اقتصاد المكسيك

اقتصاد Mexico
Ciudad.de.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Paseo.Reforma.Skyline.jpg
Mexico City is the most important financial and economic center in Mexico
العملة Mexican peso (MXN$)
1 US$ = 18.10 MXN (2018)
Calendar
منظمات التجارة
APEC, NAFTA, OECD and WTO
احصائيات
ن.م.إ

$1.147 trillion (nominal; 2017)[1]

$2.4 trillion (PPP; 2017))[2]
ترتيب ن.م.إ 15th (nominal) / 11th (PPP)
نمو ن.م.إ
3.3% (2015), 2.9% (2016),
2.0% (2017f), 2.3% (2018f)
ن.م.إ للفرد

$8,700 (2016) (nominal)[3]

$18,900 (2016) (PPP)[3]
ن.م.إ للفرد
agriculture: 3.6%, industry: 36.6%, services: 59.8% (2013 est.)[4]
2.5% (2015 est.)
السكان تحت خط الفقر
42,3% (2017)[5][6]
53.6 (2017) [7]
القوة العاملة
53 million (2015 est.)
القوة العاملة حسب المهنة
agriculture: 13.4%, industry: 24.1%, services: 61.9% (2011)
البطالة 3.44% (2017)
الصناعات الرئيسية
49th (2018)[8]
الخارجي
الصادرات $406.5 billion (2017 est.)[9]
السلع التصديرية
automobiles, electronics, televisions, computers, mobile phones, LCDs, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton.
شركاء التصدير الرئيسيين
 الولايات المتحدة 80.3%
 كندا 2.7%
 الصين 1.5%
 إسپانيا 1.5%
 البرازيل 1.2% (2014 est.)[10]
الواردات $417.3 billion (2017 est.)[9]
السلعة المستوردة
metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, metals, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts, oil production equipment
شركاء الاستيراد الرئيسيين
 الولايات المتحدة 49.0%
 الصين 16.6%
 اليابان 4.4%
 Germany 3.4%
 كوريا الجنوبية 3.4% (2014 est.)[10]
المالية العامة
$341 billion (2010)[11] / 47.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
العوائد $234.3 billion (2010 est.)[11]
النفقات $263.8 billion (2010 est.)[11]
المعونات الاقتصادية $189.4 million (2008)
احتياطيات العملات الأجنبية
$179.314 billion (January 2018)[14]
المصدر الرئيسي للبيانات: CIA World Fact Book
كل القيم، ما لم يُذكر غير ذلك، هي بالدولار الأمريكي.

The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund.[15] Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6% in that year.

The Mexican economy has had an unprecedented macroeconomic stability, which has reduced inflation and interest rates to record lows and has increased per capita income. In spite of this, enormous gaps remain between the urban and the rural population, the northern and southern states, and the rich and the poor.[16] Some of the unresolved issues include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality. Tax revenues, all together 19.6 percent of GDP in 2013, are the lowest among the 34 OECD countries.[17]

The economy contains rapidly developing modern industrial and service sectors, with increasing private ownership. Recent administrations have expanded competition in ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports, with the aim of upgrading infrastructure. As an export-oriented economy, more than 90% of Mexican trade is under free trade agreements (FTAs) with more than 40 countries, including the European Union, Japan, Israel, and much of Central and South America. The most influential FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect in 1994, and was signed in 1992 by the governments of the United States, Canada and Mexico. In 2006, trade with Mexico's two northern partners accounted for almost 90% of its exports and 55% of its imports.[18] Recently, the Congress of the Union approved important tax, pension and judicial reforms, and reform to the oil industry is currently being debated. Mexico had 15 companies in the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2016.[19]

Mexico's labor force is 52.8 million as of 2015.[20] The OECD and WTO both rank Mexican workers as the hardest-working in the world in terms of the amount of hours worked yearly, although profitability per man-hour remains low.[21][22][23][24][25]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

History

Porfirio Díaz, (1876–1911) in whose presidency rapid industrialization took place in foreign capital.

