مذهب ترومان

(تم التحويل من مبدأ ترومان)

مذهب ترومان Truman doctrine هو مشروع مساعدات عسكرية واقتصادية أميركية بقيمة 400 مليون دولار تقدم لليونان، ولتركيا. تقدم به هاري ترومان أمام الكونگرس في مارس 1947 للمصادقة عليه.

أهدافه:

  • سد الفراغ الذي تركته بريطانيا،
  • الحصول على منطقة نفوذ في البحر المتوسط،
  • منع السوفيت من الوصول إلى المياه الدافئة،
  • الوقوف في وجه الشيوعية في المنطقة.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

أزمة المضائق التركية

المضائق التركية

مع نهاية الحرب العالمية الثانية ، تم الضغط على تركيا من قبل الحكومة السوفييتية للسماح بحرية تدفق الشحن الروسي عبر المضائق التركية ، التي تربط البحر الأسود بالبحر المتوسط. وبسبب رفض الحكومة التركية لطلبات الاتحاد السوفييتي ، نشأت توترات في المنطقة ، مما أدى إلى ظهور القوة البحرية على الجانب السوفييتي. منذ أنتهاء المساعدة البريطانية لتركيا في عام 1947 ، أرسلت الولايات المتحدة مساعدات عسكرية لضمان احتفاظ تركيا بقدرتها بالتحكم بالممر. تلقت تركيا 100 مليون دولار من المساعدات الاقتصادية والعسكرية ، وأرسلت الولايات المتحدة حاملة الطائرات فرانكلين دي روزفلت.

بدأت فترة ما بعد الحرب من عام 1946 "بفترة تعددية حزبية في الجمهورية التركية " وحكومة الحزب الديمقراطي بزعامة عدنان مندريس. [1]


الأزمة اليونانية

الملك جورج الثاني من اليونان (حكم 1922–24, 1935–47)، الذي عارض حكمه تمرد شيوعي في الحرب الأهلية اليونانية.

Six weeks after the Axis powers abandoned Greece in October 1944, the British helped retake Athens from the victorious National Liberation Front (EAM), controlled effectively by the Greek Communist Party (KKE). This began with a mass killing of largely unarmed EAM supporters known as the Dekemvriana on December 3.[2] The leftists attempted to retaliate, but were outgunned by the British-backed government and subjected to the White Terror.[3] With the full outbreak of civil war (1946–49), guerrilla forces controlled by the Greek Communist Party sustained a revolt against the internationally recognized Greek government which was formed after 1946 elections boycotted by the KKE. The British realized that the KKE were being directly funded by Josip Broz Tito in neighboring Yugoslavia. In line with the Churchill-Stalin "percentages agreement", the Greek communists received no help from the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia provided them support and sanctuary against Stalin's wishes.[4] By late 1946, Britain informed the United States that due to its own weakening economy, it could no longer continue to provide military and economic support to royalist Greece.[5]

In 1946–47, the United States and the Soviet Union moved from being wartime allies to Cold War adversaries. The breakdown of Allied cooperation in Germany provided a backdrop of escalating tensions for the Truman Doctrine.[6] To Truman, the growing unrest in Greece began to look like a pincer movement against the oil-rich areas of the Middle East and the warm-water ports of the Mediterranean.[7]

جورج كنان (1904–2005) اقترح مبدأ الإحتواء في 1946.

في فبراير 1946, Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, sent his famed "Long Telegram", which predicted the Soviets would only respond to force and that the best way to handle them would be through a long-term strategy of containment, that is stopping their geographical expansion. After the British warned that they could no longer help Greece, and following Prime Minister Konstantinos Tsaldaris's visit to Washington in December 1946 to ask for American assistance,[8] the U.S. State Department formulated a plan. Aid would be given to both Greece and Turkey, to help cool the long-standing rivalry between them.

American policy makers recognized the instability of the region, fearing that if Greece was lost to communism, Turkey would not last long. Similarly, if Turkey yielded to Soviet demands, the position of Greece would be endangered.[9] A regional domino effect threat therefore guided the American decision. Greece and Turkey were strategic allies important for geographical reasons as well, for the fall of Greece would put the Soviets on a particularly dangerous flank for the Turks, and strengthen the Soviet Union's ability to cut off allied supply lines in the event of war.[10]

خطاب ترومان

دين آتشسون (1893–1971)، الذي ساعد في صياغة مبدأ ترومان، عـُيـِّن وزيراً للخارجية في العام التالي.

To pass any legislation Truman needed the support of the Republicans, who controlled both houses of Congress. The chief Republican spokesman Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg strongly supported Truman and overcame the doubts of isolationists such as Senator Robert A. Taft.[11]:127 Truman laid the groundwork for his request by having key congressional leaders meet with himself, Secretary of State George Marshall, and Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson. Acheson laid out the "domino theory" in the starkest terms, comparing a communist state to a rotten apple that could spread its infection to an entire barrel. Vandenberg was impressed, and advised Truman to appear before Congress and "scare the hell out of the American people."[11]:127-8 On March 7, Acheson warned Truman that Greece could fall to the communists within weeks without outside aid.[12]:545

When a draft for Truman's address was circulated to policymakers, Marshall, Kennan, and others criticized it for containing excess "rhetoric." Truman responded that, as Vandenberg had suggested, his request would only be approved if he played up the threat.[12]:546

On March 12, 1947, Truman appeared before a joint session of Congress. In his eighteen-minute speech, he stated:{{Quote|I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

