قائمة الأباطرة الرومان

هذه هي قائمة بالأباطرة الرومان الذين تولوا حكم الإمبراطورية الرومانية وتم تقسيمهم تبعا لفترات توليهم الحكم أو لزوال الإمبراطورية الرومانية الغربية أو الإمبراطورية الرومانية الشرقية ، وحتى أخر إمبراطور روماني ينطق اللاتينية وهو الإمبراطور جستنيان الأول سنة 565. [1]

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الأسرة اليوليو-كلاودية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
16 يناير 27 BC to 19 أغسطس AD 14 أغسطس
روما
Aug11 01.jpg گايوس اوكتاڤيوس

گايوس يوليوس CAESAR OCTAVIANVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS 12BC: Pontifex Maximus
Possible assassinated by poisoning
19 أغسطس 14 to 16 مارس 37 تيبريوس
روما
Tiberius palermo.jpg TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS NERO

TIBERIVS IVLIVS CAESAR
TIBERIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS 15: Pontifex Maximus
Possible assassinated by suffocation
18 March 37 to 24 January 41 Caligula
Antium, إيطاليا
Gaius Caligula Head.jpg GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR GERMANICVS

GAIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS CALIGVLA
GAIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS Nickname Caligula, (Little-boots); 37: Pontifex Maximus, Pater Patriae;
Assassinated
24 January 41 to 13 October 54 Claudius
Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis
Emperor Claudius.jpg TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS DRVSVS

TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS DRVSVS NERO GERMANICVS
TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS 42: Pater Patriae;
Suggested assassinated by poisoning
October 54 to 11 June 68 Nero
Antium, Italia
Nero Glyptothek Munich 321.jpg LVCIVS DOMITIVS AHENOBARBVS

NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR DRVSVS GERMANICVS

NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS 55: Pontifex Maximus; later Pater Patriae;
Committed suicide
(from summer AD66):-
IMPERATOR NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS


سنة الأباطرة الأربعة

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
8 June 68 to 15 يناير 69 Galba
near Terracina, Italia
Galba.jpg SERVIVS SVLPICIVS GALBA SERVIVS GALBA IMPERATOR CAESAR AVGVSTVS قتله اوثو;
طالع: سنة الأباطرة الأربعة
15 January 69 to 16 April 69 Otho
Ferentinum, Etruria, Italia
OthoDen.jpg MARCVS SALVIVS OTHO IMPERATOR MARCVS OTHO CAESAR AVGVSTVS انتحر;
طالع: سنة الأباطرة الأربعة
17 April 69 to 20 ديسمبر 69 Vitellius
روما
Vittelius monnaie ag1.JPG AVLVS VITELLIVS AVLVS VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMPERATOR AVGVSTVS إمبراطور-مشارك; اُغتيل في الفورم;
طالع: سنة الأباطرة الأربعة

الأسرة الفلاڤية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
1 July 69 to 24 June 79 Vespasian
Falacrine, Italia
Vespasian 01.jpg TITVS FLAVIVS VESPASIANVS IMPERATOR VESPASIANVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS 70: Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae
co-emperor;
see: Year of the four emperors
24 June 79 to 13 September 81 Titus
Rome
Titus Bust.jpg TITVS FLAVIVS VESPASIANVS

TITVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS
IMPERATOR TITVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS 70: Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae
from August 69
IMPERATOR TITVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS
14 September 81 to 18 September 96 Domitian
Rome
Domitien.jpg TITVS FLAVIVS DOMITIANVS
CAESAR DOMITIANVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS, PONTIFEX MAXIMVS PATER PATRIAE late 83: Germanicus;
assassinated


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الأباطرة الجيدون الخمسة

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
18 September 96 to 27 January 98 Nerva
Narni (?), Italia
Nerva Tivoli Massimo.jpg MARCVS COCCEIVS NERVA IMPERATOR NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS, PATER PATRIAE buried in the Mausoleum of Augustus, the final emperor consecrated there
28 January 98 to 7 August 117 Trajan
Italica, Hispania Baetica
Trajan-Xanten.JPG MARCVS VLPIVS TRAIANVS

