الحرب الصينية الڤيتنامية

الحرب الصينية الڤيتنامية
(حرب الهند الصينية الثالثة)
جزء من حرب الهند الصينية الثالثة والحرب الباردة
Vietnam china.jpgVietnamese artillery 1979.jpg
المدفعية الڤيتنامية تقصف القوات الصينية، 23 فبراير 1979
التاريخ 17 February – 16 March 1979
(3 أسبوع و 6 يوم )
الموقع الحدود الصينية الڤيتنامية
النتيجة

كلا الطرفين ادعى النصر[1][2]

Territorial
changes
Small loss of Vietnamese territory along Sino-Vietnamese border to China in Cao Bằng and Lạng Sơn Provinces, namely Nam Quan Gate and half of Bản Giốc Falls.[4][5][6]
المتحاربون
 الصين
 ڤيتنام
الدعم العسكري:
 الاتحاد السوڤيتي
القادة والزعماء
Deng Xiaoping
Ye Jianying
Xu Xiangqian
Yang Dezhi
Xu Shiyou
Lê Duẩn
Tôn Đức Thắng
Văn Tiến Dũng
Đàm Quang Trung
Vũ Lập
القوة
Chinese claim: 200,000 PLA with 400–550 tanks[7][8]
Vietnamese claim: 600,000 PLA infantry and 400 tanks from Kunming and Guangzhou Military Districts[9]
70,000–100,000 regulars, 150,000 local troops and militia[10]
الإصابات والخسائر

Chinese estimate: 6,954–8,531 killed
14,800–21,000 wounded
238 captured[8][11][12]
Vietnamese estimate: 62,000 casualties, including 26,000 deaths.[13][14]
[15][16]
420 Tanks/APCs destroyed[1]
66 Heavy Mortars & Guns destroyed[1]

Western estimate: 26,000 killed, 37,000 wounded[17]

Chinese estimate: 30,000[14]–57,000 soldiers killed and 70,000 militia killed.[11]
[18]
1,636 captured[15][16]
185 Tanks/APCs destroyed[1]
200 heavy mortars and guns destroyed[1]
6 missile launchers destroyed[1]

Western estimate: 30,000 killed, 32,000 wounded[17]
قالب:Campaignbox Sino-Vietnamese War
الحرب الصينية الڤيتنامية
الاسم بالصينية
بالصينية التقليدية: 對越自衛反擊戰
بالصينية المبسطة: 对越自卫反击战
الاسم بالڤيتنامية
الڤيتنامية: Chiến tranh biên giới Việt Nam-Trung Quốc

الحرب الصينية الڤيتنامية (ڤيتنامية: Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung; الصينية المبسطة: 中越战争الصينية التقليدية: 中越戰爭پن‌ين: Zhōng-Yuè Zhànzhēng), also known as the حرب الهند الصينية الثالثة, was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in early 1979. China launched the offensive in response to Vietnam's invasion and occupation of Cambodia in 1978 (التي أنهت حكم الخمير الحمر المدعومين من الصين).

Chinese forces entered northern Vietnam and captured several cities near the border. On March 6, 1979, China declared that the gate to Hanoi was open and that their punitive mission had been achieved, before withdrawing their troops from Vietnam. Both China and Vietnam claimed victory in the last of the حروب الهند الصينية. As Vietnamese troops remained in Cambodia until 1989, it can be said that China was unsuccessful in their goal of dissuading Vietnam from involvement in Cambodia. Following the حل الاتحاد السوڤيتي، الحدود الصينية الڤيتنامية was finalized.

Although unable to deter Vietnam from Cambodia, China was able to demonstrate that its Cold War communist adversary, the Soviet Union, was unable to protect its Vietnamese ally.[19] Following worsening relations between the Soviet Union and China as a result of the Sino-Soviet split, as many as 1.5 million Chinese troops were stationed along the Sino-Soviet border, in preparation for a full-scale war with the Soviets.


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نسق المعركة

طابور من رجال الميليشيات الصينية العاملين كحاملي نقالات طبية أثناء الحرب.



القتال

دبابة صينية مدمرة في تساو بانگ


الأعقاب

بوابة نام چوان


الأسرى

الجنود الأسرى الڤيتناميون في معسكر أسر صيني
الأسرة الصينيون يحرسهم الڤيتناميون


العلاقات الصينية الڤيتنامية بعد الحرب


جسر جديد على النهر الأحمر بين هى‌كو و كيم ثان، على الطريق الرئيسي بين کون‌مینگ وهانوي.

الإعلان في ديسمبر 2007 عن خطة إنشاء طريق هانوي-کون‌مینگ السريع كان علامة فارقة في العلاقات الصينية الڤيتنامية. The road will traverse the border that once served as a battleground. It should contribute to demilitarizing the border region, as well as facilitating trade and industrial cooperation between the nations.[20]



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انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=mscas
  2. ^ Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN  0415214742 .
  3. ^ http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR700/RR768/RAND_RR768.pdf
  4. ^ Nayan Chanda, "End of the Battle but Not of the War", p. 10. Khu vực có giá trị tượng trưng tinh thần nhất là khoảng 300m đường xe lửa giữa Hữu Nghị Quan và trạm kiểm soát biên giới Việt Nam.
  5. ^ Nguyen, Can Van. "Sino-Vietnamese Border Issues". NGO Realm. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  6. ^ Nguyen, Can Van. "INTERVIEW ON TERRITORY AND TERRITORIAL WATERS". vlink.com. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  7. ^ Zygmunt Czarnotta and Zbigniew Moszumański, Altair Publishing, Warszawa 1995, ISBN 83-86217-16-2
  8. ^ أ ب Zhang Xiaoming, "China's 1979 War with Vietnam: A Reassessment", China Quarterly, Issue no. 184 (December 2005), pp. 851–874. Actually are thought to have been 200,000 with 400 – 550 tanks. Zhang writes that: "Existing scholarship tends towards an estimate of as many as 25,000 PLA killed in action and another 37,000 wounded. Recently available Chinese sources categorize the PLA’s losses as 6,594 dead and approximately 21,000 injured, giving a total of 24,000 casualties from an invasion force of 200,000."
  9. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/prc-vietnam.htm
  10. ^ King V. Chen (1987): China's War With Việt Nam, 1979. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, page 103
  11. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة mil.chinaiiss.org
  12. ^ الحرب الصينية الڤيتناميةGoogle Books
  13. ^ Russell D. Howard, INSS Occasional Paper 28: Regional Security Series, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, USAF Academy, September 1999
  14. ^ أ ب Tonnesson, Bởi Stein (2010). Vietnam 1946: How the War Began. University of California Press. p. 2. ISBN  9780520256026 .
  15. ^ أ ب Chan, Gerald (1989). [الحرب الصينية الڤيتناميةGoogle Books China and international organizations: participation in non-governmental organizations since 1971] Check |url= value (help) (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN  0195827384 .
  16. ^ أ ب [الحرب الصينية الڤيتناميةGoogle Books Military Law Review, Volumes 119-122] Check |url= value (help). Volumes 27-100 of DA pam. Contributors United States. Dept. of the Army, Judge Advocate General's School (United States. Army). Headquarters, Department of the Army. 1988. p. 72.CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. ^ أ ب https://books.google.com.hk/books?id=vY4tBfqGvZ4C&pg=PA114&redir_esc=y&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false
  18. ^ الحرب الصينية الڤيتناميةGoogle Books
  19. ^ Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN  0415214742 .
  20. ^ Greenlees, Donald Approval near for Vietnam-China highway International Herald Tribune, December 13, 2007

External links

Additional sources

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