ضم القرم إلى روسيا الاتحادية

(تم التحويل من ضم روسيا للقرم)
أزمـة القـرم 2014
جزء من بعد الثورة الأوكرانية 2014
LocationCrimea.PNG
موقع القرم (بالأخضر الداكن) في أوروپا داخل أوكرانيا (بالأخضر الفاتح)
التاريخ 23 فبراير 2014–الآن
المكان القرم، أوكرانيا
الوضع مستمرة
الأسباب *معارضة حركة يورو ميدان
السمات * مظاهرات
  • عمليات عسكرية غير محددة في أوكرانيا
  • تمركز القوات العسكرية الروسية
  • تعبئة عامة في أوكرانيا
أطراف الصراع المدني
* القرم المجلس الأعلى في القرم

المنظمات الموالية لروسيا[10]


 روسيا[3][13]

 أوكرانيا

Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg مجلس شعب تتار القرم[14]

الشخصيات القيادية
القرم سرگي أكسيونوڤ
القرم رسم تميرگالييڤ
القرم ڤولوديمير كونستانينوڤ
روسيا أكلسي چاليي

روسيا ڤلاديمير پوتن
روسيا سرگي شويوگو
روسيا ألسكندر ڤيتكو

أوكرانيا أولكسندر تورچينوڤ
أوكرانيا أرسنيي ياتسنيوك
أوكرانيا أرسن أڤاكوڤ
أوكرانيا ڤالنتين ناليڤايچنكو
أوكرانيا سرهي كونيتسين
Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg مصطفى دژميلڤ
Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg رفعت چوباروڤ
العدد
المتظاهرون

وحدات المتطوعين[18]

  • 5,000 (سڤاستوپول)
  • 1,700 (سيمفروپول)

المشاة الروس

  • 6,000–28,000

المتمردون المسلحون

  • 300
المتظاهرون
  • 4,000–10,000 (سيمفروپول)[10][17]

القوات العسكرية الروسية

  • حوالي 50,000 فرد
الخسائر
العديد من المصابين بإصابات خطيرة[17]
2–3 قتيل من المدنيين[19][20][21]

أزمة القرم 2014، ظهرت في اقليم القرم ذاتي الحكم، أوكرانيا، بعد الثورة الأوكرانية 2014، والتي أطاحت بحكومة الرئيس ڤيكتور يانوكوڤيتش. بدأت الأزمة بتظاهر الجماعات الموالية لروسيا والمعارضة للأحداث التي وقعت في كييڤ وأرادت المزيد من التكامل مع روسيا، بالإضافة إلى توسيع الحكم الذاتي أو ربما استقلال القرم.[7] جماعات أخرى، ومعظمها من تتار القرم والعرقية الأوكرانية، تظاهرت دعماً للثورة.[22]

في 27 فبراير، قام مسلحون ملثمون بالإستيلاء على عدد من المباني الهامة في القرم، وشملت مبنى البرلمان ومطارين.[23][24] [25] قاموا بتعطيل جميع الاتصالات وخدمات الإنترنت بين القرم وبقية أنحاء أوكرانيا.[26] تحت الحصار، تم حل المجلس الأعلى في القرم وحكومة الحكم الذاتي وأستبدل رئيس مجلس الوزراء القرم، أناتولي موهيليوڤ، بسرگي أكسيونوڤ.[27]

القوات الروسية المرابطة في القرم بحسب اتفاقية ثنائية تم تعزيزها ودخلت سفينتين من أسطول البلطيق الروسي المياه الأوكرانية.[28][29]

اتهمت كييڤ روسيا بالتدخل في الشؤون الداخلية لأوكرانية، بينما أنكر الجانب الروسي رسمياً هذه المزاعم.[30] في 1 مارس، فوض البرلمان الروسي الرئيس ڤلاديمير پوتن بإستخدام القوة العسكرية في أوكرانيا، في أعقاب طلب الزعيم الموالي لموسكو سرگي أكسيونوڤ المساعدة من روسيا.[31][32]

في اليوم نفسه، أعلن الرئيس المؤقت أولكسندر تورچينوڤ أن تعيين أكسيونوڤ رئيساً لوزراء القرم غير دستوري.[33][34][35] وأن هناك معلومات تفيد بحدوث تزوير أثناء التصويت على الاستفتاء الأخير وتغيير حكومة القرم.[36] أفاد مكتب المدعي العام أن أي قرارات تصدر بموجب الاستفتاء مخالفة لدستور أوكرانيا والقرم.[37]

في 2 مارس، كانت العديد من القطع العسكري الأوكرانية تعرضت للحصار أو الإعتداء[38][39] كما أعلنت أوكرانيا نداء المعركة الكاملة والتعبئة العامة في البلاد.[40] أعلنت وزارة الدفاع الأوكرانية أن هناك محاولات مضللة حول إستسلام الجيش الأوكراني في القرم وأن هذه المعلومات تتنافى مع الواقع.[41][42] أدانت الولايات المتحدة وحلفائها التدخل الروسي في القرم، ودعت روسيا للانسحاب.[43][44]

في 16 مارس، صرح مسئولون بأن 95.5% من الناخبين في القرم يدعمون الإنضمام لروسيا.[45] صرح المسئولون بأن الإقبال على التصويت كان كبير،[46] بالرغم من أن الكثير من التتار ومعارضو الاستفتاء قد أعلنوا مقاطعتهم للتصويت.[47] في 17 مارس، أعلن برلمان القرم رسمياً الاستقلال عن أوكرانيا وطالب بإنضمام القرم إلى روسيا الاتحادية.[48]