MARCVS VLPIVS NERVA TRAIANVS GERMANICVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI NERVAE FILIVS NERVA TRAIANVS GERMANICVS AVGVSTVS 98: Pater Patriae; 102: Dacicus; 114: Parthicus; Aug/Sep 114: Optimus
11 August 117 to 10 July 138 Hadrian
Italica, Hispania Baetica (?) / Rome (?)
Hadrien-ven.JPG PVBLIVS AELIVS HADRIANVS

PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HADRIANVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS  
10 July 138 to 7 March 161 Antoninus Pius
near Lanuvium, Italia
Antoninus Pius Glyptothek Munich 337.jpg TITVS AVRELIVS FVLVVS BOIONIVS ARRIVS ANTONINVS

IMPERATOR TITVS AELIVS CAESAR ANTONINVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR TITVS AELIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS post7 March 161: Pius; 139: Pater Patriae
143 Acclaimed emperor a second time
7 March 161 to 17 March 180 Marcus Aurelius
Rome (?) / Ucubi, Hispania Baetica (?)
Marcus aurelius bust.jpg MARCVS ANNIVS VERVS
AVRELIVS CAESAR AVGVSTI PII FILIVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS co-emperor with Lucius Verus to March 169; 164: Armeniacus Medicus Parthicus Maximus; 166: Pater Patriae; 172: Germanicus; 175: Sarmaticus
7 March 161 to March 169 Lucius Verus
Rome
Lucius verus.jpg LVCIVS CEIONIVS COMMODVS

LVCIVS AELIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS VERVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius164: Armeniacus; 165: Parthicus Maximus; 166: Medicus, Pater Patriae
175 Avidius Cassius
Cyrrhus, Syria
GAIVS AVIDIVS CASSIVS   Usurper; proclaimed emperor: ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by a centurion
177 to 31 December 192 Commodus
Lanuvium, Italia
Commodus Musei Capitolini MC1120.jpg LVCIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS ANTONINVS

LVCIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS CAESAR ANTONINVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS AVGVSTVS PATER PATRIAE Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius to 17 March 180;
from 180 IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS PATER PATRIAE Sole emperor. Murdered: strangled by a wrestler


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الأسرة السڤرية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
1 January 193 to 28 March 193 Pertinax
Alba, Italia
PertinaxSest.jpg PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS recognized as emperor by Septimius Severus; murdered by soldiers on the Palatine
28 March 193 to 1 June 193 Didius Julianus
Milan, Italia
Dupondus-Didius Julianus.JPG MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS Sentenced to death by the Senate; murdered on the Palatine
9 April 193 to 4 February 211 Septimius Severus
Leptis Magna, Africa
Septimius Severus busto-Musei Capitolini.jpg LVCIVS SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS SEPTIMVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS PROCONSVL 9 June 193: Pontifex Maximus; late193: Pater Patriae; 195: Divi Marci Pii filius Divi Commodi Frater; Pius; Arabicus, Adiabenicus; 198: Parthicus Maximus; 209/210: Britannicus Maximus
193 to 194/195 Pescennius Niger
?, Italia
Denarius-Pescennius Niger-RIC 0015var.jpg GAIVS PESCENNIVS NIGER   Claimant: emperor in Syria
193/195 to 197 Clodius Albinus
?, Africa
Aureus-Clodius Albinus-RIC 0009b.jpg DECIMVS CLODIVS SEPTIMIVS ALBINVS   Claimant: emperor in Britain
198 to 4 April 217 Caracalla
Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis
Caracalla.jpg LVCIVS SEPTIMIVS BASSIANVS
CARACALLA
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ANTONINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS 199: Pater Patriae; 200: Pius Felix; 209/210: Britannicus Maximus
4 February 211 to 8 February 217 IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PATER PATRIAE BRITANNICVS MAXIMVS PROCONSVL 213: Germanicus Maximus;
Murdered by Macrinus
209 to 4 February 211 Geta
Rome
Geta.jpg PVBLIVS SEPTIMVS GETA   Murdered by Caracalla
4 February 211 to December 211 IMPERATOR CAESAR PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTVS
11 April 217 to June 218 Macrinus
Iol Caesarea, Mauretania
Aureus Macrinus-RIC 0079.jpg MARCVS OPELLIVS MACRINVS IMPERATOR MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS FELIX PROCONSVL ?June 217: Pater Patriae; Pontifex Maximus;
Executed
May 217 to June 218 Diadumenian
?
055 Diadumenianus.jpg MARCVS OPELLIVS DIADVMENIANVS IMPERATOR MARCVS OPELLIVS ANTONINVS DIADVMENIANVS CAESAR SEVERVS Executed
June 218 to 222 Elagabalus
Emesa, Syria
Elagabalo (203 o 204-222 d.C) - Musei capitolini - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto - 15-08-2000 .jpg VARIVS AVITVS BASSIANVS

MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS
ELAGABALVS
IMPERATOR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS PROCONSVL July 218: Pater Patriae, Pontifex Maximus; 220: Sacerdos Amplissimus Dei Invicti Solis Elagabali
Assassinated
13 March 222 to ?March 235 Alexander Severus
Arca Caesarea, Iudaea
Alexander severus.jpg BASSIANVS ALEXIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Pontifex Maximus
Assassinated

أزمة القرن الثالث

أباطرة أوج الأزمة

پورتريه الاسم الميلاد التعاقب الحكم الوفاة طول العهد
Maximinus Thrax Musei Capitolini MC473.jpg Maximinus I
CAESAR GAIVS IVLIVS VERVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
ح. 173 م، تراقيا أو موئسيا Proclaimed emperor by German legions after the murder of Severus Alexander March 20, 235 AD – June 238 AD June 238 AD
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
3 years, 3 months
Gordian I Musei Capitolini MC475.jpg Gordian I
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 159 AD, Phrygia? Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised by the accession of Gordian III March 22, 238 AD – April 12, 238 AD April 238 AD
Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II.
21 days
GordianusIIsest.jpg Gordian II
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 192 AD, ? Proclaimed emperor, alongside father Gordian I, in opposition to Maximinus by act of the Senate. March 22, 238 AD – April 12, 238 AD April 238 AD
Killed during the Battle of Carthage, fighting a pro-Maximinus army
21 days
Pupienus Musei Capitolini MC477.jpg Pupienus
CAESAR MARCVS CLODIVS PVPIENVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS
c. 178 AD, ? Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus. April 22, 238 AD – July 29, 238 AD July 29, 238 AD
Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard
3 months and 7 days
Balbinus Hermitage.jpg Balbinus
CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
? Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Pupienus and Gordian III April 22, 238 AD – July 29, 238 AD July 29, 238 AD
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
3 months and 7 days
Bust Gordianus III Louvre Ma1063.jpg Gordian III
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS
January 20, 225 AD, Rome Proclaimed emperor by supporters of Gordian I and II, then by the Senate; joint emperor with Pupienus and Balbinus until July 238 AD. Grandson of Gordian I April 22, 238 AD – February 11, 244 AD February 11, 244 AD
Unknown; possibly murdered on orders of Philip I
5 years, 9 months and 20 days
Bust of emperor Philippus Arabus - Hermitage Museum.jpg Philip I
CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS PHILIPPVS AVGVSTVS

with Philip II
c. 204 AD, Shahba, Syria Praetorian Prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death; made his son Philip II co-emperor in summer 247 AD February 244 AD – September/October 249 AD September/October 249 AD
Killed in battle against Trajan Decius, near Verona
5 years
Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch).jpg Trajan Decius
CAESAR GAIVS MESSIVS QVINTVS TRAIANVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS

