المفاوضات المباشرة بين إسرائيل والفلسطينيين 2010

المفاوضات المباشرة بين إسرائيل والفلسطينيين، بدأت في أوائل سبتمبر 2010 بين الرئيس الأمريكي باراك اوباما، رئيس الوزراء الإسرائيلي بنيامين نتانياهو، ورئيس السلطة الفلسطينية محمود عباس.

والهدف النهائي للمفاوضات المباشرة هو الوصول إلى حل نهائي للصراع الإسرائيلي الفلسطيني عن طريق حل الدولتين والذي يقترح إنشاء دولتين مستقلتين منفصلتين على الأراضي الفلسطينية، دولة إسرائيل لليهود، وأخرى للشعب الفلسطيني.

وفي أواخر سبتمبر 2010 بعد انتهاء التجميد الجزئي لبناء المستوطنات في الضفة الغربية، رفض الفلسطينيون الاستمرار في المحادثات المباشرة اذا ما رفضت إسرائيل وقف بناء المستوطنات. وعرضت إسرائيل استمرار تجنيد المستوطنات بشرط إعتراف الفلسطينيين بيهودية دولة إسرائيل. ورفضت القيادة الفلسطينية هذا الاقتراح.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

خلفية

Since President Barack Obama took office in January 2009, he has made peaceful settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict a top priority of his administration, appointing former Senator George Mitchell as his peace envoy.[1]

In March 2009 US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton traveled to Israel.[2] She warned that Israeli settlements and demolition of Arab homes in East Jerusalem were "unhelpful" to the peace process.[3] Clinton also voiced support for the establishment of a Palestinian state. Prime Minister-designate Benjamin Netanyahu supports Palestinian self-government but has not explicitly endorsed the US and Palestinian vision for statehood.[4][5] Upon the arrival of President Obama administration's special envoy, George Mitchell, Netanyahu stated that any furtherance of negotiations with the Palestinians will be conditioned on the Palestinians recognizing Israel as a Jewish state.[6] So far the Palestinian leadership has rejected a US-backed proposal extending a settlement freeze in exchange for recognizing Israel as a Jewish state,[7] as this issue had not been sufficiently clarified by Israel at that time.

On June 4, 2009 Obama delivered a speech at the Cairo University in Egypt in which Obama addressed the Muslim world.[8] The wide ranging speech called for a "new beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and also called for resumed negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. In addition, during the speech Obama stated among other things that "The United States does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements". "This construction violates previous agreements and undermines efforts to achieve peace. It is time for these settlements to stop."

On June 14, in what was understood as a response Obama's Cairo speech, Netanyahu gave a speech at Bar-Ilan University in which he endorsed, for the first time, a "Demilitarized Palestinian State", after two months of refusing to commit to anything other than a self-ruling autonomy when coming into office.[9] Netanyahu also stated that he would accept a Palestinian state if Jerusalem were to remain the united capital of Israel, the Palestinians would have no army, and the Palestinians would give up their demand for a right of return to Israel for the Palestinians who live in the Palestinian diaspora. He also claimed the right for a "natural growth" in the existing Jewish settlements in the West Bank while their permanent status is up to further negotiation. In general, the address sounded like a complete turnaround from his previously hawkish positions against the peace process.

On 23 August 2009, Netanyahu announced in his weekly cabinet meeting that negotiations with the Palestinians will begin in September 2009 and will be officially launched on his visit to New York, after he had accepted an invitation from President Barack Obama for a "Triple Summit" there.[10] He added that there is progress with special envoy George Mitchell, though there is no full agreement on everything,[11] and there will be more rounds of meetings until September.[12] On the same day, a spokesman for PA President Mahmoud Abbas said there would be no negotiations so long as Israel continued West Bank settlement construction.[13]

On 20 September 2009, the White House announced that it will host a three-way meeting between President Obama, Prime Minister Netanyahu and PA President Mahmoud Abbas, within the framework of the United Nations General Assembly, "in an effort to lay the groundwork for renewed negotiations on Mideast peace."[14][15] The meeting took place on 22 September, in نيويورك. Afterwards, Netanyahu said that he agreed with Abbas during the meeting that peace talks should be relaunched as soon as possible.[16]

