المكتب البيضاوي

الرئيس باراك اوباما يكتب ملاحظاته في المكتب البيضاوي قبل الإدلاء ببيان تلفزيوني مفصل حول المهمة ضد أسامة بن لادن، 1 مايو 2011.
المكتب البيضاوي عام 1981، في عهد ادارة رونالد ريگان. الرئيس ريگان استخدم مكتب روزليوت، والذي أعاده الرئيس جيمي كارتر إلى البيت الأبيض.. The rug from the Gerald R. Ford administration was replaced when the Reagans redecorated in 1988.

المكتب البيضاوي، يقع في الجناح الغربي بالبيت الأبيض، وهو المكتب الرسمي لرئيس الولايات المتحدة.

تتميز الغرفة بثلاث نوافذ مواجهة للجهة الكنوبية وراء مكتب الرئيس، ومدفأة عند النهاية الشمالية للغرفة. يوجد بالمكتب البيضاوي أربعة أبواب: باب شرقي يفتح على حديقة الزهور؛ باب غربي يؤدي إلى غرفة صغيرة خاصة للدراسة والعشاء؛ باب شمالي غربي يفتح على الممر الرئيس للجناح الغربي؛ وباب شمالي شرقي يفتح على مكتب سكرتير الرئيس.


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التاريخ الثقافي

خطب المكتب البيضاوي

التاريخ

بيت الرئيس، فلادلفيا، پنسلڤانيا، قوس نافذة جورج تاون أوحت بشكل المكتب البيضاوي.

نافذة جورج واشنطن

البيت الأبيض

الغرفة البيضاوية الصفراء كغرفة دراسة ومكتبة للرئيس گروڤر كليڤلاند، 1886. لاحظ استخدامه مكتب روزوليوت.

الغرفة البيضاوية الصفراء

الجناح الغربي

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مكتب تافت البيضاوي: 1909–33

مكتب تافت البيضاوي، اكتمل عام 1909، متطابق تقريباً مع حجم المكتب الحديث، دمره حريق عام 1929 وهدم عام 1933.

المكتب البيضاوي الحديث: 1934–الآن

موقع المكتب البيضاوي في الجنح الغربي.
المكتب البيضاوي بعد اكتمال انشائه عام 1934.
Plaster ceiling medallion installed in 1934 includes elements of the Seal of the President of the United States.

الزخرفة

السجادة

السجادة المفروشة على أرض المكتب البيضاوي هي سجادة تحمل شعار الرئيس الأمريكي. وقد تغير الشعار على مدار السنين منذ إنشاء المكتب.

المكاتب

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الأعمال الفنية

President Obama in 2012, with (left to right) Abraham Lincoln by George Henry Story, a copy of the Emancipation Proclamation, Bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. by Charles Alston, George Washington by Rembrandt Peale, and Bust of Abraham Lincoln by Augustus Saint-Gaudens.
Oval Office floor, replaced during the administration of George W. Bush. Based on a 1933 design by Eric Gugler, the 2005 installation is arranged in a contrasting cross pattern of quarter sawn oak and walnut.


اعادة الزخرفة

التعديلات

الحفاظ

الأبعاد

الأبعاد الأمريكية الدولية
المحور الرئيسي (الشمال-الجنوب) 35' 10" 10.9 م
المحور الأصغر (الشرق-الغرب) 29' 8.8 م
الارتفاع 18' 6" 5.6 م
خط الصعود (النقطة التي يبدأ عندها السقف في التقوس) 16' 7" 5.0 م
المحيط البيضاوي التقريبي 102' 5" 31.2 م
المساحة التقريبية 816.2 قدم² 75.8 sq م

نسبة المحور الرئيسي إلى المحور الأدنى تبلغ 10.9/8.8 (أي حوالي 1.24).

مكتب تافت البيضاوي 1909–1933

الرئيس صورة المصمم Furnishings العمل الفني ملاحظات
وليام هوارد تافت
1909-1913
TaftOval1909.jpg Nathan C. Wyeth
1909
Marble Neoclassical mantel
Bookcases with glass doors
Lighting fixtures by E. F. Caldwell & Co.[1]
Walls covered in green burlap
Skylight

