گويانا

(تم التحويل من غويانا)
جمهورية گويانا التعاونية

علم گويانا
العلم
الشعار الحادي: "شعب واحد، أمة واحدة، مصير واحد
موقع  گويانا  (dark green)
موقع  گويانا  (dark green)
العاصمة Georgetown
6°46′N 58°10′W / 6.767°N 58.167°W / 6.767; -58.167
أكبر مدينة العاصمة
اللغات الرسمية الإنگليزية
اللغات الإقليمية المعترف بها
Vernacular
language
كريول گوياني
اللغات الأخرى
الجماعات العرقية
(2002)
الدين
[2]
صفة المواطن Guyanese
الحكومة Unitary presidential constitutional socialist republic[3]
David Granger
Moses Nagamootoo
التشريع National Assembly
التشكل
1667–1814
1814–1966
26 May 1966
• جمهورية
23 February 1970
6 October 1980
المساحة
• الإجمالية
214,970 km2 (83,000 sq mi) (83rd)
• الماء (%)
8.4
التعداد
• تقدير 2016
773,303[4] (165th)
• إحصاء 2012
747,884[5]
• الكثافة
3.502/km2 (9.1/sq mi) (232nd or 8th least-densely populated in the world)
ن.م.إ. (ق.ش.م.) تقدير 2016 
• الإجمالي
$6.093 billion[6]
• للفرد
$7,919[6]
ن.م.إ.  (الإسمي) تقدير 2016 
• الإجمالي
$3.456 billion[6]
• للفرد
$4,492[6]
جيني (1998) 44.5[7]
medium
م.ت.ب. (2015)  0.638[8]
medium · 127th
العملة Guyanese dollar (GYD)
التوقيت UTC-4 (GYT (Guyana Time))
جانب السواقة left
مفتاح الهاتف +592
النطاق العلوي للإنترنت .gy

گويانا (تُنطق /ɡˈɑːnə/ أو /ɡˈænə/),[9][10] officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana,[11] هي دولة في أمريكا الجنوبية. كانت تسمي گويانا البريطانية قبل استقلالها وهي واحدة من بلدان ثلاثة كان يطلق على كل منها اسم گويانا ويضاف إليه اسم الدولة المستعمرة لها ومنها جويانا الهولندية ، وأصبح اسمها سورينام وجيانا الفرنسية وابقت على اسمها السابق . وجويانا البريطانية والتي تعرف حالياً بجمهورية جويانا أكبر الجويانات الثلات في المساحة ، إذ تبلغ مساحتها 214969 كيلو متراً مربعاً ، وسكانها في سنة ( 1408 هـ -1988 م ) 1007000 نسمة ، وعاصمة البلاد جورج تاون . ولقد مرت على گويانا مراحل متعددة من الاحتلال ، فوصل إليها الأسبان في سنة 905 هـ - 1499 م ، واحتلها الهولنديين في سنة 1030 هـ - 1620 م ، ثم خضعت لاحتلال بريطانية في سنة 1291 هـ - 1874 م ، وحصلت مستعمرة گويانا البريطانية على حكم ذاتي في سنة 1347 هـ - 1928 م ، ثم نالت استقلالها في سنة 1390 هـ - 1970 م ، وعرفت بعد ذلك بجمهورية گويانا ، وظلت عضو في الكومنولث البريطاني.

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Etymology

The name "Guyana" is derived from Guiana, the original name for the region that formerly included Guyana (British Guiana), Suriname (Dutch Guiana), French Guiana, and parts of Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Guyana is derived from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "land of many waters".[12]


التاريخ

خريطة گويانا الهولندية 1667–1814
خريطة گويانا البريطانية

There are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Macushi, Patamona, Lokono, Kalina, Wapishana, Pemon, Akawaio and Warao.[13] Historically the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus was the first European to sight Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), and Sir Walter Raleigh wrote an account in 1596, the Dutch were the first Europeans to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). After the British assumed control in 1796,[14] the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as گويانا البريطانية.

جورجتاون في 1823

Since its independence in 1824 Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River. سيمون بوليڤار wrote to the British government warning against the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land which the Venezuelans, as assumed heirs of Spanish claims on the area dating to the sixteenth century, claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain. The British territorial claim stemmed from Dutch involvement and colonization of the area also dating to the sixteenth century, which was ceded to the British.

Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth. The US State Department and the US وكالة المخابرات المركزية (CIA), along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time.[15] The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People's National Congress, to the detriment of the Jagan-led People's Progressive Party, which was mostly supported by Guyanese of East Indian background.

In 1978, Guyana received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple, died in a mass murder/suicide drinking cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. However, most of the suicides were by Americans and not Guyanese. More than 300 children were killed; the people were members of a group led by Jim Jones in Jonestown, the settlement which they had created. Jim Jones's bodyguards had earlier attacked people taking off at a small remote airstrip close to Jonestown, killing five people, including Leo Ryan, a US congressman.