with Herennius Etruscus
c. 201 AD, Budalia, Pannonia Inferior Governor under Philip I; proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions and defeated Philip in battle; made his son Herennius Etruscus co-emperor in early 251 AD September/ October 249 AD – June 251 AD June 251 AD
Both killed in the Battle of Abrittus fighting against the Goths
2 years
082 Hostilianus.jpg Hostilian
CAESAR CAIVS VALENS HOSTILIANVS MESSIVS QVINTVS AVGVSTVS
Sirmium Son of Trajan Decius, accepted as heir by the Senate June 251 AD – late 251 AD September/October 251 AD
Natural causes (plague)
4–5 months
Ritratto di trebonianno gallo III sec. dc. 01.JPG Trebonianus Gallus
CAESAR GAIVS VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS

with
Volusianus
206 AD, Italia Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Trajan Decius's death (and in opposition to Hostilian); made his son Volusianus co-emperor in late 251 AD. June 251 AD – August 253 AD August 253 AD
Assassinated by their own troops, in favour of Aemilian
2 years
Aemilian1.jpg Aemilian
CAESAR MARCVS AEMILIVS AEMILIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 207 AD Africa Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after defeating the Goths; accepted as emperor after death of Gallus August 253 AD – October 253 AD September/October 253 AD
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Valerian
2 months
Aureus Valerian-RIC 0034-transparent.png Valerian
CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 195 AD Governor of Noricum and Raetia, proclaimed emperor by Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor after death of Aemilian October 253 AD – 260 AD After 260 AD
Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity
7 years
Gallienus.jpg Gallienus
CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS AVGVSTVS

with Saloninus
218 AD Son of Valerian, made co-emperor in 253 AD; his son Saloninus is very briefly co-emperor in c. July 260 before assassination by Postumus. October 253 AD – September 268 AD September 268 AD
Murdered at Aquileia by his own commanders.
15 years
Santa Giulia 4.jpg Claudius Gothicus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS
May 10, 213 AD/214 AD, Sirmium Victorious general at Battle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death September 268 AD – January 270 AD January 270 AD
Natural causes (plague)
1 year, 4 months
Antoninianus Quintillus-s3243.jpg Quintillus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS AVGVSTVS
?, Sirmium Brother of Claudius Gothicus, seized power after his death January 270 AD – 270 AD 270 AD
Unclear; possibly suicide or murder
Unknown
Aureliancoin1.jpg Aurelian
CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS
September 9, 214 AD/215 AD, Sirmium Proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Claudius II's death, in opposition to Quintillus September(?) 270 AD – September 275 AD September 275 AD
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
5 years
EmpereurTacite.jpg Tacitus
CAESAR MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS AVGVSTVS
c. 200, Interamna Nahars, Italia Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian, after a short interregnum September 25, 275 AD – June 276 AD June 276 AD
Natural causes (possibly assassinated)
9 months
Antoninianus Florianus-unpub ant hercules.jpg Florian
CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVGVSTVS
? Brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in the west to replace him June 276 AD – September? 276 AD September? 276 AD
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Probus
3 months
Probus Musei Capitolini MC493.jpg Probus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS AVGVSTVS
232 AD, Sirmium Governor of the eastern provinces, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions in opposition to Florian September? 276 AD – September/ October 282 AD September/ October 282 AD
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus
6 years
Antoninianus of Carus.jpg Carus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS
c. 230 AD, Narbo, Gallia Narbonensis Praetorian Prefect to Probus; seized power either before or after Probus was murdered September/ October 282 AD – late July/ early August 283 AD Late July/early August 283 AD
Natural causes? (Possibly killed by lightning)
10–11 months
NumerianusAntoninianus.jpg Numerian
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS AVGVSTVS
? Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Carinus Late July/early August 283 AD – 284 AD? 284 AD
Unclear; possibly assassinated
1 year
Montemartini - Carino 1030439.JPG Carinus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS
? Son of Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Numerian Late July/early August 283 AD – 285 AD 285 AD
Died in battle against Diocletian?
2 years

