اقتصاد موزمبيق

اقتصاد موزمبيق
Buildings in Maputo.jpg
ماپوتو، capital and financial center of Mozambique
العملة متيكال موزمبيقي (MZN)
Calendar Year
منظمات التجارة
AU, African Development Bank, SADC, World Bank, IMF, WTO, Group of 77
احصائيات
ن.م.إ $26.69 billion (PPP) (تقدير 2012)
Rank: 119 (تقدير 2012)
نمو ن.م.إ
7.5% (تقدير 2012)
ن.م.إ للفرد
$1,200 (PPP) (تقدير 2012)
Rank: 212 (تقدير 2012)
ن.م.إ للفرد
agriculture (29.5%)
industry (23.9%)
services (46.5%) (تقدير 2012)
2.1% (تقدير 2012)
السكان تحت خط الفقر
52% (تقدير 2012)
القوة العاملة
10.1 million (تقدير 2012)
القوة العاملة حسب المهنة
agriculture (77%)
industry (8%)
services (15%) (تقدير 2007)
البطالة 17% (تقدير 2007)
الصناعات الرئيسية
aluminum, coal, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), cement, asbestos, glass, textiles, tobacco, food processing, beverages
139th[1]
الخارجي
الصادرات $3.469 billion (2012 est.)
السلع التصديرية
aluminum, coal, bulk electricity, lumber, cotton, prawns, cashews, sugar, citrus
شركاء التصدير الرئيسيين
 جنوب أفريقيا 30.5%
 إيطاليا 9.8%
 الصين 9.4%
 بلجيكا 8%
 إسپانيا 6.1%
 الهند 5.1% (2013 est.)[2]
الواردات $6.167 billion (2012 est.)
السلعة المستوردة
fuel, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, metal products, textiles, food
شركاء الاستيراد الرئيسيين
 جنوب أفريقيا 26%
 الهند 13.9%
 الصين 12.6%
 الپرتغال 4.5%
 أستراليا 4.3% (2013 est.)[3]
$7.79 billion (تقدير 2014)
المالية العامة
34.6% of GDP (تقدير 2014)
-4.0% of GDP (تقدير 2012)
العوائد $4.315 billion (تقدير 2012)
النفقات $4.904 billion (تقدير 2012)
Standard & Poor's:[4]
B+ (Domestic)
B+ (Foreign)
B+ (T&C Assessment)
Outlook: Stable[5]
Fitch:[5]
B
Outlook: Stable
احتياطيات العملات الأجنبية
$2.77 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
المصدر الرئيسي للبيانات: CIA World Fact Book
كل القيم، ما لم يُذكر غير ذلك، هي بالدولار الأمريكي.

اقتصاد موزمبيق تطور منذ انتهاء الحرب الأهلية الموزمبيقية (1977–1992)، إلا أن البلد مازال واحداً من أفقر بلدان العالم وأكثر تخلفاً. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was brought to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-02. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and a large majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the MOZAL aluminium smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date has increased export earnings. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing should further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the International Monetary Fund's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.

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التاريخ

الحكم البرتغالي

موزمبيق المستقلة

GDP per capita (current), compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100)


القطاعات

الغاز والنفط

The L-shaped recovery with low oil prices in the coming years. المصدر: RisCura: Bright Africa


وفي 1 يناير 2019، أعلنت شركة إكسون موبل موافقتها على المشاركة في مشروع روڤوما لإسالة الغاز بقدرة 15.2 مليون طن سنوياً، مع شركة إني. الانتاج سيبدأ في 2024.[6]


السياحة

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الاتصالات

إحصائيات

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.95 billion (2008 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2002 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $900 (2008 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23.4% (2008 est.)
industry: 30.7% (2008 est.)
services: 45.9% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.1% (2002)
highest 10%: 39.4% (2002)

Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47.3 (2002)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.2% (2008 est.)

القوة العاملة: 10.04 million (2008 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)

معدل البطالة: 21% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.786 billion (2008 est.)
expenditures: $3.108 billion (2008 est.)

الصناعات: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminium, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2008 est.)

Electricity - production: 14.62 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 9.555 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - exports: 12.83 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity - imports: 9.839 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption: 14,390 برميل/ي (2,288 م3/ي) (2006 est.)

Oil - proved reserves: 0 برميل (0 م3) (1 January 2006 est.)

Natural gas - production: 1.65 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas - consumption: 1.45 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves: 127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugar cane, tea, cassava (tapioca), coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits; potatoes, sunflowers, beef, poultry

Exports: $2.693 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity

Exports - partners: Italy 19.4%, Belgium 18.4%, Spain 12.5%, South Africa 12.3%, UK 7.3%, China 4.1% (2007)

Imports: $3.292 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: South Africa 36.7%, Australia 8.5%, China 4.6% (2007)

Debt - external: $4.316 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Currency: 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 24.125 (2008 est.), 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006)

Fiscal year: calendar year

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ "Doing Business in Mozambique 2012". World Bank. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
  2. ^ "Export Partners of Mozambique". CIA World Factbook. 2013. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
  3. ^ "Import Partners of Mozambique". CIA World Factbook. 2013. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
  4. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  5. ^ أ ب Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (15 April 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  6. ^ Irina Slav (2019-01-01). "Will Exxon Greenlight This Huge LNG Project?". OilPrice.

CIA.svg This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the المشاع.


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وصلات خارجية