إدعى البرلمان الأوكراني أن الاستفتاء غير دستوري.[49] أعلنت روسيا أن قواتها ستظل حتى يعود الوضع السياسي لطبيعته بينما اعترفت بالحكومة المعينة أخيراً في القرم وبعمدة سڤاستوپول، وكذلك بالاستفتاء وما قد يترتب عليه.[50] صرحت الولايات المتحدة والاتحاد الأوروپي بأنهما تعتبران التصويت غير قانوني، وحذرتا من أنه قد يكون هناك تداعيات لاستفتاء القرمي.[51]

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خلفية

خريطة القرم

كانت القرم جزءاً من روسيا منذ القرن 18، بالرغم من أن ذوي العرقية الروسية لم يصبحو من الجماعات السكانية الكبرى في القرم حتى القرن 20.[52] كانت القرم تتمتع بالحكم الذتي ضمن جمهورية روسيا الاشتراكية الاتحادية السوڤيتية تحت اسم جمهورية القرم السوڤيتية ذاتية الحكم من 1921 حتى 1945، عندما أمر ستالين بترحيل تتار القرم الأغلبية وإلغاء الحكم الذاتي القرمي.[53] عام 1954، القيادة السوڤيتية برئاسة خروشوڤ نقل أوبلاست القرم من جمهورية روسيا الاشتراكية الاتحادية السوڤيتية إلى جمهورية أوكرانيا الاشتراكية الاتحادية السوڤيتية، في "لفتة رمزية" غير ذات أهمية في ذلك الوقت.[54][55] الحكم الذاتي في القرم بعد 1945 عاد مرة أخرى بموجب استفتاء الحكم الذاتي القرمي عام 1991، في السنوات الأخيرة من وجود الاتحاد السوڤيتي.

منطقة القرم ذاتية الحكم أصبحت جزءاً من أوكرانيا المستقلة منذ 1991. توقع الكثيرون من أول رئيس روسي بعد الاتحاد السوڤيتي، بوريس يلتسن، أن يعمل من أجل إعادة تكامل القرم مع روسيا بعد إنهيار الاتحاد السوڤيتي، لكن يلتسن لم يقم أي خطوة في هذا الشأن.[55] بدلاً من ذلك، فالحالة القانونية للقرم كجزء من أوكرانيا اعترف بها روسيا، التي تعهدت بدعم وحدة الأراضي الأوكرانية في مذكرة بوداپشت الموقعة عام 1994. هذه المعاهدة وقعت عليها أيضاً الولايات المتحدة، المملكة المتحدة وفرنسا.[56][57] في العام نفسه، فاز المنتمي للقومية الروسية يوري مشكوڤ الانتخابات الرئاسية القرمية 1994 ونظم استفتاء على وضع القرم.[58][59] ألغت أوكرانيا الدستور القرمي وألغت منصب رئيس القرم عام 1995.[60] التطورات الجديدة في القرم ومستقبل قواعد أسطول البحر الأسود الروسي فيها كان نقطة خلاف في العلاقاة الروسية الأوكرانية.[56]

حسب تعداد 2001، شكلت العرقية الروسية حوالي 58% من سكان القرم البالغ عددهم 2 مليون نسمة. في سڤاستوپول، والتي يوجد بها أسطول البحر الأسود التابع للبحرية الروسية (لمزيد من المعلومات، انظر حلف خاركيڤ 2010)، العرقية الورسية تشكل أكثر من 70% من سكان المدينة البالغ عددهم 340.000 نسمة.[61] يشكل الأوكرانيون أكثر من 24% من سكان القرم، بينما 12% منهم تتار القرم.[53][61] لم يكن مسموح لتتار القرم بالعودة إلى وطنهم، وأصبح لهم شهرة دولية،[62] حتى إنهيار الاتحاد السوڤيتي في 1991. الهجرة المستمرة لتار القرم إلى المنطقة منذ الإنهيار السوڤيتي تسببت في توترات مستمرة مع الروس على حقوق الأرض.[53]

في الانتخابات البرلمانية المحلية 2010، حصل حزب المناطق على 357.030 صوت، وجاء في الترتيب الثانين الحزب الشيوعي الأوكراني، حيث حصل على 54.172 صوت.[63] كلا الحزبان كان مستهدفاً من قبل المتظاهرين أثناء الثورة الأوكرانية 2014.[64][65][66]

حسب تاراس كوزيو، أثناء رئاسة ڤيكتور يانوكوڤيتش (2005-10)، تدهورت العلاقات الروسية مع أوكرانيا، مما مصلحة الأمن الروسي (مصلحة الأمن الاتحادية) والمخابرات العسكرية الروسية لتوسيع نطاق الدعم السري للقوات الموالية لروسيا في جنوب أوكرانيا والانفصاليين الروس في القرم.[67] في أعقاب الثورة البرتقالية والحرب الروسية الجورجية 2008، التسريبات الدبلوماسية الأمريكية التي تم تسريبها فيما بعد للعامة أظهرت أن الحراك العسكري الروسي ضد أوكرانيا "لم يعد متصوراً".[68]


الثورة في كييڤ

المقالةs الرئيسية: يورو ميدان and الثورة الأوكرانية 2014

في نهاية 2013، بدأت احتجاجات يورو ميدان المناهضة للحكومة حول إنضمام أوكرانيا للاتحاد الأوروپي، والذي كان يرفضه ڤيكتور يانوكوڤيتش. كان ينظر لرفضه من قبل الإعلام على أنه تقرباً لروسيا. تصاعدت الاحتجاجات في أوائل 2014 وفي النهاية تسببت في سقوط قتلى من جانب المتظاهرين وقوات الحكومة في 20 فبراير.[69] بعدها صوت البرلمان الأوكراني على عزل يانوكوڤيتش في 21 فبراير أثناء الثورة الأوكرانية 2014.[69] بعض أهالي المناطق الشرقية والجنوبية في البلاد خرجوا في مظاهرات ضد النظام الجديد في كييڤ]].[14] دعا برلمان القرمي لعقد جلسة استثنائية في 21 فبراير. رئيس مجلس شعب تتار القرم رفعت چوباروڤ أعلن أن البرلمان قد يطلب التدخل العسكري الروسي.[70]

