سباق الفضاء

The Soviet Union achieved an early lead in the Space Race by launching the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1 (replica shown) in 1957.
The United States led during the "Moon race" by landing Neil Armstrong (pictured) and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, July 20, 1969.
Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford and cosmonaut Alexei Leonov shake hands in space during the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project.

سباق الفضاء هو سباق بدأ أساساً بين الاتحاد السوفييتي و الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية كجزء من الحرب الباردة، محوره التسابق علي أخذ أكبر مساحة من الفضاء عن طريق الأقمار الصناعية و مركبات الفضاء المأهولة و غير المأهولة، كان الأمر إظهار للقدرة و التقنية لكلتا الدولتين في مجال غزو الفضاء.

بدأ هذا السباق عندما أطلق الاتحاد السوفييتي أول قمر اصطناعي في العالم هو سبوتنك-1 في 4 أكتوبر 1957، ثم أكد الاتحاد السوفيتي سبقه عندما أطلق قمره الاصطناعي الثاني سبوتنك-2 في 3 نوفمبر 1957.

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Soviet rocket development

"Chief Designer" Sergei Korolev (left), with the "father of the Soviet atomic bomb" Igor Kurchatov, and "Chief Theoretician" Mstislav Keldysh in 1956


Cold War missile race

The cold war would become the great engine, the supreme catalyst, that sent rockets and their cargoes far above Earth and worlds away. If Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, and others were the fathers of rocketry, the competition between capitalism and communism was its midwife.

William E. Burrows, This New Ocean, "The Other World Series", p. 147


Soviet R-7 ICBM, and its derivative launch vehicles for Sputnik, Vostok, Voskhod, and Soyuz


Competition begins


US reaction

William Hayward Pickering, James Van Allen, and Wernher von Braun display a full-scale model of Explorer 1 at a Washington, DC news conference after confirmation the satellite was in orbit


Uncrewed lunar probes

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First human in space

Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space, 1961


The radio communication between the launch control room and Gagarin included the following dialogue at the moment of rocket launch:

Korolev: "Preliminary stage..... intermediate..... main..... lift off! We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right."

Gagarin: "Поехали!" (Poyekhali! - Let's go!).[1]

Gagarin's informal poyekhali! became a historical phrase in the Eastern Bloc, used to refer to the beginning of the human space flight era.[2][3]

First American in space

Alan Shepard, the first American in space, 1961


Completion of Vostok and Mercury programs

Mercury

John Glenn, the first American in orbit, 1962


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Vostok

Replica of the Vostok capsule
Valentina Tereshkova

Kennedy proposes a joint US-USSR program

After a first US-USSR Dryden-Blagonravov agreement and cooperation on the Echo II balloon satellite in 1962,[4] President Kennedy proposed on September 20, 1963, in a speech before the United Nations General Assembly, that the United States and the Soviet Union join forces in an effort to reach the Moon. Kennedy thus changed his mind regarding the desirability of the space race, preferring instead to ease tensions with the Soviet Union by cooperating on projects such as a joint lunar landing.[5] Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev initially rejected Kennedy's proposal.[6] However, on October 2, 1997, it was reported that Khrushchev's son Sergei claimed Khrushchev was poised to accept Kennedy's proposal at the time of Kennedy's assassination on November 22, 1963. During the next few weeks he reportedly concluded that both nations might realize cost benefits and technological gains from a joint venture, and decided to accept Kennedy's offer based on a measure of rapport during their years as leaders of the world's two superpowers, but changed his mind and dropped the idea since he did not have the same trust for Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson.[6]

As President, Johnson steadfastly pursued the Gemini and Apollo programs, promoting them as Kennedy's legacy to the American public. One week after Kennedy's death, he issued an executive order renaming the Cape Canaveral and Apollo launch facilities after Kennedy.[بحاجة لمصدر]


جمناي و ڤوسخود

برنامج ڤوسخود

كبسولتا الفضاء ڤوسخود 1 و 2


التقدم في سباق الفضاء، يوضح تجاوز الأمريكان للسوڤيت في 1965

مشروع جمناي

لقاء جمناي 6 و 7، في ديسمبر 1965

Soviet crewed Moon programs

Soyuz 7K-L3 (Lunniy Orbitalny Korabl), alongside the Apollo Command/Service Module to scale
LK lunar lander (Lunniy Korabl), alongside the Apollo Lunar Module to scale

Korolev's design bureau produced two prospectuses for circumlunar spaceflight (March 1962 and May 1963), the main spacecraft for which were early versions of his Soyuz design. Soviet Communist Party Central Committee Command 655-268 officially established two secret, competing crewed programs for circumlunar flights and lunar landings, on August 3, 1964. The circumlunar flights were planned to occur in 1967, and the landings to start in 1968.[7]

Outer space treaty

The US and USSR began discussions on the peaceful uses of space as early as 1958, presenting issues for debate to the United Nations,[8][9][10] which created a Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in 1959.[11]


اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

Outer Space Treaty of 1967


This treaty:

  • bars party States from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth orbit, on the Moon, or any other celestial body;
  • exclusively limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes, and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications;
  • declares that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and shall be free for exploration and use by all the States;
  • explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial resource such as the Moon or a planet, claiming that they are the common heritage of mankind, "not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means". However, the State that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object;
  • holds any State liable for damages caused by their space object;
  • declares that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty", and "States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities"; and
  • "A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment."

The treaty remains in force, signed by 107 member states. – اعتبارا من July 2017

الكوارث تضرب الطرفين

In 1967, both nations faced serious challenges that brought their programs to temporary halts. Both had been rushing at full-speed toward the first piloted flights of Apollo and Soyuz, without paying due diligence to growing design and manufacturing problems. The results proved fatal to both pioneering crews.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Charred interior of the Apollo 1 spacecraft after the fire that killed the first crew

قـُدُماً إلى القمر

Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 after docking, artist view
Soyuz 7K-L1 Zond spacecraft, artist view
الوحدة القمرية في مدار قمري ضمن أپولو 10، 22–23 مايو 1969


أپولو 11

الأمريكي بز ألدرن أثناء أول مشي على سطح القمر في 1969



التنافس يخبو

Apollo 17's Saturn V in 1972
Moonwalk, December 13, 1972

NASA had ambitious follow-on human spaceflight plans as it reached its lunar goal, but soon discovered it had expended most of its political capital to do so.[12]


ساليوت وسكاي‌لاب

The Soyuz 11 crew with the Salyut station in the background, in a Soviet commemorative stamp


المشروع التجريبي أپولو-سويوز


الذكرى

ارتياد البشر للفضاء بعد أپولو

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hall and Shayler, p.150
  2. ^ Душенко, Константин (2014). Большой словарь цитат и крылатых выражений (in Russian). Litres. ISBN 978-5-699-40115-4.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  3. ^ Pervushin (2011), 6.2 Он сказал «Поехали!»
  4. ^ U.S.-Soviet Cooperation in Space. US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. July 1985. pp. 80–81. Archived from the original. You must specify the date the archive was made using the |archivedate= parameter. https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk2/1985/8533/8533.PDF. Retrieved on 13 June 2018. 
  5. ^ Stone, Oliver and Peter Kuznick, "The Untold History of the United States" (Gallery Books, 2012), page 320
  6. ^ أ ب Sietzen, Frank (2 October 1997). "Soviets Planned to Accept JFK's Joint Lunar Mission Offer". "SpaceCast News Service" Washington DC -. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  7. ^ Portree, Part 1 - 1.2 Historical Overview
  8. ^ inesap.org Archived March 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and International Law.
  9. ^ Google books Nuclear Weapons and Contemporary International Law N.Singh, E. WcWhinney (p.289)
  10. ^ UN website UN Resolution 1348 (XIII).
  11. ^ "United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space". United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.
  12. ^ Hepplewhite, p. 186

References

External links

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هذا الملف الصوتي، سـُجـِّل من نسخة بتاريخ 2005-07-02، ولا تعكس التعديلات اللاحقة على المقال. (مساعدة الصوت)