± %
اتفاق الجمهور
Cumhur İttifakı
حزب العدالة والتنمية*
Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi
21,335,579 42.56 -6.94 295 -22 49.17
حزب الحركة القومية
Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi
5,564,517 11.10 -0.80 49 +9 8.17
إجمالي اتفاق الجمهور 26,900,096 53.66 -7.74 344 -13 57.33
الاتفاق الملي
Millet İttifakı
حزب الشعب الجمهوري*
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi
11,348,899 22.64 -2.68 146 +12 24.33
الحزب الجيد*
İyi Parti
4,990,710 9.96 New 43 New 7.17
حزب السعادة*
Saadet Partisi
673,731 1.34 +0.66 0 ±0 0.00
إجمالي الاتفاق الملي 17,013,340 33.94 +7.94 189 +55 31.50
حزب الشعوب الديمقراطي
Halkların Demokratik Partisi
5,866,309 11.70 +0.94 67 +8 11.17
حزب الدعوة الحرة
Hür Dava Partisi
157,612 0.31 +0.31 0 ±0 0.00
حزب الوطن
Vatan Partisi
117,779 0.23 -0.02 0 ±0 0.00
غيرهم
Diğer
75,283 0.15 -1.44 0 ±0 0.00
الأصوات الباطلة/الفارغة 1,053,310
الإجمالي 51,183,729 100.00 600 +50 100.00
الأصوات المسجلة/الإقبال 59,354,840 86.23 +1.05
المصدر: وكالة الأناضول[dead link]
*ملاحظات: عضوان من حزب السعادة اِنتـُخـِبا على قائمة حزب الشعب الجمهوري، عضو من الحزب الديمقراطي اِنتـُخـِب على قائمة الحزب الجيد، وعضو من حزب الاتحاد الكبير اِنتـُخـِب على قائمة حزب العدالة والتنمية.


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مبنى البرلمان

The current Parliament Building is the third to house the nation's parliament. The building which first housed the Parliament was converted from the Ankara headquarters of the Committee of Union and Progress, the political party that overthrew Sultan Abdulhamid II in 1909 in an effort to bring democracy to the Ottoman Empire. Designed by architect Hasip Bey,[10] it was used until 1924 and is now used as the locale of the Museum of the War of Independence, the second building which housed the Parliament was designed by architect Vedat (Tek) Bey (1873–1942) and used from 1924 to 1960.[10] It is now been converted as the Museum of the Republic. The Grand National Assembly is now housed in a modern and imposing building in the Bakanlıklar neighborhood of Ankara.[11] The monumental building's project was designed by architect and professor Clemens Holzmeister (1886–1993).[10] The building was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50,000 lira banknotes of 1989–1999.[12] The building was hit by airstrikes three times during the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, suffering noticeable damage.[بحاجة لمصدر] Later, the Parliament went through a revision in the summer of 2016.[13]

معرض صور

انظر أيضا

ملاحظات

  1. ^ اِنتـُخـِب على قائمة حزب العدالة والتنمية، ولكن لا يجلس معهم في البرلمان
  2. ^ اِنـُخـِب على قائمة الحزب الجيد، ولكن لا يجلس معهم في البرلمان
  3. ^ اِنتـُخـِب على قائمة حزب الشعوب الديمقراطي، ولكن لا يجلس معهم في البرلمان
  4. ^ اِنتـُخـِب على قائمة حزب الشعب الجمهوري، ولكن لا يجلس معهم في البرلمان

الهامش

  1. ^ "Türk Demokrasi Tarihinde I. Meşrutiyet Dönemi" (PDF) (in التركية). Gazi University. 2005. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Yüzüncü Yılında II. Meşrutiyet'in İlanı Üzerine Bir İnceleme" (in التركية). Gazi University. 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Mütareke Dönemi'nde Ayan Meclisi'nin Çalışmaları" (PDF). The Journal of International Social Research (in التركية). 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  4. ^ "İlk Osmanlı Seçimleri ve Parlamentosu". Sosyoloji Dergisi (in التركية). 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  5. ^ Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-03093-9.
  6. ^ "The Fundamental Law and abolition of the sultanate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 April 2020. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  7. ^ "TÜRKİYE BÜYÜK MİLLET MECLİSİ". www.tbmm.gov.tr. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  8. ^ SABAH, DAILY (2020-03-12). "Political parties alarmed over coronavirus spread to Turkey, measures in place". Daily Sabah (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  9. ^ "Turkey's opposition CHP and HDP to seek allies at party congresses". Ahval (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  10. ^ أ ب ت "The Grand National Assembly of Turkey".
  11. ^ Yale, Pat; Virginia Maxwell; Miriam Raphael; Jean-Bernard Carillet (2005). Turkey. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-683-8.
  12. ^ Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey Archived 3 June 2009 at WebCite. Banknote Museum: 7. Emission Group – Fifty Thousand Turkish Lira – I. Series Archived 22 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine. & II. Series Archived 22 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  13. ^ "Meclis yaz dönemini tadilatla geçirecek" (in التركية). TRT News. 23 August 2016.

وصلات خارجية

المصادر