الجامعة الأم

تمثال Alma Mater من صنع دانيال تشستر فرنش، جامعة كلومبيا، مدينة نيويورك

الجامعة الأم (Alma mater ؛ باللاتينية: alma mater؛ صيغة الجمع: [نادراً ما تُستخدَم] almae matres) هي an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one formerly attended.[1] In US usage it can also mean the school from where one graduated.[2] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[3] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor.

Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[4] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary. It entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum ("nurturing mother of studies"), which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world.[5] It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that literally means a "nursling" or "one who is nourished".[6]

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أصل الاسم

تمثال "ألما ماتر لكمبردج" من جون لگيت في 1600

بالرغم من أن alma (المغذية) كانت كنية شائعة لكل من سيريس و سيبيلي وڤينوس، وإلهات أمهات أُخـَر، إلا أنها لم يشيع استخدامها مرتبطةً مع mater باللاتينية الكلاسيكية.[7] في قاموس أكسفورد اللاتيني، يُنسَب المصطلح إلى كتاب لوكرشس De rerum natura، حيث يُستخدم ككنية لوصف الإلهة الأرض:

Denique caelesti sumus omnes semine oriundi
omnibus ille idem pater est, unde alma liquentis
umoris guttas mater cum terra recepit (2.991–93)

We are all sprung from that celestial seed,
all of us have same father, from whom earth,
the nourishing mother, receives drops of liquid moisture

بعد سقوط روما، دخل المصطلح في الاستخدام الكنسي المسيحي مرتبطاً بـمريم العذراء. "Alma Redemptoris Mater" هي مانعة للضجيج معهودة منذ القرن الحادي عشر مكرّسة لمريم.[7]

The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600، حين بدأ طباع جامعة كمبردج، جون لگيت، استخدام an emblem for the university's press.[8][9] The device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia ("nourishing mother Cambridge") is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown.[10][11] In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward.[12][13]


التماثيل

Alma Mater (1929، لورادو تافت)، جامعة إلينوي في إربانا-شامپين

العالم الروماني القديم كان فيه العديد من التماثيل لـ Alma Mater، بعضها مازال موجود (مثل ذلك الموجود في Palatine Hill في روما).


المراجع

  1. ^ "alma", oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  2. ^ "alma mater". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  3. ^ Ayto, John (2005). Word Origins (2nd ed.). London: A&C Black. ISBN 9781408101605. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  4. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition
  5. ^ "Our history – University of Bologna". Unibo.it. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  6. ^ Cresswell, Julia (2010). Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins. Oxford University Press. p. 12. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  7. ^ أ ب Sollors, Werner (1986). Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780198020721.
  8. ^ Stokes, Henry Paine (1919). Cambridge stationers, printers, bookbinders, &c. Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes. p. 12. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  9. ^ Roberts, S. C. (1921). A History of the Cambridge University Press 1521–1921. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  10. ^ Stubbings, Frank H. (1995). Bedders, Bulldogs and Bedells: A Cambridge Glossary (2nd ed.). p. 39.
  11. ^ Perkins, William (1600). A Golden Chaine: Or, the Description of Theologie, containing the order and causes of salvation and damnation, according to God's word. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  12. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Alma mater". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  13. ^ Ward, Richard (1710). The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr. Henry More, Late Fellow of Christ's College in Cambridge. London: Joseph Downing. p. 148. Retrieved 18 May 2015.

وصلات خارجية