Theodore Roosevelt desk
Green drapery
Green rug
2 leather "Davenport" sofas
Leather armchairs
Side chairs covered in leather
The President's office by Detroit Photographic Company.jpg President Roosevelt's Executive Office, 1904.
President Taft used the desk and furniture from President Roosevelt's office.
وودرو ويلسون
1913-1921
Woodrow Wilson at his desk in the Oval Office c.1913 cropped.jpg President Wilson rarely used the Oval Office, preferring to work in the
Treaty Room.[2]
وارن هاردنگ
1921-1923
Mr. Harding's desk in the Executive Offices LOC3c32075v.jpg President Harding died in office on August 2, 1923. This photo, taken on the
day of his funeral, shows a mourning crepe tied to his desk chair.
كالڤن كولدج
1923-1929
Calvin Coolidge seated at desk in Oval Office LOC3b39484r.jpg President Coolidge's first official photograph, taken August 15, 1923.
هربرت هوڤر
1929-1933
1st Oval Office after Dec. 24, 1929 fire.jpg Before fire:
Theodore Roosevelt desk

After fire:
Hoover desk[3]
Art Moderne-style sconces
6 cane-back armchairs
Upholstered furniture
President Hoover rebuilt the West Wing after the December 24, 1929 fire.
He installed air-conditioning, and replaced the Oval Office's Colonial-Revival
lighting fixtures with Art Moderne ones. He replaced the leather sofas and
chairs with upholstered furniture, and added the 6 cane-back armchairs
that are still used in the modern Oval Office.
فرانكلن روزڤلت
1933-1945
Franklin Roosevelt at desk in Oval Office, 1933.jpg Hoover desk Note the Art Moderne sconces in this 1933 photo.

President Roosevelt moved the marble mantel, 2 of the sconces, the rug,
drapery, desk, and furniture to the modern Oval Office.

المكتب البيضاوي الحديث 1934–الآن

الرئيس صورة المصمم المفروشات العمل الفني ملاحظات
فرانكلين د. روزڤلت
1933-1945
Franklin D Roosevelt in the Oval Office - NARA - 195978 rotated & cropped.jpg Eric Gugler
1934
Marble mantel (from prior Oval Office)
2 sconces (from prior Oval Office)

Hoover desk
Green drapery
Green rug
Arched-back desk chair
Arched-back armchairs (against the wall)
"Lawson" sofa (against the wall)
6 cane-back armchairs
George Washington by Rembrandt Peale

Prints of the Hudson Valley

Ship models
Rembrandt Peale - George Washington (Porthole type) - Google Art Project.jpg George Washington by Rembrandt Peale
هاري ترومان
1945-1953
Photograph of President Truman's desk and other furnishings in the Oval Office of the White House. - NARA - 199460.jpg Theodore Roosevelt desk
Gray drapery
Blue-gray rug with the Presidential Seal
Television set
George Washington by Rembrandt Peale
George Washington by Luis Cadena (gift of Ecuador)[4]
Simón Bolívar by Tito Salas (gift of Venezuela)[5]
José de San Martín, copy after Jean Baptiste Madou (gift of Argentina)
USS Constitution by Gordon Grant
Missouri State Seal plaque

Fired On by Frederic Remington
Equestrian Statue of Andrew Jackson by Charles Keck

Photograph of Franklin Delano Roosevelt by Frank O. Salisbury

Jet-airplane models
Trumanovalofficereplica.jpg Oval Office replica at Harry S. Truman Presidential Library.
دوايت أيزنهاور
1953-1961
EisenhowerAtomicEnergyAct.jpg مكتب تيودور روزڤلت
Truman drapery
Truman rug
Landscape paintings

Seated Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum
Lincoln7.jpg Seated Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum.
جون كنيدي
1961-1963
Caroline Kennedy Kerry Kennedy Resolute Desk b.jpg Stéphane Boudin
1963
Resolute desk
White drapery
Red rug
Rocking chair
2 white sofas (not against the wall)
Round coffee table, with phone attached

Replaced sconces with brass lanterns
USS United States vs. HMS Macedonian by Thomas Birch[6]
Paintings of naval battles

Photographs of sailboats

Ship models
Meeting with General Clay and David Bell. Adminstrator of the Agency for International Development David Bell... - NARA - 194220.tif

First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy restored the Resolute desk. Redecoration of the
Oval Office was nearing completion at the time of JFK's assassination.[7]
ليندون جونسون
1963-1969
President Johnson on the phone upon RFKs death.jpg Johnson desk[8]
Truman rug
Kennedy drapery
Cabinet for teletype
Banquette with 3 televisions
Kennedy rocking chair
Kennedy sofas
Round coffee table, with phone in drawer
Federal-style tall-case clock

Replaced brass lanterns with brass sconces
Covered floor with wood-grained linoleum
George Washington by Gilbert Stuart
Andrew Jackson by Thomas Sully
Franklin D. Roosevelt by Elizabeth Shoumatoff[9]