الامبراطورية الغالية (260-274)

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
260 to 269 Postumus
Gaul
Postumus1.jpg MARCVS CASSIANIVS LATINIVS POSTVMVS Postumus|IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS CASSIANVS LATINIVS POSTVMVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Murdered
269 Laelianus
possibly Hispania
Aureus Laelius-RIC 0001.jpg VLPIVS CORNELIVS LAELIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS VLPIVS CORNELIVS LAELIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Proclaimed himself emperor of the Gallic Empire
269 Marius
?
Marius4.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS MARIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS MARIVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Murdered
269 to 271 Victorinus
?
Victorinus.jpg MARCVS PIAVONIVS VICTORINVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS PIAVONIVS VICTORINVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Murdered
270 to 271 Domitianus
?
  IMPERATOR CAESAR DOMITIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Proclaimed emperor of the Gallic Empire
271 to 274 Tetricus I
?
A1 56.jpg CAIVS PIVS ESVVIVS TETRICVS IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS PIVS ESVVIVS TETRICVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS  

الأباطرة الإليريون

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
268 إلى أغسطس 270 كلوديوس الثاني گوثيكس
Sirmium, Pannonia or Dardania, Moesia
Antoninianus Claudius II-RIC 0137.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS CLAVDIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Died of plague
أغسطس 270 إلى سبتمبر 270 كوينتلوس
صربيا - صرميوم, پانونيا أو دردانيا, موسيا
Antoninianus Quintillus-s3243.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS QVINTILLVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS INVICTVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS لفترة قصيرة امبراطور-مشارك مع أورليان; انتحر
August 270 to 275 أورليان
داتشيا أو ربما صرميوم, پانونيا
AURELIANO.JPG LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS اغتاله الحرس الپرتوري
271 سپتيميوس
?
    اُعلِن امبراطوراً في دلماتيا; وقتله جنوده
نوفمبر/ديسمبر 275 إلى يوليو 276 تاكيتوس
إنترامنا, إيتاليا
Antoninianus Tacitus-s3315.jpg MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Murdered
July 276 to September 276 فلوريانوس
?
Antoninianus Florianus-unpub ant hercules.jpg MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS PIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Murdered
يوليو 276 إلى أواخر سبتمبر 282 Probus
صرميوم, پانونيا
Probus-cap.JPG MARCVS AVRELIVS EQVITIVS PROBVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Murdered by his own soldiers
280 Saturninus
Gaul
IVLIVS SATVRNINVS   Claimant: forced by his soldiers; proclaimed himself emperor; killed by his soldiers
280 پروكولوس
ألبنگونم, إيتاليا
    Claimant: acceding to the request of the people of Lugdunum; killed by Probus
280 Bonosus
Hispania
GALLVS QVINTVS BONOSVS   Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated by Probus and committed suicide
September 282 to July/August 283 Carus
probably Narbo, Gaul
Carus.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS CARVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Uncertain cause of death; disease, lightning injury, a wound received in battle against the Huns and murder by the Praetorian Guard have all been suggested
spring 283 to summer 285 Carinus
?
CarinusAureus.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor with Numerian; Murdered
July/August 283 to November 284 Numerian
?
Numerian.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Co-emperor with Carinus

Dominate

الحكم الرباعي والأسرة القنسطنطينية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
20 November 284 to 1 May 305 Diocletian
Dioclea, Dalmatia
Diocletian.jpg DIOCLES
(full name not known)

GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS IOVIVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS PATER PATRIAE PROCONSVL Co-emperor with Maximian; 285: Germanicus Maximus, Sarmaticus Maximus; 286: Iovius; 287: Germanicus Maximus; 295: Persicus Maximus; 297: Britannicus Maximus, Carpicus Maximus; 298: Armenicus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus
Abdicated
1 April 286 to 1 May 305 Maximian
Serbia - near Sirmium, Pannonia
Maximian.jpg MAXIMIANVS
(full name not known)

MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS HERCVLIVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS co-emperor with Diocletian; 286: Germanicus Maximus, Sarmaticus Maximus; 287: Iovius; 288: Germanicus Maximus; 294: Persicus Maximus; 298: Britannicus Maximus, Carpicus Maximus; 299: Armenicus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus;
Forced to abdicate
1 May 305 to 25 July 306 Constantius I Chlorus
Serbia- Dardania, Moesia
121 Constantius Chlorus.jpg FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS

CHLORVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS  
1 May 305 to May 311 Galerius
Serbia -near Serdica, Dacia Aureliana
Galerius.jpg CAIVS GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS co-emperor with Severus II
August 306 to 16 September 307 Severus II
?
Follis-Flavius Valerius Severus-trier RIC 650a.jpg FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS IMPERATOR SEVERVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS co-emperor with Galerius
28 October 306 to 28 اكتوبر 312 Maxentius
?
Emperor Maxentius Louvre Ma3522bis.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Drowned in the Tiber
307 إلى 308 Maximian
near Sirmium, Pannonia
Maximian.jpg MAXIMIANVS
(full name not known)

MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS HERCVLIVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS HERCVLIVS GERMANICVS MAXIMVS SARMATICVS MAXIMVS IOVIVS GERMANICVS MAXIMVS PERSICVS MAXIMVS BRITANNICVS MAXIMVS CARPICVS MAXIMVS ARMENICVS MAXIMVS MEDICVS MAXIMVS ADIABENICVS MAXIMVS Abdicated
307 to 22 May 337 Constantine I
Serbia - Naissus, Moesia Superior
Constantine Musei Capitolini.jpg GAIVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTINVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS PATER PATRIAE PROCONSVL 307: Germanicus Maximus; 312: Maximus; 323: Sarmaticus Maximus; 324: Victor substituting Invictus; 328: Gothicus Maximus; 336:Dacicus Maximus
308 Domitius Alexander
probably Phrygia
Follis-Domitius Alexander-carthage RIC 68.jpg LVCIVS DOMITIVS ALEXANDER   Proclaimed himself emperor
11 November 308 to 18 September 324 Licinius
Serbia - Moesia Superior
Aureus-Licinius-nicomedia RIC vII 021.jpg VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor; abdicated; (executed early 325)
1 May 310 to July/August 313 Maximinus Daia
Dacia Aureliana
Maximinus2.jpg DAIA

MAXIMINVS GAIVS GALERIVS VALERIVS
IMPERATOR CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Co-emperor; committed suicide
December 316 to 1 March 317 Valerius Valens
?
AVRELIVS VALERIVS VALENS IMPERATOR CAESAR AVRELIVS VALERIVS VALENS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor with Licinius; executed by Constantine I
July to 18 September 324 Martinianus
?
Martinian - Follis cyzicus RIC 016.jpg SEXTVS MARCIVS MARTINIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR SEXTVS MARCIVS MARTINIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor with Licinius; executed early 325
337 to 340 Constantine II
Arles, Gaul
Constantine II.jpg FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor; killed in battle
337 to 361 Constantius II
Sirmium, Pannonia
ConstantiusII.JPG FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor
337 to 350 Constans
?
Emperor Constans Louvre Ma1021.jpg FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS Constans|IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS Co-emperor; killed by Magnentius
January 350 to 11 August 353 Magnentius
Samarobriva, Gaul
Double Centenionalis Magnentius-XR-s4017.jpg FLAVIVS MAGNVS MAGNENTIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS MAGNVS MAGENTIVS AVGVSTVS Usurper; committed suicide
c. 350 Vetranio
?
Maiorina-Vetranio-siscia RIC 281.jpg not known   Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius, recognized by Constantius II.
c. 350 Nepotianus
?
Centenionalis-Nepotianus-rome RIC 200.2.jpg     Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius.
November 361 to June 363 Julian
Constantinople, Thracia
Solidus Julian.jpg FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS Julian the Apostate|IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS Killed in battle
363 to 17 February 364 Jovian
Serbia - Singidunum, Moesia
Jovian1.jpg FLAVIVS IOVIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS Died accidentally

