النقل في تركيا

تذكرة "شركة نقل القسطنطينية" Société des Transports de Constantinople، قبل التحول إلى الحروف اللاتينية في 1924.

النقل في تركيا. both public and private.

Istanbul Airport is the main international airport serving Istanbul, Turkey. It is a major hub in the world.

In 2013 there were 98 airports in Turkey,[1] including 22 international airports.[2] اعتبارا من 2015, Istanbul Atatürk Airport is the 11th busiest airport in the world, serving 31,833,324 passengers between January and July 2014, according to Airports Council International.[3] The new (third) international airport of Istanbul is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers per annum.[4][5][6] Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, was selected by Skytrax as Europe's best airline for five consecutive years in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015.[7][8][9] With 435 destinations (51 domestic and 384 international) in 126 countries worldwide, Turkish Airlines is the largest carrier in the world by number of countries served اعتبارا من 2016.[10]

اعتبارا من 2014, the country has a roadway network of 65,623 kiloمترs (40,776 ميلs).[11] The total length of the rail network was 10,991 kiloمترs (36,060,000 قدم) in 2008, including 2,133 kiloمترs (1,325 ميلs) of electrified and 457 kiloمترs (284 ميلs) of high-speed track.[12][13] The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. The Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014.[13] Opened in 2013, the Marmaray tunnel under the Bosphorus connects the railway and metro lines of Istanbul's European and Asian sides; while the nearby Eurasia Tunnel (2016) provides an undersea road connection for motor vehicles.[14] The Bosphorus Bridge (1973), Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (2016) are the three suspension bridges connecting the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait. The Osman Gazi Bridge (2016) connects the northern and southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit. The Çanakkale Bridge, currently under construction, will connect the European and Asian shores of the Dardanelles strait.

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Rail transport

Rail network

Rail transport map of Turkey along with urban rail networks indication
TCDD HT80000 (Siemens Velaro TR) has a maximum operating speed of 300 كم/سا (186 ميل/سا)[15][16]
The ATG terminal in Ankara is a hub for the YHT services of the Turkish State Railways

The TCDD – Türkiye Devlet Demir Yolları (Turkish State Railways) possess 10,984 km of 1٬435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge, of which 2,336 km are electrified (2005).[17]

There are daily regular passenger trains all through the network.[18] TCDD has started an investment program of building 5.000 km high-speed lines until 2023. As of October 2019, three high speed train routes are running: Ankara-Eskişehir-İstanbul, Ankara-Konya and İstanbul-Eskişehir-Konya.

The freight transportation is mainly organized as block trains for domestic routes, since TCDD discourages under 200 to loads by surcharges.

Urban rail

Trams in Kayseri

After almost 30 years without any trams, Turkey is experiencing a revival in trams. Established in 1992, the tram system of Istanbul earned the best large-scale tram management award in 2005. Another award-winning tram network belongs to Eskişehir (EsTram) where a modern tram system opened in 2004. Several other cities are planning or constructing tram lines, with modern low-flow trams.

By 2014, there have been 12 cities in Turkey using railroads for transportation.

Railway links with adjacent countries

Road transport

Road transport is responsible for much air pollution in Turkey and almost a fifth of Turkey's greenhouse gas emissions, mainly via diesel.

Road network

Turkish Otoyol network map

There are three types of intercity roads in Turkey:

– The first is the historical and free road network called State roads (Devlet Yolları) that are completely under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Highways except for urban sections (like the sections falling within the inner part of ring roads of Ankara, Istanbul or İzmir. Even if they mostly possess dual carriageways and interchanges, they also have some traffic lights and intersections.

– The second type of roads are controlled-access highways that are officially named Otoyol. But it isn't uncommon that people in Turkey call them Otoban (referring to Autobahn) as this types of roads entered popular culture by the means of Turks in Germany. They also depend on the General Directorate of Highways except those that are financed with a BOT model.