On 25 November 2009, Netanyahu announced a 10 month partial settlement freeze plan, seen as due to pressure from the Obama administration, which urged the sides to seize the opportunity to resume talks. In his announcement Netanyahu called the move "a painful step that will encourage the peace process" and urged the Palestinians to respond.[17] Palestinians rejected the partial freeze as being insignificant, since Israel continued building 3,000 units in the West Bank already approved, and since the partial freeze did not extend to East Jerusalem, which also falls outside Israel's 1967 border.[18] In addition, the Palestinian leadership cited continued Israeli settlement construction, and Israel's failure to remove settlement outposts illegal under Israeli law, as violations of Israel's obligations under the Road Map for Peace.[19]

In August 2010 Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton stated that a Palestinian state is possible to achieve within one year.[20]

A renewed effort to negotiate peace was initiated by the Obama administration by getting the parties involved to agree to direct talks for the first time in a long while.[21] The Barack Obama administration was successful after many months, in part by getting support for direct talks from Egypt and Jordan, in persuading the Palestinians leadership to enter direct talks despite the Palestinian's reluctance caused by continued Israeli settlement construction in the West Bank.[21][22] The aim of the talks was to forge the framework of a final agreement within one year on a two-state solution, although general expectations of a success were fairly low.[21]


محادثات السلام الفلسطينية الإسرائيلية 2010

On September 2, the U.S. launched direct negotiations between Israel and The Palestinian Authority in Washington D.C.[23] On September 14 a second round of Middle East peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority concludes in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.[24] During this process, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas stated that the Palestinians and Israel have agreed on the principle of a land swap. The issue of the ratio of land Israel would give to the Palestinians in exchange for keeping settlement blocs is an issue of dispute, with the Palestinians demanding that the ratio be 1:1, and Israel offering less.[25]

During the direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians, Hamas and Hezbollah reaffirmed to threat peace talks if both sides were matriculated towards any possible agreement. Thirteen Palestinian militant groups led by Hamas initiated a violent campaign to disrupt peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. A series of attacks killed and wounded eight Israelis, including two Israeli pregnant woman, between August and September 2010.

The Israeli government publicly stated that a peace wouldn't exist immediately due to Hamas and Hezbollah presence threatening the progress. The statement thus put the US to estimate a peace may be possible within one more year and making the necessity to focus on eliminating the threat as part of the direct talk progress.[بحاجة لمصدر] Israel is skeptical that once the final agreement is taken place and the responsibility falls on Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, Hamas and Hezbollah would still get support to fuel a new violence. In addition the Israeli government clearly rejected any possible agreement with the Palestinian side as long as the Palestinian side refuses to recognize Israel as a Jewish state.

On September 21, 2010 Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad stormed out of a meeting in New York, which was held as part of the d-Hoc Liaison Committee (AHLC) meetings, and canceled a scheduled joint press conference with the Israeli President Shimon Peres and Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Daniel Ayalon following Ayalon's demand that the meeting summary refer to the notion of "two states for two peoples", rather than just "two states".[26] Ayalon later commented on the event, stating:[27] Ayalon later commented on the event stating that "What I say is that if the Palestinians are not willing to talk about two states for two peoples, let alone a Jewish state for Israel, then there's nothing to talk about."[28]

President Obama indicated in a speech to the United Nations he held on September 23, 2010 that he is hopeful of a diplomatic peace within one year.[29] Contrary to popular belief Israel was not present at the UN speech because of the Jewish Holiday of Sukkot. Israel was not boycotting the speech.

Despite Palestinian and international pressure to extend the Israeli 10 month moratorium in construction of new Israeli settlement homes in the West Bank, on September 26 the 10 month Israeli freeze expired and Israel rejected the demands to extend the freeze.

On October 2, 2010 the Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas states that peace negotiations will not continue until Israel makes a new freeze for the construction of Israeli settlements in the West Bank, thus putting an de facto halt to the current Israel-Palestine peace negotiations.[30]

On October 4, 2010, Netanyahu stated that the Israelis were working behind the scenes with the United States to resolve the issues and resume talks. Israeli sources had said that this would involve a 60 day extension of the freeze.[31][32]

Chief Palestinian negotiator Nabil Shaath accepted a US proposal to extend the West Bank settlement freeze by another two months. Sha'ath said the Palestinians accept such a limited extension provided the two sides can reach an agreement on the borders between Israel and a future Palestine in those two months.[33]

After a meeting in Libya on 8 October 2010, the Arab League leaders annouce their support for Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas's decision to stop peace talks with Israel over the expiration of the 10 month Israeli moratorium on construction in the West Bank.[34] The Arab League also stated that it would give the United States another month to to persuade Israel to renew the settlement moratorium[35] and that "The committee will convene again in a month to study the alternatives".[36]