الامبراطورية البريتانية (286-297)

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
286 to 293 Carausius
Gallia Belgica
Antoninianus Carausius leg4-RIC 0069v.jpg MARCVS AVRELIVS MAVSAEVS IMPERATOR CAESAR CARAVSIVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS  
293 to 297 Allectus
?
Quinarius Allectus galley-RIC 0128.2.jpg not known IMPERATOR CAESAR ALLECTVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS  

الأسرة الڤالنتينية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
26 February 364 to 17 November 375 Valentinian I
Cibalae, Pannonia
ValentinianI.jpg FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Emperor in the west.
28 March 364 to 9 August 378 Valens
Cibalae, Pannonia
Valens1.jpg FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Emperor in the east. Killed in battle
September 365 to 27 May 366 Procopius
Cilicia
157 Procopius.jpg     Usurper; executed by Valens
24 August 367 to 383 Gratian
Sirmium, Pannonia
158 Gratianus.jpg FLAVIVS GRATIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS GRATIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Assassinated
375 to 392 Valentinian II
Milan, Italia
Statue of emperor Valentinian II.JPG FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Deposed; died in suspicious circumstances
383 to 388 Magnus Maximus
Hispania
Solidus Magnus Maximus-constantinople Dep 38-7.jpg MAGNVS MAXIMVS   Usurper in the west; once recognised by Theodosius I, then deposed and executed
c.386 to 388 Flavius Victor
?
As Flavius Victor- aquileia RIC 055b1.jpg FLAVIVS VICTOR   Son of Magnus Maximus, murdered on order of Theodosius I
392 to 394 Eugenius
?
Siliqua Eugenius- trier RIC 0106d.jpg FLAVIVS EVGENIVS   Usurper in the west; killed in battle

الأسرة الثيودوسية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
379 to 17 January 395 Theodosius I
Cauca, Hispania
Theodosius.jpg FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Co-emperor; emperor in the east from 379
383 to January 395 Arcadius
?
Arcadius.jpg FLAVIVS ARCADIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ARCADIVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Becoming Emperor in the East January 395
23 January 393 to 395 Honorius
?
Honorius steel engraving.jpg FLAVIVS HONORIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS HONORIVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Becoming Emperor in the West