انظر أيضاً

ببليوجرافيا

  • Beisner, Robert L. Dean Acheson: A Life in the Cold War (2006)
  • Bostdorff, Denise M. Proclaiming the Truman Doctrine: The Cold War Call to Arms (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Bullock, Alan. Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary, 1945-1951 (1983) on British roles
  • Edwards, Lee. "Congress and the Origins of the Cold War: The Truman Doctrine," World Affairs, Vol. 151, 1989 online edition
  • Frazier, Robert. "Acheson and the Formulation of the Truman Doctrine" Journal of Modern Greek Studies 1999 17(2): 229-251. ISSN 0738-1727
  • Gaddis, John Lewis. "Reconsiderations: Was the Truman Doctrine a Real Turning Point?" Foreign Affairs 1974 52(2): 386-402. ISSN 0015-7120
  • Hinds, Lynn Boyd, and Theodore Otto Windt Jr. The Cold War as Rhetoric: The Beginnings, 1945–1950 (1991) online edition
  • Iatrides, John O. and Nicholas X. Rizopoulos. "The International Dimension of the Greek Civil War." World Policy Journal 2000 17(1): 87-103. Issn: 0740-2775 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Ivie, Robert L. "Fire, Flood, and Red Fever: Motivating Metaphors of Global Emergency in the Truman Doctrine Speech." Presidential Studies Quarterly 1999 29(3): 570-591. online edition
  • Jeffrey, Judith S. Ambiguous Commitments and Uncertain Policies: The Truman Doctrine in Greece, 1947-1952 (2000). 257 pp.
  • Jones, Howard. "A New Kind of War": America's Global Strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece (1989). 327 pp
  • Kayaoğlu, Barın. "Strategic imperatives, Democratic rhetoric: The United States and Turkey, 1945-52.," Cold War History, Aug 2009, Vol. 9#3 pp 321–345
  • Leffler, Melvyn P. "Strategy, Diplomacy, and the Cold War: the United States, Turkey, and NATO, 1945-1952" Journal of American History 1985 71(4): 807-825. ISSN 0021-8723 in JSTOR
  • Lykogiannis, Athanasios. Britain and the Greek Economic Crisis, 1944-1947: From Liberation to the Truman Doctrine. U. of Missouri Press, 2002. 287 pp. online edition
  • McGhee, George. The U.S.-Turkish-NATO Middle East Connection: How the Truman Doctrine and Turkey's NATO Entry Contained the Soviets in the Middle East. (1990). 224 pp.
  • Meiertöns, Heiko: The Doctrines of US Security Policy - An Evaluation under International Law (2010), ISBN 9780521766487.
  • Merrill, Dennis. "The Truman Doctrine: Containing Communism and Modernity" Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(1): 27-37. ISSN 0360-4918 online edition
  • Offner, Arnold A. "'Another Such Victory': President Truman, American Foreign Policy, and the Cold War." Diplomatic History 1999 23(2): 127-155. ISSN 0145-2096
  • Pach Jr., Chester J. Arming the Free World: The Origins of the United States Military Assistance Program, 1945–1950, (1991) online edition
  • Spalding, Elizabeth Edwards. The First Cold Warrior: Harry Truman, Containment, And the Remaking of Liberal Internationalism (2006)

وصلات خارجية

اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

Truman Doctrine



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الهامش

  1. ^ Barın Kayaoğlu, "Strategic imperatives, Democratic rhetoric: The United States and Turkey, 1945–52." Cold War History, Aug 2009, Vol. 9(3) pp. 321–345
  2. ^ Gerolymatos, André (2017-01-03). An International Civil War: Greece, 1943-1949 (in الإنجليزية). Yale University Press. pp. 100–111. ISBN  9780300180602 .
  3. ^ Gerolymatos, André (2017-01-03). An International Civil War: Greece, 1943-1949 (in الإنجليزية). Yale University Press. pp. 194–203. ISBN  9780300180602 .
  4. ^ Bærentzen, Lars, John O. Iatrides, and Ole Langwitz. Smith. Studies in the History of the Greek Civil War, 1945–1949. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, 1987. 273-280. Google Books. Web. 28 Apr. 2010. online
  5. ^ Bullock, Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary (1983) ch 8
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة MerrillTruDoct
  7. ^ Painter 2012, p. 29: "Although circumstances differed greatly in Greece, Turkey, and Iran, U.S. officials interpreted events in all three places as part of a Soviet plan to dominate the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Mention of oil was deliberately deleted from Truman's March 12, 1947, address before Congress pledging resistance to communist expansion anywhere in the world; but guarding access to oil was an important part of the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine was named after Harry S. Truman. This doctrine stated that that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces."

    One draft, for example, of Truman's speech spoke of the "great natural resources" of the Middle East at stake (Kolko & Kolko 1972, p. 341).

  8. ^ Freeland, Richard M. (1970). The Truman Doctrine and the Origins of McCarthyism. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. pp. g. 90.
  9. ^ Spalding, Elizabeth Edwards (2006). The First Cold Warrior: Harry Truman, Containment, and the Remaking of Liberal Internationalism. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 64.
  10. ^ McGhee, George (1990). The US-Turkish-NATO Middle East Connection: How the Truman Doctrine Contained the Soviets in the Middle East. St. Harry’s Press. pp. g. 21.
  11. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة JTP
  12. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة DM