هيئة الأمم المتحدة لمراقبة الهدنة

المقر الرئيسي لـ UNTSO، القدس، فلسطين، الواجهة الجنوبية، 1986

هيئة الأمم المتحدة لمراقبة الهدنة United Nations Truce Supervision Organization ‏(UNTSO) هي هيئة تأسست في 29 مايو 1948[1][2][3] for peacekeeping in the Middle East. Its primary task was providing the military command structure to the peace keeping forces in the Middle East to enable the peace keepers to observe and maintain the cease-fire, and as may be necessary in assisting the parties to the Armistice Agreements in the supervision of the application and observance of the terms of those Agreements.[3] The command structure of the UNTSO was maintained to cover the later peace keeper organisations of the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) and the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL).

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خلفية

In response to a request from Count Folke Bernadotte, United Nations Mediator for Palestine, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Trygve Lie, sent 50 members of the United Nations guard force from Lake Success to assist the Mediator in supervising the Truce in the former British Mandate of Palestine in 1948[4] and the "UNTSO", the first peacekeeping operation was established by the United Nations. All the members of the party were experienced international civil servants with a background of service with the United Nations Secretariat at Headquarters. While on duty in Palestine, they were to continue to wear United Nations guard uniforms. UNTSO military observers remain in the Middle East to monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating and assist other UN peacekeeping operations in the region. This resolution formed the basis for the establishment of the first United Nations peace-keeping operation which became known as the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization UNTSO In November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly endorsed a plan for the partition of the then British Mandate of Palestine, providing for the creation of an Arab State and a Jewish State, with Jerusalem to be placed in Trusteeship with international status. The plan was not accepted by the Palestinian Arabs and Arab States and only partially accepted by the Jewish Agency of Palestine.[5] On 14 May 1948, the United Kingdom relinquished its mandate over Palestine and the State of Israel was proclaimed. On the following day, the Arab States invaded Palestine Mandate territory.

On 14 May 1948, the Assembly adopts resolution 186 (S-2), which affirms its support for the efforts of the Security Council to secure a truce in Palestine; decides to appoint a U.N. Mediator. Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden was appointed. And sent him to Palestine. On 22 May 1948, the Security Council adopts resolution 49 (1948), calling for an abstention from any hostile military action in Palestine. The resolution also calls upon the parties to facilitate the task of the U.N. Mediator.

On 23 May 1948 Thomas C. Wasson, US Consul and member of the UN Truce Commission was assassinated in Jerusalem.

1949 United Nations mediator issued US diplomatic passport. Holder was a navy captain, military observer attached to the security council truce commission for Palestine.

After assassination, the talks between the warring parties began under the supervision of the Acting Mediator, Ralph Bunche.


Headquarters

Cairo was the initial Headquarters of UNTSO. The UNTSO's HQ was moved, shortly after its creation, to Haifa (British enclave in this time), in late June 1948. The Haifa HQ was evacuated on 9 July due to renewed fighting. With the return of UN peacekeeping forces to Israel on 21 July 1948 the Headquarters for UNTSO was moved again on 7 October 1948 for the third and final time to Government House Jerusalem.

UNTSO has offices in Beirut and Damascus.

Contributing Countries

Countries contributing military resources to UNTSO include, Argentina, Australia,[6] Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), Slovenia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US.

International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers.

29 May has been designated as the "International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers" by the UN. 29 May 2008 being the sixtieth anniversary of United Nations Peacekeeping Forces being deployed.[7]

Evolution of the UNTSO

Following the wars of 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, the functions of the observers changed in the light of changing circumstances, but they remained in the area, acting as go-betweens for the hostile parties and as the means by which isolated incidents could be contained and prevented from escalating into major conflicts.

Before 1949

Resolution 181

Resolutions 42 to 46: calls for cease-fire

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Resolution 185: Jerusalem

The Assembly adopted resolution 185 (S-2) of 26 April 1948, asking the Trusteeship Council to study measures for the protection of Jerusalem, its inhabitants and to submit proposals to the General Assembly.

Resolution 186 and 187: Bernadotte appointed

1949 to 1956

Suez Crisis to Six Day War

It should also be noted that not for the first time unarmed service with UNTSO carried its risks. In June 1967 Comdt Thomas Wickham [8] of the Irish Defense Forces was shot dead in Syria.

Six Day War to Yom Kippur War (1967 to 1973)

Yom Kippur to Israel Lebanon War

After the Lebanon War

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اليوم

UNTSO personnel have also been available at short notice to form the nucleus of other peacekeeping operations. The availability of UNTSO's military observers for almost immediate deployment after the Security Council had acted to create a new operation has been an enormous contributory factor to the success of those operations.

انتشار UNTSO في فبراير 2011.

The military observers are un-armed and they carry out their jobs by observing and reporting violations of the agreements of ceasefire, disengagement etc. that are relevant to their area of operations. All military observers are seasoned officers of the rank of captain or major coming from all branches of service in their respective countries armed forces.