On 11 October 2010, during a speach at the opening of the third session of the 18th Knesset, Netanyahu stated that he would initiate a cabinet proposal to renew a settlement moratorium if the Palestinian Authority would declare its recognition of Israel as the homeland of the Jewish people.[37] the Palestinian Authority quickly rejected Netanyahu's proposal and stated that the issue of the Jewishness of the state has nothing to do with the matter.[38][39] Speaking on behalf of the Palestinian Authority, chief negotiator Saeb Erekat stated on October 11 that the PA "forcefully reject all these Israeli games. The racist demands of Netanyahu cannot be tied to the request to cease building in the settlements for the purpose of establishing a state."[40]

On 13 October 2010 Yasser Abed Rabbo, the secretary general of the PLO, stated in a press statement that the PLO would recognize Israel as a "Jewish state" in exchange for a sovereign Palestinian state within the 1967 borders which would include East Jerusalem stating that "Any formulation the Americans present – even asking us to call Israel the 'Chinese State' – we will agree to it, as long as we receive the 1967 borders. We have recognized Israel in the past, but Israel has not recognized the Palestinian state." [41] Abed Rabbo's statements were immediately disowned by the Palestinian political factions, mainly because his remark are viewed as conceding the Palestinian refugeese's right of return to Israel. The Fatah movement called for Abed Rabbo's immediate resignation. Palestinian negotiator Nabil Shaath dismissed Abed Rabbo's statements and cliamed that "Abed Rabbo's statements don't represent the views of the PLO or Fatah movement or President Abbas".[42] In addition, the Palestinian government in Gaza called for the immediate resignation of Abed Rabbo.[43]

ردود الفعل

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

دوليات
  •  إيران - On September 3 the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad urged the Palestinians to keep up their armed struggle against Israel stating that "Palestine's issue cannot be resolved through talks with the enemies of the Palestinian nation. Resisting is the only way to rescue the Palestinians". Ahmadinejad also stated that the talks are bound to fail and criticised several muslim leaders for not providing support to the Palestinians in their revolt against Israel.[44] In addition, on September 3 Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki stated that "Some leaders ... who follow America’s orders must understand that they are betraying their nations"[45][46]
  •  لبنان - On September 26 Lebanese President Michel Suleiman warned the international community during a speech he held at the UN General Assembly that Lebanon will not accept any Israeli-Palestinian agreement that goes against its interests and that any future Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement must include Palestinian refugees living in other Arab countries.[47][47]


محليا
  • On September 28, Avigdor Lieberman, the Israeli Foreign Minister and leader of the Yisrael Beiteinu party, addressed the UN General Assembly in which he presented to the UN a "piece plan" according to which "parts of Israel's territory populated predomenantly by Israeli-Arabs would be transferred to a newly created Palestinian state, in return for anextion of Israeli settlements in the West Bank and/or population swap".[48] The statement came about in mids of Israeli prime-minister Netanyahu and Palestnian leader Makhmud Abbas were holding follow-up piece talks involving the US as intermidiator. In the press conference on 28 September Netanyahu stated "Israel, Palestinians can reach Mideast peace in a year".[49] However, according to commentators, Liberman's controversial proposal meant that "the conflict will not be solved within a year and that implementation of the peace agreement will take generations". Lieberman's proposal was viewed as undermining the Netanyahu's credibility in piece talks and caused embarassment for Israeli government. According to New-York Jewish leader "Every time when Lieberman voices sceptisism for piece talks, he gives Abu Mazen [Abbas] and the Arab League an opportunity to reinforce their claim that Netanyahu isn't serious." On 29 September, commenting on Lieberman's proposal Netanyahu said "I didn't see speech beforehand, but I don't reject the idea."[50] >