في 21 فبراير 2014، مصلحة الأمن الأوكرانية أصدرت بيان يتعهد فيه بأنه "سيستخدم إجراءات مشددة لصد أي تحرك يتخذ ضد الإخلال بوحدة وسيادة أراضي أوكرانيا."[nb 1] في اليوم نفسه حزب المناطق الموالي لروسيا الذي يشغل 80 من 100 مقعد في برلمان القرم،[72] لم يناقش القضايا المتعلقة بانفصال القرم عن أوكرانيا ويبدو أنه يدعم اتفاق المبرم بين الرئيس يانوكوڤيتش والمعارضة لإنهاء الأزمة الذي تم توقيعه في اليوم نفسه.[73]

في 23 فبراير 2014، في أعقاب الثورة الأوكرانية 2014، قانون لغات الأقليات، وتشمل الروسية، تم إلغاؤه، ليجعل من الأوكرانية اللغة الوحيدة للدولة على جميع المستويات.[74] CSM أفادت: "بإن إلغاء قانون اللغات يخدم فقط حنق المناطق المتحدثة بالروسية، التي ترى أن هذه الحركة أكبر دليل على أن المظاهرات المناهضة للحكومة في كييڤ تديرها حكومة يانوكوڤيتش السابقة التي كانت عازمة على الضغط من أجل أجندة قومية. هذا الأمر عمق من التوترات في القرم، على سبيل المثال، فكرة أن "المتظاهرين في يورو ميدن كانوا راديكاليين فاشيين راديكاليين."[75]

تسلسل الأحداث

23–26 فبراير

في سيمفروپول، في 23 فبراير 2014 خرجت مسيرة موالية ليورو ميدان تضم ما بين 5.000-15.000 شخص دعماُ للسلطات الأوكرانية الجديدة.[10] طالب المتظاهرون أيضاً بإقالة برلمان القرم؛ رافعين أعم أوكرانيا، تتار القرم، والاتحاد الأوروپي.[76] في الوقت نفسه في سڤاتوپول، احتج الآلاف ضد السلطات الجديدة وصوتوا لصالح تأسيس ادارة موازية وفرق الدفاع المدني التي تأسست بدعم من دارجي ذئاب الليل الروسية. لوح المحتجون بالأعلام الروسية وهتفوا "پوتن هو رئيسنا" وأنهم سيرفضوا دفع المزيد من الضرائب للدولة.[77][78] يزعم أيضاً وجود قوافل عسكرية روسية في المنطقة.[78] في كرچ حاول المظاهرون الموالون لروسيا إنزال العلم الأوكراني من على قاعة المدينة ورفع العلم الروسي. أكثر من 200 متظاهر رفعوا العلم الروسي، حزب البرتقالي والأسود سانت جورج والوحدة الروسية. حاول العمدة أوله أوسادچي تفريق الحشود وفي النهاية وصلت الشرطة لإبقاء المتظاهرين خارج المبنى. قال أوسادچي: "هذه الأرض أوكرانية، القرم. هذا هو علم القرم" لكنه اتهم بالخيانة ونشب اشتباك على سارية العلم.[79]

في 24 فبراير، أعلن رئيس وزراء القرم أناتولي موهيليوڤ أن المنطقة ستلتزم بجميع القوانين التي صدق عليها البرلمان الأوكراني.[80] في اليوم نفسه، احتشد المزيد من المتظاهرين خارج المكاب الادارية في سڤاستوپول.[81] المتظاهرون الموالون لروسيا انضموا للقوزاق الجدد مطالبين بإختيار مواطن روسي كعمدة (والذي رفضه مجلس المدينة) ورفع العلم الروسي على قاعة المدينة؛ كذلك وزعوا منشورات يدعون فيها المتطوعين للتسلح ويحذرون من أن "طاعون اليورو الأزرق-البني على الأبواب."[82] في 25 فبراير، أغلق مئات المتظاهرين الموالين لروسيا البرلمان القرمي مطالبين بإستفتاء حول إستقلال القرم.[83]

في 25 فبراير، إختارت سڤاستوپول ألكسي چالي، مواطن روسي، كعمدة.[18] كان هذا محل جدل لأن لم يكن لسڤاستوپول عمدة[nb 2] يث كان رئيس الادارة الحكومية بمدينة سڤاستوپول يعينه الرئيس الأوكراني بمقتضى قانون يختص بهذا الشأن.[84] هتف آلف متظاهر من"عمدة روسية لمدينة روسية". إلتحمت الحشود مرة أخرى خارج قاعة مدينة سڤاستوپول مرة أخرى كما انتشرت شائعات بأنه تم القبض على ألكسي چالي، لكن رئيس الشرطة ألكسندر گونچاروڤ قال أن ضباطه رفضوا الإلتزام "بأوامر الضبط الجنائي" التي أصدرتها الحكومة المركزية. ڤيكتور نگانوڤ، مستشار وزير الداخلية في سڤاستوپول، أدان الأحداث التي وقعت في المدينة ووصفها بالإنقلاب. "يمثل چالي مصالح الكرملن والذي أعطى موافقة ضمنية على ما يبدو". رئيس ادارة مدينة سڤاستوپول، الذي عينه الرئيس الأوكراني، ڤلاديمير ياتسوبا، قوبل بالرفض والإستهجان عندما أخبر المتظاهرين الموالين لروسيا بأن القرم كانت جزء من أوكرانيا. واستقال في اليوم التالي.[85] في سيفروپول، مبنى الادارة المحلية أغلقه مئات المتظاهرين، ومن بينهم القوزاق الجدد، مطالبين باستفتاء للانفصال؛ كانت المظاهرة بتنظيم الجبهة القرمية.[86]