Mexican president Porfirio Díaz brought unprecedented economic growth during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. This growth was accompanied by foreign investment and European immigration, the development of an efficient railroad network and the exploitation of the country's natural resources. Annual economic growth between 1876 and 1910 averaged 3.3%.[26]

Political repression and fraud, as well as huge income (in)equalities exacerbated by the land distribution system based on latifundios, in which large haciendas were owned by a few but worked by millions of underpaid peasants living in precarious conditions, led to the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920), an armed conflict that drastically transformed Mexico's political, social, cultural, and economical structure during the twentieth century under a premise of social democracy. The war itself left a harsh toll on the economy and population, which decreased over the 11-year period between 1910 and 1921.[بحاجة لمصدر] The reconstruction of the country was to take place in the following decades.


Average annual GDP growth by period
1900–1929 3.4%
1929–1945 4.2%
1945–1972 6.5%
1972–1981 5.5%
1981–1995 1.5%
1983 Debt Crisis -4.2%
1995 Peso Crisis -6.2%
1995–2000 5.1%
2001 US Recession -0.2%
2009 Great Recession -6.5%
Sources:[3][27][28][29]


Macroeconomic, financial and welfare indicators

GDP per capita PPP US $16,900 (2012–15)
GNI per capita PPP US $16,500 (2012–15)
Inflation (CPI) 2.21% (November 2015)
Gini index 47.0 (World Bank 2012)
Unemployment 5.5% (April 2010)
HDI 0.770 (2011)
Labor force 78.4 million (2011)
Pop. in poverty 13.8%

Main indicators

Poverty

Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than $1.25 per day. Based on 2009 UN Human Development Report.

Income inequality

The GDP per capita of Mexican States in USD, 2012.


Regional economies


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Agriculture

History

Food and agriculture
Puebla farmers.jpg
Farmers in Puebla
Product Quantity (Tm) World Rank1
Avocados 1,040,390 1
Onions and chayote 1,130,660 1
Limes and lemons 1,824,890 1
Sunflower seed 212,765 1
Dry fruits 95,150 2
Papaya 955,694 2
Chillies and peppers 1,853,610 2
Whole beans 93 000 3
Oranges 3,969,810 3
Anise, badian, fennel 32 500 3
Chicken meat 2,245,000 3
Asparagus 67,247 4
Mangoes 1.503.010 4
Corn 20,000,000 4
1Source:FAO[30]


Industry

Industrial production
Main industries Aircraft, automobile industry, petrochemicals, cement and construction, textiles, food and beverages, mining, consumer durables, tourism
Industrial growth rate 3.6% (2006)
Labor force 29% of total labor force
GDP of sector 25.7% of total GDP

OEM and ODM manufacturing

A Lanix LT10.1 high definition LCD assembled under OEM contract by Lanix for use in a Sharp LCD television.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Engineering and Design

[[File:ITESM Ciudad de México Set Dominguez.jpg|thumb|200px|The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education

Domestic Industry

[[File:LANIX W10 SLATE.jpg|thumb|Lanix W10 Ilium Tablet PC.]]


Oil

A Pemex offshore oil platform just off the coast of Ciudad del Carmen.

Mineral resources are the "nation's property" (i.e. public property) by constitution. As such, the energy sector is administered by the government with varying degrees of private investment. Mexico is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world, with 3,700,000 برميل لكل يوم (590,000 م3/ي).[31] Pemex, the public company in charge of administering research, exploration and sales of oil, is the largest company (oil or otherwise) in Mexico, and the second largest in Latin America after Brazil's Petrobras.[32] Pemex is heavily taxed of almost 62 per cent of the company's sales, a significant source of revenue for the government.[27]


Government

Monetary and financial system and regulation

Banco de México

Financial indicators
BankofMexicoBuilding.JPG
Banco de México headquarters
Currency exchange rate 12.74 MXN per US$1 (03/03/2010)
Reserves US $176.579 billion (2013)[33]
Government budget US $196.5 billion (revenues)
Public debt 20.7% of GDP (2006)
External debt US $178.3 billion (2006)
Bank funding rate 5.25% (5/15/2009)

Banco de México is Mexico's central bank, an internally autonomous public institution whose governor is appointed by the president and approved by the legislature to which it is fully responsible. Banco de México's functions are outlined in the 28th article of the constitution and further expanded in the Monetary Law of the United Mexican States.[34] Banco de México's main objective is to achieve stability in the purchasing power of the national currency. It is also the lender of last resort.