المصادر

  1. ^ "Obama Settlement Demands Stir Rising Tensions in Israel". Fox News. FOX News. June 3, 2009.
  2. ^ Luis Ramirez (2009-03-02). "Hillary Clinton Begins First Foray Into Israel-Palestinian Conflict". VOA. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
  3. ^ Ravid, Barak (March 3, 2009). "Clinton: Israel's demolition of East Jerusalem homes harms peace efforts". Haaretz.
  4. ^ "Clinton pledges to press for Palestinian state". The Daily Times. March 4, 2009.
  5. ^ "In Israel, Clinton pledges to work with new government". The Associated Press. March 3, 2009.
  6. ^ Rabinovitch, Ari (2009-04-16). "Israel demands Palestinians recognize "Jewish state"". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  7. ^ Rabinovitch, Ari (2009-04-16). "Israel demands Palestinians recognize "Jewish state"". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  8. ^ Jesse Lee (June 3, 2009). "The President in the Middle East". White House. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
  9. ^ Federman, Josef (June 14, 2009). "Netanyahu endorses Palestinian independence". Associated Press. Retrieved June 18, 2009.
  10. ^ Menashe, Chiko (2009-08-23). "פסגה משולשת: נתניהו אובמה ואבו מאזן ייוועדו בחודש הבא בניו יורק" (in Hebrew). Nana10. Retrieved 2009-08-23.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  11. ^ Ravid, Barak (2009-08-23). "Israel hopes for direct peace talks next month". Haaretz. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
  12. ^ Sofer, Roni (2009-08-23). "PM: Talks with Palestinians to resume by end of September". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
  13. ^ Keinon, Herb (2009-08-23). "PM upbeat, Abbas negative, about talks". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2009-08-23. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  14. ^ Gearan, Anne (2009-09-20). "Obama to meet with Netanyahu, Abbas". Google. Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
  15. ^ Benhorin, Yitzhak (2009-09-20). "Obama to hold trilateral summit Tuesday". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2009-09-20.
  16. ^ Ravid, Barak (2009-09-23). "Obama told Netanyahu, Abbas: We all must take risks for peace". Haaretz. Retrieved 2009-09-24. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  17. ^ Sofer, Roni (2009-11-25). "Cabinet votes on 10-month building freeze". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
  18. ^ "Palestinians reject Netanyahu's offer of partial settlement freeze". France 24. 2009-11-26. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
  19. ^ PLO Negotiations Affairs Department, April 2010, "Israel's Violations of the Road Map, Jan 1 - March 31, 2010," http://www.nad-plo.org/news-updates/NSUSummaryIsraeliRMViolations_Jan-Mar2010_.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2010/0924/1224279587104.html
  21. ^ أ ب ت Burns, Robert (2010-09-01). "Obama Opens Long-Shot Talks on Mideast Peace". ABC News. Associated Press.
  22. ^ Landler, Mark (2010-09-05). "In Middle East Peace Talks, Clinton Faces a Crucial Test". The New York Times. p. A1.
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Keinon, Herb. "Second round of peace talks wraps up in Sharm e-Sheikh". Jerusalem Post. Israel. Retrieved September 28, 2010.
  25. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled. "Abbas: Land swap principle reached". Jerusalem Post.
  26. ^ http://www.americanthinker.com/2010/09/the_arabs_are_still_stuck_on_r.html The Arabs Are Still Stuck on Rejection
  27. ^ [2]
  28. ^ http://www.jpost.com/LandedPages/PrintArticle.aspx?id=188883 Fayyad storms out of New York meeting with Ayalon
  29. ^ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/obama-urges-un-to-unite-in-pursuing-israeli-palestinian-peace-deal/article1720685/
  30. ^ [3]
  31. ^ Netanyahu: Israel, U.S. working quietly to resolve peace talks deadlock
  32. ^ Netanyahu trying to convince top ministers to extend settlement freeze
  33. ^ http://www.jpost.com/Headlines/Article.aspx?id=190582 Sha'ath: Palestinians accept US freeze extension proposal
  34. ^ [4]
  35. ^ [5]
  36. ^ [6]
  37. ^ [7]
  38. ^ Palestinians quash PM's offer for renewed building freeze, Jerusalem Post 11-10-2010
  39. ^ Netanyahu offers settlement freeze in return for recognition as Jewish state, Palestinians say no. Haaretz. 11 October 2010.
  40. ^ http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=191083 'Both sides must take steps for negotiations to continue'
  41. ^ [8]
  42. ^ [9]
  43. ^ [10]
  44. ^ [11]
  45. ^ [12]
  46. ^ [13]
  47. ^ أ ب [14]
  48. ^ Lieberman presents plans for population exchange at UN. Haaretz.
  49. ^ Netanyahu: Israel, Palestinians can reach Mideast peace in a year. Haaretz.
  50. ^ U.S. Jews outraged by Lieberman's UN speech on population exchange. Haaretz.

انظر أيضا