في 26 فبراير، اشتبك آلاف المتظاهريون في سيمفروپول.[87] بالقرب من مبنى المجلس الأعلى في القرم احتشد ما بين 4.000 و5.000 من تتار القرم مدعمين حركة يورو ميدان-القرم مقابل 600-7000 متظاهر من منظمات موالية لروسيا وحزب الوحدة الروسية.[10] رئيس المجلس الأعلى في القرم ڤولوديمير كونستانتينوڤ قال أن البرلمان القرمي لن يناقش قضية الانفصال عن أوكرانيا وأن التقارير التي أفادت بأن البرلمان سيناقش هذا كانت إستفزازات.[88] أعلنت إحدى المتظاهرات الموالية لروسيا أنها لا ترغب في الإقامة في بلد يحكمها "فاشيون من غرب أوكرانيا" وأنها تعتقد أن لديهم النية في القضاء على اللغة والثقافة الروسية.[61] وأعلن تتار القرم "نحن لانقبل أي شي جيد من روسيا، القوميين الأوكرانيين والقوميين القرميين لديهم نفس العدو: روسيا"[61] أثناء الاشتباكات، توفى رجل بأزمة قلبية وتوفت إمرأة تحت الأقدام.[19] أسس تتار القرم جماعات دفاع ذاتي ودعو الناشطين للاتحاد مع الروس، الأوكرانيين وشعوب القوميات الأخرى لتجنب الاستفزازات وحماية الكنائس، المساجد، المعابد اليهودية والمواقع الهامة الأخرى.[89] بحلول المساء، غادر تتار القرم،[90]بينما زاد عدد الحشود الموالية لروسيا إلى 5.000 متظاهر وصلوا من سڤاستوپول.[17] وزير الداخلية المؤقت في النظام الأوكراني الجديد أرسن أڤاكوڤ أمر وكالات إنفاذ القانون القرمي بعدم إثارة النزاعات وعمل كل ما يلزم لمنع الاشبتاكات مع القوات الموالية لروسيا وأضاف "أنا أعتقد، بالطريقة التي تسير بها الأمور - سوف نجني الكثير بعدم التدخل"[91] الرئيس الجديد لمصلحة الأمن الأوكرانية ڤالنتين ناليڤاچنكو طلب مراقبة على مدار الساعة من قبل الأمم المتحدة حول الوضع الأمني في شبه جزيرة القرم.[92]

أيضاً في 26 فبراير، زعمت وسائل الإعلام أن القوات الروسية أو (كما زعموا أنفسهم) المتطوعون المحليون سيطروا على الطرق الرئيسية المؤدية إلى سڤاستوپول.[61] نقطة تفتيش عسكرية، بها مركبات عسكرية عليها العلم الروسي، تم إنشاؤها في الطريق السريع الرئيسي بين المدينة وسيمفروپول.[61] وصفتها سي إن إن بأنها "نقطة تفتيش لمسلحين موالين لروسيا".[93]

27–28 فبراير

في 27 فبراير الساعة 4:20 حسب التوقيت المحلي، إستولى جماعة تضم 60 مسلح يتحدثون الروسية على مبنى برلمان القرم ومبنى مجلس الوزراء. يقال أنهم محترفون ومدججون بالسلاح.[94] في البداية إقتحم 30 منهم المبنى، بحافلة تحمل 30 شخص آخر بالإضافة إلى مسلحين آخرين وصلوا فيما بعد.[95] المسلحون مجهولون لكنهم يرفعون العلم الروسي.[96]

في 27 فبراير، أعلن تنظيم قطاع اليمين الأوكراني رسميأً أنه ليس لديه نية للمشاركة في أي نزاعات على أراضي القرم.[97]

تحت الحصار، عقد المجلس الأعلى للقرم (برلمان القرم) جلسة طائرة لعزل رئيس وزراء القرم والتصويت بحجب الثقة على أناتولي موهيليوڤ خلفاً لسرگي أكسيونوڤ من حزب الوحدة الروسية القرمي.[98] صوت البرلمان عقد الاستفتاء حول وضع القرم والمقرر عقده في 25 مارس 2015.

أنترفاكس-أوكرانيا أفادت بأنه "من المستحيل التأكيد على أن 64 بالكامل من 100 عضو في البرلمان كانوا حاضرين عندما تم التصويت على القرارين أو ما إذا كان هناك آخرين يستخدمون بطاقات التصويت البلاستيكية الخاصة بالأعضاء الآخرين" لأنه بسبب الاحتلال المسلح للبرلمان لم يكن واضحاً عدد البرلمانيين الحاضرين.[99] رئيس قسم المعلومات والتحليل بالبرلمان، أولها سولينكوڤا، قامت بإتصال هاتفي من خارج مبنى البرلمان للصحفيين وأخبرتهم بأن 61 من النواب ال64 المسجلين صوتوا لصالح قرار الاستفتاء و55 لصالح قرار عزل الحكومة.[99] كذلك عينوا رئيس وزراء جديد. حسب الدستور الأوكراني، رئيس وزراء القرم يعين من قبل المجلس الأعلى في القرم بالتشاور مع الرئيس الأوكراني.[100][101]