Currency policy

Mexico has a floating exchange rate regime.


Monetary system

Mexico’s monetary policy was revised following the 1994–95 financial crisis, when officials decided that maintaining general price stability was the best way to contribute to the sustained growth of employment and economic activity. As a result, Banco de México has as its primary objective maintaining stability in the purchasing power of the peso. It sets an inflation target, which requires it to establish corresponding quantitative targets for the growth of the monetary base and for the expansion of net domestic credit.


Trade

International trade
Torre wtc mexico.jpg
World Trade Center in Mexico City
Exports US $248.8 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Imports US $253.1 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Current account US $400.1 million (2006)
Export partners US 90.9%, Canada 2.2%, Spain 1.4%, Germany 1.3%, Colombia 0.9% (2006)
Import partners US 53.4%, China 8%, Japan 5.9% (2005)

North American Trade Agreement

The NAFTA emblem

The North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is by far the most important Trade Agreement Mexico has signed both in the magnitude of reciprocal trade with its partners as well as in its scope. Unlike the rest of the Free Trade Agreements that Mexico has signed, NAFTA is more comprehensive in its scope and was complemented by the North American Agreement for Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC).

See also

== المراجع ==

  1. ^ قالب:Cite ]web
  2. ^ ""Gross domestic product 2014, PPP",". World Bank. July 2, 2016.
  3. ^ أ ب ت "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2011-04-16.
  4. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  5. ^ "The World Bank".
  6. ^ "Population Below Poverty Line". The World Factbook.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  8. ^ "Ease of Doing Business in Mexico". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved November 24, 2017.
  9. ^ أ ب "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  10. ^ أ ب "Mexico: Country Analysis". World Bank. 2014. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  11. ^ أ ب ت "Mexico. Secretary of Hacienda and Public Credit (exchange rate from cia factbook)". Apartados.hacienda.gob.mx. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-16.
  12. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  13. ^ أ ب ت Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (April 15, 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
  14. ^ "International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity – MEXICO". International Monetary Fund. May 18, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  15. ^ List of countries by GDP (nominal)
  16. ^ "Mexico, World Bank's Country Brief". Retrieved February 19, 2007.
  17. ^ OECD: Compare your country by tax rate, access date 13 December 2014
  18. ^ Mexico. The World Factbook. CIA.
  19. ^ "The World's Biggest Public Companies". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-08-06.
  20. ^ "COUNTRY COMPARISON :: LABOR FORCE". CIA World Factbook. 2015. Archived from the original on May 30, 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  21. ^ "The Hardest Working Countries In The World". Business Insider. April 13, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  22. ^ "What country works the most each day?". CNN. April 13, 2011. Archived from the original on December 6, 2011.
  23. ^ Thomas, Leigh (April 12, 2011). "Hard-working Mexicans upstage other OECD nations". Reuters.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ Booth, William (May 3, 2011). "Siesta? What siesta? Mexicans work longest hours in world". The Washington Post.
  26. ^ "Desarrollo Económico" (in الإسبانية). Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
  27. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Crandall
  28. ^ Cruz Vasconcelos, Gerardo. "Desempeño Histórico 1914–2004" (PDF) (in الإسبانية). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 14, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
  29. ^ "IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2010". Retrieved 2010-07-24.
  30. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة FAO
  31. ^ Energy Information Administration. "Top World Oil Net Exporters and Producers". Archived from the original on February 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16.
  32. ^ Poder 360. "Top Latin America Marching to a Brazilian Beat". Archived from the original on April 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
  33. ^ "Reserva Internacional Registro" (in الإسبانية). Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  34. ^ "Ley Monetaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF) (in الإسبانية). Retrieved 2007-05-29.

وصلات خارجية