مجلس حقوق الإنسان التابع للأمم المتحدة

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية
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تأسس مجلس حقوق الإنسان تبعًا لقرار الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة رقم (GA res. 60/251) لعام 2006، ليحل محل لجنة حقوق الإنسان المنتهية ولايتها بتأسيس المجلس الذي يعد سلطة أعلى في نظام الأمم المتحدة نظراً لتبعيته المباشرة للجمعية العامة وليس للمجلس الاجتماعي الاقتصادي كسابقته (اللجنة).

تحددت صلاحيات المجلس في نشر الاحترام العالمي للمبادئ الدولية لحقوق الإنسان والحريات الأساسية، بدون تمييز من أي نوع وبشكل عادل ومتساوي للجميع، كما يراقب المجلس انتهاكات حقوق الإنسان وخاصة الانتهاكات الجسيمة والمنتظمة التكرار وتقديم التوصيات اللازمة لوقف مثل هذه انتهاكات أو الحد منها، ويعمل المجلس في ذات الوقت على نشر ثقافة حقوق الإنسان والتأكيد على أهمية الوعي العام بأساسيات الحريات العامة والخاصة للشعوب.[1]

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الهيكل العام

يعد مجلس حقوق الإنسان جهاز يتبع الجمعية العامة، يجتمع ثلاث مرات على الأقل خلال العام الواحد ولمدة لا تقل عن العشر أسابيع. للمجلس الحق في عقد دورات خاصة بطلب من إحدى الدول الأعضاء في الأمم المتحدة ودعم من ثلثي المجلس.


العضوية

يتكون المجلس من 47 عضواً منتخبًا من قبل الجمعية العامة، كما يتم تحديد العضوية تبعًا للتوزيع الجغرافي: 13 مقعداً لأفريقيا 13 مقعداً لآسيا 6 مقاعد لأوروبا الشرقية 8 مقاعد لأمريكا اللاتينية والكاريبي 7 مقاعد لأوروبا الغربية ودول أخرى - أمريكا، كندا، أستراليا، نيوزيلاندا. مدة العضوية ثلاث سنوات وللدولة الترشح للعضوية مرتين متتاليتين فقط.

Members of the UNHRC are elected to staggered three-year terms. The first election of members was held on 9 May 2006.[2] The current members, with the year that the mandate expires in parentheses, are the following, re-elected members are in italics:

African States (13) Asian States (13) Eastern European States (6) Latin American & Caribbean States (8) Western European & Other States (7)
Flag of أنگولا أنگولا (2010) Flag of البحرين البحرين (2011) Flag of أذربيجان أذربيجان (2009) Flag of الأرجنتين الأرجنتين (2011) Flag of كندا كندا (2009)
Flag of بوركينا فاسو بوركينا فاسو (2011) Flag of بنگلادش بنگلادش (2009) Flag of البوسنة والهرسك البوسنة والهرسك (2010) Flag of بوليڤيا بوليڤيا (2010) Flag of فرنسا فرنسا (2011)
Flag of الكاميرون الكاميرون (2009) Flag of الصين الصين (2009) Flag of روسيا روسيا (2009) Flag of البرازيل البرازيل (2011) Flag of ألمانيا ألمانيا (2009)
Flag of جيبوتي جيبوتي (2009) Flag of الهند الهند (2010) Flag of سلوڤاكيا سلوڤاكيا (2011) Flag of تشيلي تشيلي (2011) Flag of إيطاليا إيطاليا (2010)
Flag of مصر مصر (2010) Flag of إندونيسيا إندونيسيا (2010) Flag of سلوڤنيا سلوڤنيا (2010) Flag of كوبا كوبا (2009) Flag of هولندا هولندا (2010)
Flag of الگابون الگابون (2011) Flag of اليابان اليابان (2011) Flag of أوكرانيا أوكرانيا (2011) Flag of المكسيك المكسيك (2009) Flag of سويسرا سويسرا (2009)
Flag of غانا غانا (2011) Flag of الأردن الأردن (2009) Flag of نيكاراگوا نيكاراگوا (2010) Flag of المملكة المتحدة المملكة المتحدة (2011)
Flag of مدغشقر مدغشقر (2010) Flag of ماليزيا ماليزيا (2009) Flag of أوروگواي أوروگواي (2009)
Flag of موريشيوس موريشيوس (2009) Flag of پاكستان پاكستان (2011)
Flag of نيجريا نيجريا (2009) Flag of الفلپين الفلپين (2010)
Flag of السنغال السنغال (2009) Flag of قطر قطر (2010)
Flag of جنوب أفريقيا جنوب أفريقيا (2010) Flag of السعودية السعودية (2009)
Flag of زامبيا زامبيا (2011) Flag of كوريا الجنوبية كوريا الجنوبية (2011)


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الرؤساء

اتهامات التحيز ضد إسرائيل

ريتشارد فولك

ريتشارد فولك, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on "the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied"[4] said that the actions of Israel in the Palestinian territories to be unprecedented and found that it has produced immense suffering for Palestinians. He argues that it would not be forgivable if the Human Rights Council overlooked charges of Israeli violation of international humanitarian law. He notes that the HRC has appointed special rapporteurs for other situations, including the DPRK and Myanmar. Falk says that his experience suggests that the Council gives complete freedom to its special rapporteurs to report on a situation and expects adherence to principles of impartiality. [5] Other observers take the view that the Human Rights Council's has an obligation to condemn Israel's violations of international law in keeping with the basic mission of the Council, which is to safeguard human rights. [6]