رئيس المجلس الأعلى في القرم، ڤولوديمير كونستانتينوڤ، ورئيس الوزراء الجديد أكسنوڤ، رفضا الاعتراف بإقالة ڤيكتور يانوكوڤيتش من منصب الرئاسة، ويعتبرونه الرئيس الشرعي للبلاد.[102][103] أضاف أكسنوڤ "سوف نتبع توجيهاته".[104]

رئيس الوزراء الأوكراني الجديد، أرسنلي ياتسنيوك، حذر "يجب أن نعلم فوراً أن أي شخص في الشوارع يحمل أسلحة - هؤلاء الأشخاص يخترقون القانون.[105]

في الساعات الأولى من 28 فبراير جماعة من 50-119[3] مسلح يرتدون زي عسكري بدون شارات توضح هويتهم سيطروا على مطار سيمفروپول الدولي.[106] فيما بعد أنكرت سلطات المطار أنه تم الإستيلاء عليه وقالت أن المطار لا يزال يعمل بصورة طبيعية بالرغم من إستمرار التواجد المسلح.[107][108] في اليوم التالي، تم إحتلال مطار سڤاستوپول الدولي بطريقة مشابهة لما حدث بمطار سيمفروپول.[109] حسب وزير الشؤون الداخلية، أرسن أڤاكوڤ، الجنود الذين لا يحملون أي هوية هو قوات أسطول البحر الأسود الروسي.[3] بعدها أعلنت بعض القنوات التلفزيونية لاروسية أن هذه المطارات تحت حراسة دوريات الدفاع الذاتي القرمي.[110] فيما بعد زُعم أن الجماعات المسلحة في سيمفروپول هم جنود من المخابرات الروسية حيث شوهدت الطائرة التي هبطت بهم في هڤاردييسكي (هڤاردييسكه) بالقرب من سيمفروپول.[111]

حسب الموقع الرسمي لنادي دارجي ذئاب الليل، فإنهم يحرسون الدارة الحكومية في سڤاستوپول.[112]

في 28 فبراير 2014، زورق صواريخ روسي أغلق ميناء بالاكلاڤا، حيث ترابض سفن الحرس البحري الأوكراني.[113] ثمان مروحيات روسية تحركت إلى سڤاستوپول من أناپا.[114] في 28 فبراير 2014، أعلن في مجلس الأمن الدولي أن المروحيات لم تكن طائرات نقل، لكنها كانت طائرات مي-24 المقاتلة. صرح سرهي كونتيسين للصحفيين أن القرم سيزورها وفد روسي يضم ڤلاديمير ژيرينوڤسكي وكونستنتين زاوتلين.[115]

سرهي كونيتسين صرح للصحفيين أن 13 طائر عسكرية من طراز أي إل-67 على متنها قوات روسية هبطت في مطار هڤاردييسكه العسكري.[116] أعلن كونيتسين أن كل طائرة تحمل حوالي 150 شخص.[116]

البرلماني الأوكراني پترو پوروشنكو، الذي وصل سيمفروپول، تعرض لهجوم من الحشود الغاضبة، لكنهم لم يصب بأي إصابات.[117] رئيس المجلس الأعلى في القرم ڤولوديمير كونستانتينوڤ قوبل بغضب المتظاهرين الذين كانوا يهتفون "القرم-روسيا".[118]

في 28 فبراير، وزير الدفاع الأوكراني اعترف بوجود تهديد محتمل من الاستيلاء على وحدات عسكرية في القرم مساء السبت من قبل قوات راديكالية.[119] في 28 فبراير، في مواجهة تدخل روسي محتمل، أعلن الرئيس الأمريكي باراك اوباما أن أي تحرك عسكري سوف "يكون ثمنه غالياً"، بعد إدانته للعدوان الروسي في المنطقة.


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1 مارس

في 1 مارس، رئيس الوزراء القرمي الجديد سرگي أكسيونوڤ ناشد مباشرة الرئيس الروسي ڤلاديمير پوتن في بيان دعا فيه روسيا "إلى تقديم مساعدة لضمان السلام والهدوء على أراضي القرم".[120] في غضون ذلك، تولى أكسيونوڤ السيطرة على "الأمن [في القرم] بصفة مؤقتة"، على حد قوله. كان على جميع القادة الإنصياع لأوامره أو "الاستقالة".[120]أعلن أكسيونوڤ أيضاً أن تاريخ استفتاء الحكم الذاتي تأجل إلى 30 مارس.[120]

ڤالنتينا ماتڤيينكو، رئيس مجلس الاتحاد الروسي، عبرت عن رأيها قائلة بأنه "بقبول طلب حكومة القرم، حتى بوحدة محدودة [من القوات] قد ترسل بهدف "تأمين أسطول البحر الأسود ومواطني روسيا المقيمين في أراضي القرم".[121]

خرجت متظاهرات ضد السلطات الجديدة في كييڤ وبدعم من روس القرم في شرق وجنوب أوكرانيا في 1 مارس.[122] المتظاهرون في دونتسك إستجابوا برفع العلم الروسي ثلاثي الألوان على مبنى الادارة المحلية في أوبلاست دونتسك، بالإضافة لانتخاب حاكم جديد موالي لروسيا.[123] كذلك خرج متظاهرون في ماريوپول أمام المكاتب المحلية، ملوحين بالأعلام الروسية.[124] في خاركيڤ، سيطر المتظاهرون على مبنى الادارة المحلية، وأنزلوا العلم الأوكراني ورفعوا العلم الروسي. حاول ممثل الحكومة الجديدة في كييڤ الحديث مع المتظاهخرين، لكنه هوجم من قبل الحشود.[125] خرج بين 5.000 و20.000 مشارك في مظاهرات موالية روسية في أودسا.[126] إرتفعت الأعلام الروسية في مليتوپول ويڤپاتوريا.[5]