In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Guyana has ratified the treaty.


الجغرافيا

الموقع

تطل جويانا على الساحل الشمالي الشرقي لأمريكا الجنوبية المشرف على المحيط الأطلنطي ، وتحدها جمهورية فنزويلا من الغرب ، وسورينام من الشرق ، والبرازيل من الجنوب ، وتقع في حيز النطاق الاستوائي . الأرض تقسم أرض جويانا إلى نطاقات ثلاثة ، فالقسم الأول من أرضها والمطل على الساحل سهلي منخفض ، يصل في يعض مناطقة إلى ما دون مستوي البحر ، ُثم تبدأ الأرض في الأرتفاع التدريجي نحو الجنوب الغربي ، ويغطي هذا القسم بالغابات الأستوائية الكثيفة ، وتبلغ أرض جويانا أقصي ارتفاع لها في الجنوب الغربي ، وهنا ينتقل النطاق النباتي إلى حشائش السافانا ، وبها عدة أنهار قصيرة تصرف مياهها في المحيط الأطلنطي .


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المناخ

استوائي ترتفع حرارته معظم شهور السنة ، ويلطف الماء من حدة حرارة السواحل ، والأمطار غزيرة وتسقط في فصلين ، الأول من إبريل إلى أغسطس ، والثاني من نوفمبر إلى يناير . السكان يتكون سكان جويانا من الهنود والباكستانيين ، وهؤلاء حوالي 55% من جملة سكان البلاد ، ويشكل الأفريقيون ثلث السكان ، وهناك أكثر من 30 ألفاً من الهنود الامريكين ، وهم البقية الباقية من سكان البلاد الاصليين وحوالي 2000 من الأوروبيين ، ويوجد حوالي 10000 من أصل صيني ، والأقلية الباقية خليط من العناصر السابقة . وتعدد العناصر بجويانا سبب التوتر والقلاقل العديدة التي تشهدها البلاد ، وتستعمل اللغتان الإنجليزية والهندية ( الآسيوية ) والبعض يستعمل اللغتين الصينية والبرتغالية .

مجالس المناطق والأحياء

تنقسم گويانا إلى 10 مناطق:[16][17]

No المنطقة المساحة كم² التعداد
(إحصاء 2012)
الكثافة السكانية
لكل كم²
1 باريما-وايني 20,339 26,941 1.32
2 Pomeroon-Supenaam 6,195 46,810 7.56
3 Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 3,755 107,416 28.61
4 Demerara-Mahaica 2,232 313,429 140.43
5 Mahaica-Berbice 4,190 49,723 11.87
6 East Berbice-Corentyne 36,234 109,431 3.02
7 Cuyuni-Mazaruni 47,213 20,280 0.43
8 Potaro-Siparuni 20,051 10,190 0.51
9 Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo 57,750 24,212 0.42
10 Upper Demerara-Berbice 17,040 39,452 2.32
الإجمالي 214,999 747,884 3.48

The regions are divided into 27 neighbourhood councils.[18]

النزاعات الحدودية

World Heritage sites

Kaieteur Falls is the world's largest single-drop waterfall by volume.

الاقتصاد

جرار في حقل أرز في السهل الساحلي بگويانا.
تصوير بياني لصادرات گويانا في 28 تصنيف مميز بألوان

The main economic activities in Guyana are agriculture (production of rice and Demerara sugar), bauxite and gold mining, timber, shrimp fishing and minerals. In 2015 the first of several significant deep water oil discoveries were found, which will have a significant effect on the economy. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labour and a deficient infrastructure. In 2008, the economy witnessed a 3% increase in growth amid the global economic crisis, grew an impressive 5.4% in 2011 and 3.7% in 2012.

Until recently, the government was juggling a sizeable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. Low prices for key mining and agricultural commodities combined with troubles in the bauxite and sugar industries, had threatened the government's tenuous fiscal position and dimmed prospects for the future. However, the Guyanese economy has rebounded slightly and exhibited moderate economic growth since 1999, thanks to an expansion in the agricultural and mining sectors, a more favourable atmosphere for business initiatives, a more realistic exchange rate, fairly low inflation, and the continued support of international organisations.

The sugar industry, which accounts for 28% of all export earnings, is largely run by the company GuySuCo, which employs more people than any other industry. Many industries have a large foreign investment. For example, the mineral industry is heavily invested in by the American company Reynolds Metals and the British-Australian Rio Tinto's Rio Tinto Alcan subsidiary; the Korean/Malaysian Barama Company has a large stake in the logging industry.