The council voted on 30 June 2006 to make a review of possible human rights abuses by Israel a permanent feature of every council session. The Council’s special rapporteur on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is its only expert mandate with no year of expiry. The resolution, which was sponsored by Organization of the Islamic Conference, passed by a vote of 29 to 12 with five abstentions. Human Rights Watch urged it to look at international human rights and humanitarian law violations committed by Palestinian armed groups as well. Human Rights Watch called on the Council to avoid the selectivity that discredited its predecessor and urged it to hold special sessions on other urgent situations, such as that in Darfur.[7]

حرب لبنان 2006

At its Second Special Session in August 2006, the Council announced the establishment of a High-Level Commission of Inquiry charged with probing allegations that Israel systematically targeted and killed Lebanese civilians during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.[8] The resolution was passed by a vote of 27 in favour to 11 against, with 8 abstentions. Before and after the vote several member states and NGOs objected that by targeting the resolution solely at Israel and failing to address Hezbollah attacks on Israeli civilians, the Council risked damaging its credibility. The members of the Commission of Inquiry, as announced on 1 September 2006, are Clemente Baena Soares of Brazil, Mohamed Chande Othman of Tanzania, and Stelios Perrakis of Greece. The Commission noted that its report on the conflict would be incomplete without fully investigating both sides, but that "the Commission is not entitled, even if it had wished, to construe [its charter] as equally authorizing the investigation of the actions by Hezbollah in Israel,"[9] as the Council had explicitly prohibited it from investigating the actions of Hezbollah.


انتباه "غير متناسب"

On 29 November 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan criticised the Human Rights Council for "disproportionate focus on violations by Israel" while neglecting other parts of the world such as Darfur, which had what he termed "graver" crises.[10][11]

Annan reiterated this position in his formal address on 8 December 2006 (International Human Rights Day). Annan argued that the Commission should not have a "disproportionate focus on violations by Israel. Not that Israel should be given a free pass. Absolutely not. But the Council should give the same attention to grave violations committed by other states as well."[12]

On 20 June 2007, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon issued a statement that read: "The Secretary-General is disappointed at the council's decision to single out only one specific regional item given the range and scope of allegations of human rights violations throughout the world."[13] The European Union, Canada and the United States were also critical of the Council's focus on Israeli violations.{{{author}}}, {{{title}}}, [[{{{publisher}}}]], [[{{{date}}}]].



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انتقادات ممثل الأمم المتحدة

استنكار فطري لإسرائيل

Speaking at the IDC's Herzliya Conference in Israel in January 2008, Dutch Foreign Minister Maxime Verhagen criticized the actions of the Human Rights Council actions against Israel. "At the United Nations, censuring Israel has become something of a habit, while Hamas's terror is referred to in coded language or not at all. The Netherlands believes the record should be set straight, both in New York and at the Human Rights Council in Geneva," Verhagen said.[14]

تقرير بناير 2008

The Council released a statement calling on Israel to stop its military operations in the Gaza Strip and to open the Strip's borders to allow the entry of food, fuel and medicine. The Council adopted the resolution by a vote of 30 to 1. 15 states abstained.

"Unfortunately, neither this resolution nor the current session addressed the role of both parties. It was regretful that the current draft resolution did not condemn the rocket attacks on Israeli civilians," said كندا's representative Terry Cormier, the lone voter against.[15]


تقرير غزة

UN Human Rights Council vote on the resolution. Green represents support, blue represents opposition, brown means abstain, and tan means absent.

On the 3 April 2009, South African Richard Goldstone was named as the head of the independent United Nations Fact-Finding Mission to investigate international human rights and humanitarian law violations related to the Gaza War. The Mission was established by Resolution S-9/1 of the United Nations Human Rights Council.[16] All Western nations opposed the establishment of the inquiry commission.[17]

قرارات إدانة التشهير بالإسلام

In 1999, Pakistan brought before the CHR a resolution entitled 'Defamation of Islam'. The purpose of the resolution was to have the Commission condemn what the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) said was a worldwide campaign to defame Islam.[18]

تصويت كتلي

انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ United Nations Handbook 2007\2008, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 45th edition,P.25 , 2007
  2. ^ Elections & Appointments Human Rights Council 2006.
  3. ^ http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/membership.htm
  4. ^ "Human Rights Council elects Advisory Committee Members and approves a number of Special Procedures mandate holders". United Nations. 2008-03-26. Archived from the original on 2009-01-01. Retrieved 2009-01-01. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  5. ^ Linda Mamoun, A Conversation with Richard Falk The Nation, 17 June 2008
  6. ^ HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL CALLS FOR CESSATION OF ISRAELI MILITARY ATTACKS IN OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES AND OF FIRING OF CRUDE ROCKETS, 6 March 2008
  7. ^ U.N.: Mixed Start for New Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch, 30-6-2006
  8. ^ Second Special Session of Human Rights Council Decides to Establish High-level Iinquiry Commission For Lebanon UN Press release 11 August 2006.
  9. ^ Human Rights Council. "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution S-2/1*" (PDF).
  10. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة IrisExam
  11. ^ The UN Secretary-General: Address to Mark International Human Rights Day 8 December 2006.
  12. ^ http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sgsm10788.doc.htm
  13. ^ http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/sgsm11053.doc.htm
  14. ^ http://www.minbuza.nl/nl/actueel/speeches,2008/01/Verhagen-spreekt-tijdens-Herzliya-conferentie-in-I.html
  15. ^ Human Rights Council opens special session on violations stemming from Israeli incursions in occupied Palestinian territory UNHRC Press release, January 23, 2008.
  16. ^ Richard J. Goldstone Appointed to Lead Human Rights Council Fact-finding mission on Gaza Conflict, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 3 April 2009, http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/2796E2CA43CA4D94C125758D002F8D25?opendocument 
  17. ^ Shalhevet Zohar: Peres: Goldstone report mocks history Jerusalem Post, September 16, 2009.
  18. ^ Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, “Combating Defamation of Religions” 2 June 2008.