The military observers work in multi-national teams, so that any observations will always be confirmed by at least two observers from different nations, as a measure to ensure impartiality.

وحالياً، تزّود UNTSO بمراقبين عسكريين ثلاث مهام مختلفة للأمم المتحدة لحفظ السلام في المنطقة:

Commanders (Chief of Staff) of UNTSO

[9]

Start Date End Date Name Rank Country
May 1948 July 1948 Thord Bonde Colonel  السويد
July 1948 September 1948 Åge Lundström Major General  السويد
September 1948 June 1953 William E. Riley Lt. General  الولايات المتحدة
June 1953 September 1954 Vagh Bennike Major General  الدنمارك
August 1954 November 1956 E.L.M. Burns Lt. General  كندا
November 1956 March 1958 Byron V. Leary Colonel  الولايات المتحدة
March 1958 July 1960 Carl von Horn Lt. General  السويد
July 1960 December 1960 R.W. Rickert Colonel  الولايات المتحدة
Jan 1961 May 1963 Carl von Horn Lt. General  السويد
May 1963 July 1970 Odd Bull Lt. General  النرويج
July 1970 October 1973 Ensio Siilasvuo Lt. General  فنلندا
October 1973 March 1974 Richard Bunworth Colonel  أيرلندا
March 1974 August 1975 Bengt Liljestrand Major General  السويد
September 1975 December 1975 Keith D. Howard Colonel  أستراليا
January 1976 March 1978 Emmanuel Erskine Major General  غانا
April 1978 June 1979 William O'Callaghan Lt. General  أيرلندا
June 1979 January 1980 O. Forsgren Colonel  السويد
February 1980 February 1981 Erkki R. Kaira Major General  فنلندا
February 1981 May 1986 Emmanuel Erskine Major General  غانا
May 1986 June 1987 William O'Callaghan Lt. General  أيرلندا
June 1987 October 1990 Martin O. Vadset Lt. General  النرويج
October 1990 October 1992 Hans Christensen Major General  فنلندا
October 1992 December 1993 Krisna Thapa Major General  نيپال
December 1993 April 1994 John Fisher Colonel  نيوزيلندا
April 1994 June 1995 Luc Bujold Colonel  كندا
June 1995 September 1995 Jaakko Oksanen Colonel  فنلندا
October 1995 March 1998 Rufus Kupolati Major General  نيجريا
April 1998 March 2000 Tim Ford Major General  أستراليا
April 2000 March 2002 Franco Ganguzza Major General  إيطاليا
March 2002 Sept 2004 Carl Dodd Major General  أيرلندا
November 2004 November 2006 Clive Lilley Major General  نيوزيلندا
November 2006 February 2008 Ian Gordon Major General  أستراليا
February 2008 April 2011 Robert Mood[10] Major General  النرويج
May 2011 June 2013 Juha Kilpiä Major General  فنلندا
July 2013 31 July 2015 Michael Finn[11] Major General  أيرلندا
1 September 2015 - Dave Gawn[12] Major General  نيوزيلندا

معجم

الهامش

  1. ^ UN Doc A/RES/186 (S-2) 14 May 1948 Appointment and terms of reference of a United Nations Mediator in Palestine
  2. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 50 UN Doc S/RES/50 (1948) S/801 29 May 1948
  3. ^ أ ب UN Doc S/RES/73 (1949) S/1376, II 11 August 1949 UN Security Council Resolution 73
  4. ^ Fifty U.N. Guards to go to Palestine UN Press Release UN Doc PAL/189 17 June 1948
  5. ^ UN Press Release Dr Able Hillel Silver, Chairman of the American Section of the Jewish Agency makes the case for a Jewish State to the Ad Hoc committee on Palestine at the UN on 2 October 1947. Jewish Agency announces acceptance of 10 of the eleven unanimous recommendations of the UN partition plan and rejection of the minority report. Of the Majority report (the Partition Plan areas) Dr Able Hillel Silver vacillates saying that he was prepared to "recommend to the Jewish people acceptance subject to further discussion of the constitutional and territorial provisions".
  6. ^ Operation Paladin
  7. ^ UN press release PKO/181
  8. ^ http://irishmedals.org/gpage7.html
  9. ^ Official UNTSO COSs gallery
  10. ^ "Norwegian to head UN observers in the ME". The Norway Post. Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  11. ^ "Ban appoints Irish major general to head up UN's oldest peacekeeping mission". UN News Centre. United Nations. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  12. ^ http://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sga1582.doc.htm

ببليوگرافيا

  • Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict, 2nd ed., New York: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-442-1.
  • Paul Berthoud (2008), A Professional Life Narrative, worked with UNTSO and offers testimony from the inside.

وصلات خارجية

UNTSO: Transfer of computers via Israel normal