The production of balatá (natural latex) was once big business in Guyana. Most of the balata bleeding in Guyana took place in the foothills of the Kanuku Mountains in the Rupununi. Early exploitation also took place in the North West District, but most of the trees in the area were destroyed by illicit bleeding methods that involved cutting down the trees rather than making incisions in them. Uses of balatá included the making of cricket balls, the temporary filling of troublesome tooth cavities, and the crafting of figurines and other decorative items (particularly by the Macushi people of the Kanuku mountains).

Major private sector organisations include the Private Sector Commission (PSC)[19] and the Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI);[20]

The government initiated a major overhaul of the tax code in early 2007. ضريبة القيمة المضافة (VAT) was brought into effect, replacing six different taxes. Prior to the implementation of the VAT, it had been relatively easy to evade sales tax, and many businesses were in violation of tax code. Many businesses were very opposed to VAT introduction because of the extra paperwork required; however, the Government has remained firm on the VAT. By replacing several taxes with one flat tax rate, it will also be easier for government auditors to spot embezzlement. This was prevalent under the former PPP/C regime who authorised the VAT to be equal to 50% of the value of the good. While the adjustment to VAT has been difficult, it may improve day-to-day life because of the significant additional funds the government will have available for public spending.

President Bharrat Jagdeo had made debt relief a foremost priority of his administration. He was quite successful, getting US$800 million of debt written off by the صندوق النقد الدولي (IMF), البنك الدولي وInter-American Development Bank (IDB), in addition to millions more from other industrial nations. Jagdeo was lauded by IDB President Moreno for his strong leadership and negotiating skills in pursuing debt relief for Guyana and several other regional countries.


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ملخص

Thatched roof houses in Guyana

النشاط البشري

الزراعة والتعدين دعامة اقتصاد جويانا وتشغل الزراعة 1% من جملة مساحة الأرض ، وأهم الغلات قصب السكر والأرز ،ويزرع الموز ، والذرة وجوز الهند في مساحات محدودة والماشية هي من الأغنام والماعز وجويانا من أهم الدول المنتجة لخام البوكسيت ، ويشغل الألمنيوم المركز الثاني في صادراتها ، ويصنع الألمنيوم محلياً ، ووضعت عدة محاولات لتصنيعة والتقليل من تصديره خاماً ، وبلغ إنتاجها السنوي من الذهب 11000 أوقية ، ومن الماس 10200 قيراط ، هذا إلى جانب المنغنيز ، كما يستخرج النحاس واليورانيوم .


Largest cities

Largest cities and towns of Guyana[22]
Rank Name Region Population
1 Georgetown Demerara-Mahaica 235,017
2 Linden Upper Demerara-Berbice 44,690
3 New Amsterdam East Berbice-Corentyne 35,039
4 Anna Regina Pomeroon-Supenaam 12,448
5 Bartica Cuyuni-Mazaruni 11,157
6 Skeldon East Berbice-Corentyne 5,859
7 Rosignol Mahaica-Berbice 5,782
8 Mahaica (village) Demerara-Mahaica 4,867
9 Parika Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 4,081
10 Vreed en Hoop Demerara-Mahaica 3,073

Language

English is the official language of Guyana and is used for education, government, media, and services. The vast majority of the population speaks Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole with slight African and East Indian influence, as their native tongue.[23] In addition, Cariban languages (Akawaio, Wai-Wai, and Macushi) are spoken by a small minority, while Indic languages are retained for cultural and religious reasons.

Religion

Religion in Guyana (2012 census)[24]

  Pentecostal (23%)
  Anglican (5%)
  Methodist (1%)
  Other Christians[أ] (21%)
  Hindu (25%)
  Muslim (7%)
  Other (3%)
  Irreligious (3%)

Government and politics

قالب:Refimprove section

The State House, Guyana's presidential residence
The Supreme Court of Guyana
Guyana's parliament building since 1834

Telecommunications

قالب:CIA-Sect Per the CIA World Factbook:[21]

Telephone system

  • Telephones : 154,200 main telephone lines (2012)
  • Telephones – mobile cellular: 600,000+ (2014)
  • Domestic: microwave radio relay network for trunk lines; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 70 per 100 persons in 2011
  • International: country code – 592; tropospheric scatter to Trinidad; satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Guyana Telephone & Telegraph (GT&T) is the main mobile phone provider[25][26][27]

Digicel is also present in Guyana since 2007 providing mobile service for its citizens

Internet system

Culture

Holidays
1 January New Year's Day
Spring Youman Nabi
23 February Republic Day / Mashramani
March Phagwah
March / April Good Friday
March / April Easter Sunday
1 May Labour Day
5 May Indian Arrival Day
26 May Independence Day
First Monday in July CARICOM Day
1 August Emancipation Day
October / November Diwali
25 December Christmas
26 or 27 December Boxing Day


المصدر

  • الأقليات المسلمة في الامريكتين والبحر الكاريبي – سيد عبد المجيد بكر .