في 1 مارس، الوزير الأوكراني المؤقت، تورچينوڤ، وقع مرسوماً يعلن فيه أن تعيين سرگي أكسيونوڤ رئيساً لحكومة القرم غير دستوري.[34]

الرئيس الروسي پوتن طلب رسمياً من مجلس الاتحاد الروسي في 1 مارس تصريح "بإستخدام القوات المسلحة الروسية على الأراضي الأوكرانية من أجل إستعادة الوضع الاجتماعي-السياسي الطبيعي في البلاد".[127] في الساعات التالية، صوت مجلس الاتحاد الروسي بالإجماع على منح التصريح.[128][129]

مجلس مدينة دونتسك حث البرلمان المحلي بها على إعلان تاريخ الاستفتاء الخاص "بمستقبل منطقة دونباس"[5]

بدأت القنصلية الروسية في سيمفروپول إصدار جوازات سفر روسية للمواطنين الأوكرانيين.[130] من أول من حصل على المواطن الروسية في القرم كان ضابط سابقة في قوات مكافحة الشغب البركوت.[130]

في 1 مارس، أُجبرت البحرية الأوكرانية على ترك قاعدتها البحرية في سڤاستوپول.[131][132] بعدها أُجبر الحرس البحري الأوكراني على ترك قادتهم أيضاً.[131][132] فيما بعد أنكر بعض الصحفيين هذه المعلومات، علنين أنها كانت معلومات خاطئة نشرتها أر أي إيه نيوز.[131]

في 1 مارس، مُنع الصحفيون الأوكرانيون من دخول القرم.[133] كان المنع بأمر من أعضاء المجلس الأعلى.

في 1 مارس، أصبح معروفاً أن قرارات تغير الحكومة والاستفتاء في القرم كانت غير صحيحة، حسب الإعلام الأوكراني.[134][135][136]

حسب دامون ويلسون، نائب رئيس مجلس الأطلسي، الكونگرس الأمريكي، ينظر في "السماح بتوفير أسلحة دفاعية لأوكرانيا".[137][138]

2 مارس

في 2 مارس، مفرزة مشاة البحرية الأوكرانية المرابطة حول فيودوسيا حاصرها مسلحون مطالبينها بالاستسلام في الساعة 9 صباحاً بالتوقيت المحلي. في سوداك، أُجبر أفراد محطة الرادار على تسليم أسلحتهم.[139] أصبح مبنى البحرية الأوكرانية تحت الحصار وتعرض لهجوم بري من قبل الجيش الروسي حسب پراڤدا الأوكرانية.[38]

أر أي إيه نوڤوستي أفادت بأن وحدات من القوات المسلحة الأوكرانية كانت موجودة بالقرم قد استسلمت في 2 مارس.[140] حسب نائب رئيس الوزراء القرمي، رستم تميرگالييڤ، أن القوات المسلحة الأوكرانية في القرم سلمت جميع مرافقها العسكرية ولم يعد هناك وحدات نشطة في القرم.[140] تميرگالييڤ وعد أيضاً أقلية تتار القرم بمكان في المجلس الأعلى الجديد، وأضاف أن هناك تمويل "وفير" من أجل برامج إعادة توطين وإستيعاب المرحلين في عهد ستالين.[140]

في 2 مارس، أصدر الرئيس المؤقت أولكسندر تورچينوڤ أمراً للإستدعاء جميع أفراد قوات الاحتياطي الأوكرانية.[141]

في قاعدة عسكرية أوكرانية بالقرب من بلدة پرڤالنه، هناك مواجهات دائرة بين عدد قليل من القوات الأوكرانية الموالية لكييڤ والقوات الروسية/القرمية المحاصرة لها.[142]

وزير الخارجية البريطاني وليام هيگ سافر لأوكرانيا ملعقد مباحثات بشأن الأزمة مع الرئيس المؤقت أولكسندر تورچينوڤ.

3 مارس

  • According to Ukrainian officials, Ukrainian troops stationed in Crimea were urged to surrender by 4 March at 5 a.m. (0300 GMT) or face an armed confrontation via an ultimatum issued by Alexander Vitko, the commander of the Russian Black Sea Fleet.[143] This ultimatum was however denied by Russian officials[144] and turned out to be false as no confrontations were reported after the deadline expired.[145] Russian soldiers seized a ferry terminal in the city of Kerch, the easternmost point of Crimea.[146]

5 مارس

6 مارس

  • The Supreme Council of Crimea voted for full accession as part of the Russian Federation after more than six decades as part of Ukraine.[156] The Supreme Council's decision will be put to the Crimean people via referendum if the request is granted by Russia. The previously announced referendum scheduled for 30 March, will be moved up to 16 March 2014, and its question will be altered to reflect the Supreme Council's 6 March vote of whether to accept reunification with Russia or not.[156] A Ukrainian government minister argued that any referendum would be unconstitutional.[156] Council member Pilunsky declared that the decision did not meet the quorum.[157]
  • Observers of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) made attempts to get inside the Crimean peninsula, however they were stopped at border checkpoints by pro-Russian forces. The contingent consists of 42 people from 22 countries and led by Hungarian Lt. Col. Gábor Ács. The mission arrived in Ukraine on 6 March and has a mandate to work in Crimea till March 12.[158] They were deterred by warning shots while attempting to enter Crimea on 8 March.[159]


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7 مارس

  • Three Ukrainian television channels have been shut down in the Crimea,[160] including the largest local broadcaster not run by the Crimean state,[161] and two that have been replaced by Russian state television.[160]
  • Amnesty International and the Committee to Protect Journalists have both claimed that human rights of journalists, human rights activists, and pro-Ukrainian protestors have been violated by the occupying forces.[بحاجة لمصدر] John Dalhuisen, Europe and Central Asia Director at Amnesty International stated "Attempting to monitor the human rights situation in Crimea has become a near impossible task. Self-styled Crimean self-defence groups are harassing pro-Ukrainian protesters, journalists and human rights monitors with complete impunity."[162][163]
جندي من الجيش الأوكراني في قاعدة پرڤالنه العسكرية، 9 مارس.