الامبراطورية الغربية

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
395 to 15 August 423 Honorius
?
Honorius steel engraving.jpg FLAVIVS HONORIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS HONORIVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Co-emperor with Constantius III (421)
407 to 411 Constantine III
?
Siliqua Constantine III-RIC 1355.jpg FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS   Claimant
409 to 411 Constans II
?
Siliqua Constantine III-RIC 1355.jpg     Claimant, co-ruler with Constantine III
409 to 411 Maximus
Hispania
    Claimant, ruling on Hispania
409 to 410 Priscus Attalus
?
Priscus attalus.jpg   IMPERATOR CAESAR PRISCVS ATTALVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Proclaimed emperor by the Visigoths
411 to 413 Jovinus
Gaul
Siliqua Jovinus-RSC 0004.jpg     Claimant
412 to 413 Sebastianus
Gaul
Sebastianus - siliqua - RIC 1718.jpg     Claimant, co-ruler with Jovinus
414 to 415 Priscus Attalus
?
Priscus attalus.jpg   IMPERATOR CAESAR PRISCVS ATTALVS PIVS FELIX AVGVSTVS Proclaimed emperor by the Visigoths
421 Constantius III
Serbia - Naissus, Moesia Superior
Solidus Constantius III-RIC 1325.jpg FLAVIVS CONSTANTIVS   Co-emperor with Honorius
423 to 425 Joannes
?
Solidus Johannes-s4283.jpg IOHANNES   Claimant
425 to 16 March 455 Valentinian III
Ravenna, Italia
Solidus ValentinianIII-wedding.jpg FLAVIVS PLACIDVS VALENTINIANVS    
17 March 455 to 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus
?
Solidus Petronius Maximus-RIC 2201.jpg FLAVIVS PETRONIVS MAXIMVS    
June 455 to 17 October 456 Avitus
?
Tremissis Avitus-RIC 2402.jpg MARCVS MAECILIVS FLAVIVS EPARCHIVS AVITVS    
457 to 2 August 461 Majorian
?
As Majorian-RIC 2646v.jpg IVLIVS VALERIVS MAIORIANVS   Abdicated
461 to 465 Libius Severus
Lucania, Italia
As Libius Severus-Ricimer MonogramRIC 2716.jpg LIBIVS SEVERVS    
12 April 467 to 11 July 472 Anthemius
?
Tremissis Anthemius-RIC 2842.jpg PROCOPIVS ANTHEMIVS   Executed
July 472 to 2 November 472 Olybrius
?
Olybrius 01.jpg ANICIVS OLYBRIVS    
5 March 473 to June 474 Glycerius
?
    Abdicated
June 474 to 25 April 480 Julius Nepos
?
Tremissis Julius Nepos-RIC 3221.jpg     Emperor in the West until 475, deposed by Orestes; fled; From 476 recognised by Odoacer; murdered 480
31 October 475 to 4 September 476 Romulus Augustus

Romulus Augustulus
?
RomulusAugustus.jpg FLAVIVS ROMVLVS

ROMVLVS AVGVSTVS
  Deposed by Odoacer; fate unknown.

الامبراطورية الشرقية إلى 565

حكم الاسم الشائع ومحل الميلاد پورتريه الاسم الشخصي واللقب
عند المولد/
عند إعتلاء العرش
الاسم الإمبراطوري ملاحظات
395 to 1 May 408 Arcadius
?
FLAVIVS ARCADIVS
408 to 28 يوليو 450 Theodosius II
?
Theodosius ii.jpg FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS
450 to 457 Marcian
Thrace or Illyria
Solidus Marcian RIC 0509.jpg FLAVIVS MARCIANIVS
457 to 474 Leo I
?
Leo I Louvre Ma1012.jpg FLAVIVS VALERIVS LEO
474 to 474 Leo II
?
Leo (474)-coin.jpg TARASICODISSEVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS LEO AVGVSTVS
474 to 475 and 476 (restoration) to 491 Zeno
Isauria, Cilicia
Tremissis-Zeno-RIC 0914.jpg IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ZENO AVGVSTVS
475 to 476 Basiliscus
?
Solidus Basiliscus-RIC 1003.png FLAVIVS BASILISCVS
491 to 518 Anastasius
Dyrrhachium
Semissis-Anastasius I-sb0007.jpg IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS ANASTASIVS AVGVSTVS
518 to 527 Justin I
?
Tremissis-Justin I-sb0058.jpg IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS
527 to 565 Justinian
Serbia -Tauresium
Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 004.jpg FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS Re-conquered large parts of the Western Empire

أنظر أيضا

وصلات خارجية

المصادر

  • Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors, Thames & Hudson, 1995, Reprinted 2001, ISBN 0-500-05077-5
  • Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin Classics, Michael Grant Publications Ltd, 1971, Reprinted 1985, ISBN 0-14-044060-7
  • Martha Ross, Rulers and Governments of the World, Vol.1 Earliest Times to 1491, Bowker, 1978, ISBN 0-85935-021-5
  • Clive Carpenter, The Guinness Book of Kings Rulers & Statesmen, Guinness Superlatives Ltd, 1978, ISBN 0-900424-46-X
  • R.F.Tapsell, Monarchs Rulers Dynasties and Kingdoms of The World, Thames & Hudson, 1981, Reprinted 1987, ISBN 0-500-27337-5