انظر أيضاً

Notes

  1. ^ Mostly made up of other Protestants, but also Eastern Orthodox, Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses and other Christians.

References

  1. ^ "CHAPTER II: POPULATION COMPOSITION" (PDF). StatisticsGuyana. Government of Guyana.
  2. ^ "Chapter Ii" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  3. ^ قالب:Cite constitution
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  5. ^ Guyana 2012 Census Archived 6 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. GeoHive– Guyana. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  6. ^ أ ب ت ث "Guyana". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  8. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  9. ^ Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. ISBN 0-582-05383-8. entry "Guyana"
  10. ^ "Guyana – Dictionary definition and pronunciation – Yahoo! Education". Education.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Independent States in the World". state.gov.
  12. ^ "Guyana". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  13. ^ "Ministry of Amerindian Affairs – Georgetown, Guyana". Amerindian.gov.gy. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  14. ^ "South America 1744–1817 by Sanderson Beck".
  15. ^ US Declassified Documents (1964–1968). guyana.org Archived 12 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Bureau of Statistics – Guyana Archived 2 September 2012 at WebCite, CHAPTER III: POPULATION REDISTRIBUTION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION, Table 3.4: Population Density, Guyana: 1980–2002
  17. ^ Guyana – Government Information Agency, National Profile. gina.gov.gy Archived 14 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ "Government of Guyana, Statistics" (PDF). Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  19. ^ RedSpider, Romona Khan. "Private Sector Commission". Psc.org.gy. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  20. ^ "Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI)". Georgetownchamberofcommerce.org. Archived from the original on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  21. ^ أ ب "The World Factbook: Guyana". CIA. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  22. ^ "Biggest Cities Guyana".
  23. ^ Damoiseau, Robert (2003) Eléments de grammaire comparée français-créole guyanais Ibis rouge, Guyana, ISBN 2-84450-192-3
  24. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.state.gov.
  25. ^ Guyana Telephone & Telegraph Chooses Comverse for Business Transformation. MarketWatch.com (5 July 2011)
  26. ^ "Guyana Telephone & Telegraph Taps Comverse". Billingworld.com. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  27. ^ "Guyana Telephone & Telegraph Chooses Comverse for Business Transformation". Iewy.com. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
  28. ^ "World Factbook: Guyana". CIA. Retrieved 24 January 2016.

Further reading

  • Brock, Stanley E. (1999). All the Cowboys Were Indians (Commemorative, illustrated (reprint of Jungle Cowboy) ed.). Lenoir City, TN: Synergy South, Inc. ISBN 978-1-892329-00-4. OCLC 51089880. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  • Brock, Stanley E. (1972). Jungle Cowboy (illustrated ed.). London: Robert Hale Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7091-2972-1. OCLC 650259. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  • Donald Haack, Bush Pilot in Diamond Country
  • Hamish MacInnes, Climb to the Lost World (1974)
  • Andrew Salkey, Georgetown Journal (1970)
  • Marion Morrison, Guyana (Enchantment of the World Series)
  • Bob Temple, Guyana
  • Noel C. Bacchus, Guyana Farewell: A Recollection of Childhood in a Faraway Place
  • Marcus Colchester, Guyana: Fragile Frontier
  • Matthew French Young, Guyana: My Fifty Years in the Guyanese Wilds
  • Margaret Bacon, Journey to Guyana
  • Father Andrew Morrison SJ, Justice: The Struggle For Democracy in Guyana 1952–1992
  • Daly, Vere T. (1974). The Making of Guyana. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-14482-4. OCLC 1257829. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  • D. Graham Burnett, Masters of All They Surveyed: Exploration, Geography and a British El Dorado
  • Ovid Abrams, Metegee: The History and Culture of Guyana
  • Waugh, Evelyn (1934). Ninety-two days: The account of a tropical journey through British Guiana and part of Brazil. New York: Farrar & Rinehart. OCLC 3000330. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  • Gerald Durrell, Three Singles To Adventure
  • Cheddi Jagan. The West on Trial: My Fight for Guyana's Freedom
  • Cheddi Jagan. My Fight For Guyana's Freedom: With Reflections on My Father by Nadira Jagan-Brancier.
  • Colin Henfrey, Through Indian Eyes: A Journey Among the Indian Tribes of Guiana.
  • Stephen G. Rabe, US Intervention in British Guiana: A Cold War Story.
  • Charles Waterton, Wanderings in South America.
  • David Attenborough, Zoo Quest to Guiana (Lutterworth Press, London: 1956).
  • John Gimlette, Wild Coast: Travels on South America's Untamed Edge, 2011.
  • Clementi, Cecil (1915). The Chinese in British Guiana (PDF). Georgetown, British Guiana: The Argosy Company Limited. Retrieved 27 October 2015.

External links

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).