9 مارس

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin in a phone call with German Chancellor Angela Merkel and British Prime Minister David Cameron, has defended breakaway moves by the pro-Russian leaders of Crimea by saying their actions are aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the population of the region, according to the Kremlin. Ms Merkel, however, told Mr Putin the referendum violated Ukraine's constitution and was against international law.[164]
  • In Sevastopol, clashes took place during a rally celebrating the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko. pro-Kiev radicals from Western Ukraine started shouting Nazi slogans and called on Sevastopol residents to ignore the March 16 referendum.[165][166][167][168] Police confirmed that 20 people were detained including members of the Right Sector nationalist group.[169]

10 مارس

  • Allegations emerged that mercenaries from the U.S. defense-contracting firm Academi (Blackwater) were used by the pro-Kiev authorities in Donetsk to suppress the local pro-Russian protesters there.[170] The Russian Foreign Ministry released a statement saying that Russia is "outraged by the chaos which is currently ruling in eastern regions of Ukraine," which The Washington Post interpreted as potentially being a "pretext for Russian military intervention into areas of Ukraine beyond Crimea."[171]
  • Crimean Prime Minister Sergey Aksenov proposed an agreement with Crimean Tatars who constitute more than 12 percent of the Crimean population. Under the deal, Tatar representatives will be offered a vice premiership and at least two more posts in the local government.[169] The Crimean Tatars declined this offer.[172]قالب:Fv[173][174]
  • The parliament of Crimea sent an official invitation to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to send a mission to observe the referendum on March 16.[175] The next day the Deputy Prime Minister of Crimea, Rustam Temirgaliyev, said they did not invite the OSCE to observe the referendum in an official manner.[176] He explained that only a verbal invitation was indeed made by Prime Minister of Crimea, Sergei Aksionov, but not an official invitation.[176] Later the OSCE chair, Switzerlands Foreign Minister Didier Burkhalter declared the referendum as illegal in its current form as its in contradiction with the Ukrainian constitution and that the OSCE will not send a mission to observe it.[177]
  • Over 1 billion hryvna ($110 million) belonging to the regional budget of Crimea was frozen by the post-Maidan government in Kiev.[بحاجة لمصدر]

11 مارس

  • The Crimean parliament voted and approved a declaration on the independence of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol from Ukraine, as the Republic of Crimea, with 78 votes out of 100 in favor.[178] The Bakhchasaray air defense base was taken over by 30 Crimean "self-defence forces" personnel.[178]

12 مارس

President Barack Obama talks with acting Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk at the conclusion of their bilateral meeting in the Oval Office, March 12, 2014.
  • A set of press regulations was issued by the Crimean parliament concerning the referendum on 16 March, stating, among other things, that authorized journalists covering the elections are obliged "not to spread material with negative content"[179]
  • The multinational OSCE observation mission published a report about their observations which "produced significant evidence of equipment consistent with the presence of Russian Federation military personnel in the vicinity of the various roadblocks encountered". Their entrance was refused at gunpoint.[180]
  • The UN Human Rights Envoy Ivan Simonovic had to cancel his trip to Crimea as the current situation does not permit his travel. He intended to observe the human rights situation, which was Russia's explanation for its engagement in Crimea.[181]


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13 مارس

  • Russia has voiced support for the deployment of an OSCE monitoring mission in Ukraine, including Crimea, the chairman of the European security group said on Thursday, calling this a possible "big step forward."[182]

14 مارس

  • The United States and Russia found no middle ground on the Ukrainian crisis, after six hours of talks in London.[183]
  • Rostec, a Russian-state arms agency, announced that it had intercepted a surveillance drone flying over the skies of Crimea on 14 March, which belonged to the Bavaria-based 66th Military Intelligence Brigade of the United States Army.[184] It disabled the drone "with the help of the EW (electronic warfare) complex Avtobaza," and as a result, "the device made an emergency landing and passed into the possession of the [Crimean] self-defense forces almost unbroken."[184] The company further claimed that this is the second U.S. drone to be intercepted over Crimea since the crisis began.[184] The Pentagon subsequently denied Rostec's claims, saying that "there is zero truth" to the reports.[185]

15 مارس

A woman casts her ballot during the referendum on the status of Crimea, March 16, 2014
  • A group of 30 international observers arrived in Crimea ahead of the 16 March referendum. The observers’ mission includes representatives from Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, France and Poland.[186]
  • A day before the Crimean referendum, tens of thousands of Russian demonstrators held anti-war protests in Moscow opposing Russian military invention in Ukraine. It was the largest protest in Russia since the 2011–13 Russian protests.[187]
  • Gennady Basov, the leader of the Russian Bloc party and a deputy of Sevastopol City Council, were kidnapped by unknown people.[188]
  • Russia vetoed a US-sponsored UN resolution declaring the upcoming referendum on the future status of autonomous republic of Crimea invalid. China abstained, while 13 other members - US, UK, France, Luxembourg, Chile, Argentina, Lithuania, Jordan, Nigeria, Chad, Rwanda, Australia and South Korea - vote in favor.[189]
  • The Supreme Council of Ukraine adopted a decision to dissolve the Supreme Council of Crimea.[190]