– The third type of roads are provincial roads (Il Yolları) are highways of secondary importance linking districts within a province to each other , the provincial center, the districts in the neighboring provinces, the state roads, railway stations, seaports, and airports

  • Motorways: Motorway 2.225 km (2019)
  • Dual carriageways: 17.550 km [21]
  • State Highways 31.021 km (2019)
  • Provincial Roads 34.153 (2019)
  • Motorway Projects‐Vision 5250 km (in 2023)

As of 2010, there are 155 tunnels (total length 99.5 km) and 6447 bridges (total length 296.3 km) on the network.[22][23]

Public road transport

Ankara intercity bus station

There are numerous private bus companies providing connections between cities in Turkey.[24] For local trips to villages there are dolmuşes, small vans that seat about twenty passengers. As of 2010, number of road vehicles is around 15 million. The number of vehicles by type and use is as follows.[25]


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Cycling

Cyclists in Beyoğlu, Istanbul

In 2019 a new regulation on cycle paths was issued.[26]

Car ownership

According to the figures released by Turkey's statistics authority (TurkStat) the total number of motor vehicles in Turkey reached 15.023 million as of November 2010.[27] The provinces with the highest rates of car ownership were:-

Total number of passenger cars was 6,472,156 at the end of 2007. Total number of motor vehicles (excluding tractors and construction vehicles) was 11,695,611 at the end of 2007.[28][29][30] The number of passenger cars had increased to 9,800,000 by 2010.[31]

Air transport

In 2013 Turkey had the tenth largest passenger air market in the world with 74,353,297 passengers.[32]

Airlines

Turkish Airlines, the flag carrier of Turkey

Airports

Istanbul airport, Turkey's busiest airport

Total number of Airports in Turkey: 117 (2007)

Airports – with paved runways
total: 88
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m:


1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:[33])

Airports – with unpaved runways
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:[33])

Heliports 20 (2010)

Water transport

About 1,200 km

Port cities

Black Sea

Aegean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Sea of Marmara

See also

References

  1. ^ "CIA World Factbook: Turkey". Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  2. ^ "Study in Turkey: International Airports in Turkey". Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  3. ^ "Year to date Passenger Traffic". ACI. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  4. ^ "It will be the biggest airport of the world". 24 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  5. ^ "Istanbul's New Erdoğan-Backed Airport to Be Named After... Erdoğan". 14 August 2014.
  6. ^ Gianluca Mezzofiore (14 August 2014). "Erdogan Airport: Istanbul's Super Hub 'to be Named After Turkey's President-Elect'". International Business Times UK.
  7. ^ "Turkish Airlines is named the Best Airline in Europe at the 2012 World Airline Awards held at Farnborough Air Show". Skytrax. 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  8. ^ "Turkish Airlines named best airline in Europe for fifth year in a row – BUSINESS".
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Turkish Airlines: International Flight Destinations". Turkish Airlines. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  11. ^ "Yol Ağı Bilgileri". Karayolları Genel Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  12. ^ "CIA World Factbook: Turkey". Cia.gov. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  13. ^ أ ب "Dünyada Ve Türkıyede Hizli Tren". hizlitren.tcdd.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  14. ^ "Istanbul's $1.3BN Eurasia Tunnel prepares to open". Anadolu Agency. 19 December 2016.
  15. ^ "Velaro Turkey: High-Speed Train for TCDD" (PDF). Siemens Mobility. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  16. ^ "Velaro Turkey High-Speed Train". Siemens Mobility. Retrieved 2020-04-16.
  17. ^ TCDD Statistics – PDF file
  18. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Traveling by Train in Turkey", Rail Turkey, 5 Mar 2014
  19. ^ Railway Gazette International – January 2008 p51
  20. ^ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/home/detail/?id=233
  21. ^ "Yol Ağı Bilgileri". Kgm.gov.tr. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  22. ^ [1][dead link]
  23. ^ [2][dead link]
  24. ^ "NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES -Number of registered motor vehicles in Turkey exceeds 15 million in November 2010. – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  25. ^ "::Türkiye Ýstatistik Kurumu Web sayfalarýna Hoţ Geldiniz". Tuik.gov.tr. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  26. ^ "BİSİKLET YOLLARI YÖNETMELİĞİ". www.resmigazete.gov.tr (in التركية). Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  27. ^ "NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLES -Number of registered motor vehicles in Turkey exceeds 15 million in November 2010. – Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2007-12-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ http://www.tuik.gov.tr/metaveri/52_m9.doc. Retrieved 1 December 2008. Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  31. ^ [4][dead link]
  32. ^ World Bank Datebase, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.AIR.PSGR
  33. ^ أ ب "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-13.

قالب:Local transport in Turkey قالب:Transportation in Europe

External links

الكلمات الدالة: