أزمة مضيق تايوان الثانية

أزمة مضيق تايوان الثانية
جزء من الحرب الباردة والحرب الأهلية الصينية
Taiwan Strait.png
مضيق تايوان
التاريخ 23 August 1958 – 22 September 1958
(4 أسبوع و 2 يوم )
الموقع Strait of Taiwan
النتيجة Ceasefire, status quo ante bellum
المتحاربون
تايوان Republic of China
 الولايات المتحدة
الصين People's Republic of China
القادة والزعماء

تايوان Chiang Kai-shek
تايوان Chiang Ching-kuo
تايوان Hu Lien
تايوان Ji Xingwen 
تايوان Zhao Jiaxiang 
تايوان Zhang Jie 
الولايات المتحدة Dwight D. Eisenhower

 : killed in action
الصين Mao Zedong
الصين Peng Dehuai
الصين Ye Fei
الصين Xu Xiangqian
القوة

تايوان 92,000

الولايات المتحدة 704
الصين 215,000
الإصابات والخسائر
440 ROC troops killed and missing.[1] 460 PRC troops killed and wounded, 218 civilians killed and wounded.

أزمة مضيق تايوان الثانية, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC). In this conflict, the PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen and the Matsu Islands along the east coast of mainland China (in the Taiwan Strait) to "liberate" Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party, also known as the Kuomintang (KMT); and to probe the extent of the United States defense of Taiwan's territory.

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استعراض

The crisis started with the 823 Artillery Bombardment (الصينية التقليدية: 八二三砲戰پن‌ين: Bā'èrsān Pàozhàn; پخ-اوه-جي: Pat-jī-sam Phàu-chiàn) at 17:30, أغسطس 23, 1958, when the PRC's People's Liberation Army (PLA) began an intense artillery bombardment against the Islands of Quemoy (Kinmen) County. The ROC troops on Kinmen dug in and then returned fire. In the heavy exchange of fire, roughly 440 ROC soldiers and 460 PRC soldiers were killed.[2]

This conflict was a continuation of the First Taiwan Strait Crisis, which had begun immediately after the Korean War ended. The Nationalist Chinese had begun to build on the island of Kinmen and the nearby Matsu archipelago. During 1954, the PLA began firing artillery at both Kinmen and some of the nearby Matsu islands.

The American Eisenhower Administration responded to the request for aid from the ROC according to its obligations in the ROC-United States mutual defense treaty that had been ratified in 1954. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the reinforcement of the U.S. Navy Seventh Fleet in the area, and he ordered American naval vessels to help the Nationalist Chinese government to protect the supply lines to the islands. In addition, the U.S. Air Force deployed F-100D Super Sabres, F-101C Voodoos, F-104A Starfighters, and B-57B Canberras to Taiwan to demonstrate support for the republic. The F-104s were disassembled and airlifted to Taiwan in C-124 Globemaster II transport aircraft, marking the first time such a method was used to move fighter aircraft over a long distance.[3]

The U.S. carrier يوإس‌إس Lexington (CVA-16) with a supply ship and USS Marshall (DD-676) off Taiwan during the crisis.

Also, under a secret effort called "Operation Black Magic", the U.S. Navy modified some of the F-86 Sabre fighters of the Nationalist Chinese Air Force with its newly developed early AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. These missiles gave the Nationalist Chinese pilots a decisive edge over the Chinese Communists' Soviet-made MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters in the skies over the Matsu Islands and the Taiwan Strait. The Nationalist Chinese pilots used the Sidewinder missiles to score numerous kills on PLAAF MiG aircraft.

The US Army's contribution reinforced the strategic air defense capability of the Republic of China. A provisional Nike missile battalion was organized at Fort Bliss, TX, and sent via USMTS USS General J. C. Breckinridge (AP-176) to Nationalist China. The 2nd Missile Battalion was augmented with detachments of signal, ordnance and engineers, totaling some 704 personnel.

Twelve long-range 203 mm (8-inch) M115 howitzer artillery pieces and numerousقالب:How many 155 mm howitzers were transferred from the U.S. Marine Corps to the Army of the Nationalist China. These were sent west to Kinmen Island to gain superiority in the artillery duel back and forth over the straits there. The impact of these powerful but conventional artillery pieces led some members of the PLA to believe that American artillerymen had begun to use nuclear weapons against them.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Soon, the Soviet Union dispatched its foreign minister, Andrei Gromyko, to Beijing to discuss the actions of the PLA and the Communist Chinese Air Force (PLAAF), with advice of caution to the Communist Chinese.

On سبتمبر 22, 1958, the Sidewinder missile was used for the first time in air-to-air combat as 32 Republic of China F-86s clashed with 100[بحاجة لمصدر] PRC (PLAAF) MiGs in a series of aerial engagements. Numerousقالب:How many MiGs were shot down by Sidewinders, the first "kills" to be scored by air-to-air missiles in combat.[4]

Soon, the People's Republic of China was faced with a stalemate, as the PLA's artillerymen had run out of artillery shells.[بحاجة لمصدر] The Communist Chinese government announced a large decrease in bombardment levels on أكتوبر 6, 1958.


الأعقاب

Afterwards, both sides continued to bombard each other with shells containing propaganda leaflets on alternate days of the week. This strange informal arrangement continued until the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the Communist People's Republic of China in 1979. The timed shelling created little damage and casualties; it was mainly aimed at military compounds and artillery pieces. It was also a way to expend expired ammunition and train new artillery crews for the PRC in what eventually became one-way shelling from Mainland China to Taiwanese-controlled territory.

The question of "Matsu and Quemoy (Kinmen)" became an issue in the 1960 U.S. presidential election when Richard Nixon accused John F. Kennedy of being unwilling to commit to using nuclear weapons if the Communist China invaded the Nationalist China outposts.

The spent shell casings and fragments have become a recyclable resource for steel for the local economy. Since the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, Kinmen has become famous for its production of meat cleavers made from bombshells.

انظر أيضاً

للاستزادة

  • Bush, R. & O'Hanlon, M. (2007). A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98677-1
  • Bush, R. (2006). Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-1290-1
  • Carpenter, T. (2006). America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6841-1
  • Cole, B. (2006). Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36581-3
  • Copper, J. (2006). Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan. Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0-275-98888-0
  • Federation of American Scientists et al. (2006). Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning
  • Gill, B. (2007). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0-8157-3146-9
  • Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-530609-0
  • Tsang, S. (2006). If China Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40785-0
  • Tucker, N.B. (2005). Dangerous Strait: the U.S.-Taiwan-China Crisis. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-13564-5
  • Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.

المراجع

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الهوامش

  1. ^ Maritime Taiwan: Historical Encounters with the East and the West by Shih-Shan Henry Tsai. Page 189. Published 2009
  2. ^ 國防通識教育 (in الصينية). 五南圖書出版股份有限公司. 2007. ISBN  9789571144924 .
  3. ^ Davies, Peter E. (2014). F-104 Starfighter Units in Combat. Great Britain: Osprey Publishing. pp. 22–23. ISBN  978-1-78096-313-6 .
  4. ^ قالب:Cite DVD

المصادر

وصلات خارجية

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).