The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Oval Office Meeting 5 June 1967.jpg Franklin D. Roosevelt by Elizabeth Shoumatoff (on mantel).
ريتشارد نيكسون
1969-1974
Bob Hope playing golf in the Oval Office.png مكتب نيكسون
Yellow drapery
Royal blue rug
1st. George Washington by Gilbert Stuart
2nd. George Washington by Rembrandt Peale
3rd. George Washington by Charles Willson Peale
The President's House, copy after William Henry Bartlett

Bust of Abraham Lincoln by Leo Cherne
Bird figurines by Edward Marshall Boehm

Earthrise (photograph of the earth from the moon's orbit)
NASA-Apollo8-Dec24-Earthrise.jpg Earthrise, December 24, 1968.

President Nixon used an office in the Old Executive Office Building as his primary
workspace. First Lady Pat Nixon designed the Oval Office's royal blue rug.
جرالد فورد
1974-1977
Ford Oval Office.jpg Wilson desk
Red drapery
Yellow floral rug
2 yellow Queen Anne-style armchairs
2 yellow wing chairs
2 striped sofas
Seymour tall-case clock

Removed the brass sconces
George Washington by Charles Willson Peale
The President's House, copy after William Henry Bartlett
Eastport and Passamaquoddy Bay by Victor de Grailly
The City of Washington from Beyond the Navy Yard by George Cooke[10]
Benjamin Franklin by Charles Willson Peale

Standing Lincoln by Adolph Alexander Weinman
The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Seymour Clock in the Oval Office.jpg President Ford placed the Seymour tall-case clock in the Oval Office.[11]
جيمي كارتر
1977-1981
Oval Office during Carter administration - NARA - 173592.tif 1977 Resolute desk
Ford drapery
Ford rug

Placed the Ford sofas back-to-back
George Washington by Charles Willson Peale.
The President's House, copy after William Henry Bartlett
Eastport and Passamaquoddy Bay by Victor de Grailly
The City of Washington from Beyond the Navy Yard by George Cooke

Bust of Benjamin Franklin by Jean-Antoine Houdon
Bust of George Washington by Hiram Powers
Bust of Thomas Jefferson by Jean-Antoine Houdon
The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Bust of Harry S. Truman by Charles Keck

Ship model
Jimmy Carter Library and Museum 68.JPG Oval Office replica at Jimmy Carter Library and Museum.
رونالد ريگان
1981-1989
REAGANWORKSINOVALOFFICE.jpg Ted Graber
1981[12]
1988
Resolute desk
Ford drapery

Replaced the wood floor[13]
George Washington by Charles Willson Peale.
The President's House, copy after William Henry Bartlett
Eastport and Passamaquoddy Bay by Victor de Grailly
The City of Washington from Beyond the Navy Yard by George Cooke
Andrew Jackson by Thomas Sully

The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Rattlesnake by Frederic Remington
REAGAN PRESIDENTAL LIBRARY, SIMI VALLEY.jpg Oval Office replica at Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.
First Lady Nancy Reagan designed the rug.[14]
جورج هـ. و. بوش
1989-1993
President Bush meets with Secretary Dick Cheney, General Colin Powell, General Scowcroft, Governor Sununu and Robert... - NARA - 186427.tif Mark Hampton C&O desk
Pale blue drapery
Pale blue rug
George Washington by Rembrandt Peale
The President's House, copy after William Henry Bartlett
Rutland Falls, Vermont by Frederic Edwin Church
The Three Tetons by Thomas Moran
Andrew Jackson by Thomas Sully

Ship model
Bush Library Oval Office Replica.jpg Oval Office replica at George Bush Presidential Library.
بيل كلينتون
1993-2001
WJCovaloff.jpg Kaki Hockersmith Resolute desk
Yellow drapery
Navy blue rug
George Washington by Rembrandt Peale
The Avenue in the Rain by Childe Hassam
Statue of Liberty by Norman Rockwell
The City of Washington from Beyond the Navy Yard by George Cooke
Waiting for the Hour by William Tolman Carlton
Andrew Jackson by Thomas Sully

The Thinker by Auguste Rodin
The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Appeal to the Great Spirit by Cyrus Dallin
Bust of Abraham Lincoln by
Bust of Franklin D. Roosevelt by Jo Davidson
Clinton exhibit Presidential Library Little Rock AR 2013-06-07 023.jpg Oval Office replica at William J. Clinton Presidential Library.
جورج بوش
2001-2009
President George W. Bush and Barack Obama meet in Oval Office.jpg Ken Blasingame
2001
Resolute desk
Gold drapery
"Sunbeam" rug

Replaced the wood floor
George Washington by Rembrandt Peale.
A Charge to Keep by W. H. D. Koerner[15]
Rio Grande by Tom Lea[16]
Near San Antonio by Julian Onderdonk[17]
Chili Queens at the Alamo by Julian Onderdonk[18]
Cactus Flower by Julian Onderdonk[19]
Abraham Lincoln by George Henry Story

The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Rattlesnake by Frederic Remington
Bust of Dwight D. Eisenhower by Nison Tregor
Bust of Abraham Lincoln by Augustus Saint-Gaudens
Bust of Winston Churchill (lent by British Prime Minister Tony Blair)
NHMWinners.jpg First Lady Laura Bush designed the "Sunbeam" rug.[20]
باراك اوباما
2009–الآن
Mitt Romney and Barack Obama Oval Office meeting 2012-11-29.jpg Michael S. Smith
2010
Resolute desk
Red drapery
Taupe rug with quotes in border
Striped wallpaper
George Washington by Rembrandt Peale
The Avenue in the Rain by Childe Hassam
Statue of Liberty by Norman Rockwell
The Three Tetons by Thomas Moran
Abraham Lincoln by George Henry Story

The Bronco Buster by Frederic Remington
Bust of Abraham Lincoln by Augustus Saint-Gaudens
Bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. by Charles Alston

Copy of the Emancipation Proclamation
Barack Obama on the telephone to John Boehner.jpg
The rug's border incorporates quotes from Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt,
Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr.

مكاتب لزعماء العالم الآخرين

المصادر

  1. ^ Monkman, p. 198.
  2. ^ Seale, The President's House, p. 812.
  3. ^ After the fire, the president used "the great mahogany desk presented to Hoover by furniture makers in Grand Rapids." Seale, The President's House, p. 918.
  4. ^ George Washington by Luis Cadena from White House Historical Association.
  5. ^ Simón Bolívar by Tito Salas from Harry S. Truman Presidential Library.
  6. ^ USS United States vs. HMS Macedonian (1813) from Sotheby's Auction, 22 May 2008.
  7. ^ Kennedy Oval Office from White House Museum. Scroll to bottom for photo.
  8. ^ President Johnson used the same desk he had used as a U.S. Senator and Vice-President.
  9. ^ FDR by Elizabeth Shoumatoff from White House Historical Association.
  10. ^ City of Washington from Wikimedia Commons.
  11. ^ Seymour tall-case clock from White House Historical Association.
  12. ^ "Oval Office has new face for Reagan," from Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, September 5, 1981.
  13. ^ Oval Office Flooring from HuffPostLive.
  14. ^ "Easy come, easy go," from Chicago Tribune.
  15. ^ A Charge to Keep from Wikimedia Commons. Lent by the Bush Family.
  16. ^ "Mrs. Bush's Remarks for 100th Anniversary of the West Wing Symposium". - White House Historical Association. - November 13, 2002. - | Light from the Sky: A Tom Lea Retrospective, 1907–2001. - Mid-America Arts Alliance. - (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document). - Retrieved: 2008-07-05 Lent by the El Paso Museum.
  17. ^ Lent by the San Antonio Museum of Art."Julian Onderdonk" from Questroyal Fine Art, LLC.
  18. ^ Lent by the Witte Museum.
  19. ^ Lent by the Witte Museum.
  20. ^ "Bush weaves Rug story into many an occasion," from The Washington Post, March 7, 2006.

قراءات إضافية

  • Portions of this article are based on public domain text from the White House.
  • The White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001. ISBN 0-912308-79-6.
  • Abbott James A., and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7.
  • Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85799-5.
  • Monkman, Betty C. The White House: The Historic Furnishing & First Families. Abbeville Press: 2000. ISBN 0-7892-0624-2.
  • Ryan, William and Desmond Guinness. The White House: An Architectural History. McGraw Hill Book Company: 1980. ISBN 0-07-054352-6.
  • Seale, William. The President's House. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 1986. ISBN 0-912308-28-1.
  • Seale, William, The White House: The History of an American Idea. White House Historical Association: 1992, 2001. ISBN 0-912308-85-0.
  • West, J.B. with Mary Lynn Kotz. Upstairs at the White House: My Life with the First Ladies. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan: 1973. SBN 698-10546-X.

وصلات خارجية

Wikiquote-logo.svg اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بالمكتب البيضاوي، في معرفة الاقتباس.

الإحداثيات: 38°53′51″N 77°02′15″W / 38.8974°N 77.0374°W / 38.8974; -77.0374