16 مارس

للمزيد من المعلومات: استفتاء القرم 2014
  • Crimeans vote in a referendum to rejoin Russia or return to its status under the 1992 constitution.[191]
  • Crimean news agencies are now reporting that the official results of the referendum are in, and the region overwhelmingly voted to re-join Russia [192] Some 95.5% of voters in Crimea have supported joining Russia, officials say. [193] Election officials said the turnout was a record high, beating the numbers who vote in local elections [194] Many Crimean Tatars boycotted the referendum.[195]
  • In Kiev, interim Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseny Yatseniuk threatened dire consequences for the Crimean politicians who had called for the referendum, saying "We will find all of them - if it takes one year, two years - and bring them to justice and try them in Ukrainian and international courts. The ground will burn under their feet".[196]
  • The defence ministries of Ukraine and Russia agree on a truce in Crimea until March 21, according to the acting Ukrainian defence minister.[197]

17 مارس

للمزيد من المعلومات: Accession of Crimea to the Russian Federation
  • On March 17, the Crimean parliament officially declared its independence from Ukraine and requested, after 60 years as part of the Ukrainian nation, for full accession to the Russian Federation.[198]
  • President Obama declared sanctions on 11 Ukrainian and Russian officials considered responsible for the crisis.[199]
  • Markets surged as investors worries faded after the referendum passed without violence. The Dow Jones Industrial Average increased by nearly 1%.[200][201][202][203]
  • The European Union sanctioned several Russian officials and military commanders.[204]
  • Russia officially recognizes independence of Crimea,[205]
  • Reşat Ametovyaky, an ethnic Crimean Tatar, was found dead in the Belogorskiy Region of Crimea. He was abducted on March 3 after the announcement of partial military mobilization in Ukraine, he disappeared on his way to the recruitment office. He was found dead with signs of torture. His hands were handcuffed and his head was covered in duct tape.[206]


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27 مارس

  • صدر قرار (غير ملزم) من الجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة بضرورة احترام وحدة أراضي أوكرانيا بأغلبية 100 صوت ضد 11 وامتناع 50 عن التصويت، وغياب 24 دولة عن الجلسة. انظر نتيجة التصويت.
نتيجة التصويت في الجمعية العمومية يوم 27 مارس على ضرورة احترام وحدة أراضي أوكرانيا.

ردود الفعل

المحلية

أوكرانيا

Three previous presidents of Ukraine accused Russia of interfering in Crimean affairs.[207] Interim Ukraine President Oleksandr Turchynov at the start of the protests warned that there is a "serious risk" of separatism in parts of the country.[16][17] On 27 February 2014, the Central Election Commission of Ukraine claimed that regional referendum is impossible due to lack of necessary legislative basis for such.[208] On 27 February 2014, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Oleksandr Turchynov instructed to develop a new law "About language".[209]

The new Prime Minister of Ukraine Arseniy Yatsenyuk stated in his maiden speech of 27 February "Ukraine will use all legal constitutional methods to preserve the territorial integrity of the state. Crimea was, is and will be a part of Ukraine!”.[210]

On 27 February 2014, the MFA of Ukraine in response to the MID statement stated that the responsibility for non-compliance with the agreement on settlement of the crisis lies on the fourth president Viktor Yanukovych.[211] "In Ukraine, it is honored the importance of the crisis settlement Agreement which was signed on 21 February 2014 by current at the time president of Ukraine, opposition leaders and witnessed by officials of Germany, France and Poland.[211] In this regard, we express disappointment that the representative of the Russian Federation, who also participated in the negotiation and drafting of the document, refused to testify this Agreement.[211] It is possible that it was that factor that become at the end one of the reasons for the rejection by the former president of Ukraine to fulfill arrangements of the Agreement aimed at stabilizing the domestic life in the country," - said in the document.[211]

On 28 February 2014, the Verkhovna Rada adopted a resolution on events in Crimea.[212] "Verkhovna Rada demands from the Russian Federation to stop steps that have signs of encroachment on state sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, including to refuse supporting separatism in Ukraine in any form," - it was said in the ruling.[212][213]

The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Oleksandr Turchynov dismissed Yuriy Ilyin as the Chief of the General Staff. During the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution Ilyin was reportedly preparing a military operation against the protest movement in Kyiv. Ilyin reportedly had a heart attack after meeting with the newly-appointed mayor of Sevastopol.[214]

Due to the events in Crimea, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine initiated bilateral consultations with Russia and indicated its readiness to initiate consultations within the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances framework if it receives no response.[215]

The General Prosecutor office intended to raise the issue of the extradition of Viktor Yanukovych, who was confirmed to be in Russia.[216] On 28 February, foreign observers speculated that Russia could extradite Yanukovych to the proper authorities only in exchange for Ukrainian non-intervention in Crimea.[بحاجة لمصدر] on February 28, the General Prosecutor of Ukraine Oleh Makhnitsky formally asked Russia to extradite Yanukovych.[217]

On 28 February, Dmytro Yarosh, the leader of the Right Sector, denounced reports of Right Sector putting together armed units to be sent to Crimea; "Right Sector hopes that a way out of this difficult situation will be found exclusively in the political field, without using forcible methods. Right Sector believes that all parties and non-governmental organizations of Ukraine should forget strife and unite when it comes to the preservation of Ukraine's integrity. We should help politicians in settling this conflict peacefully".[218] On 1 March, initial reports said that Dmytro Yarosh asked Dokka Umarov, Chechen militant associated with al-Qaeda, for support of Ukraine;[219] but later it was announced about fake statement from his hacked account.[220]

On 1 March 2014, the acting President of Ukraine sign an edict where he pointed out that appointment of Sergei Aksyonov as the Chairman of the Councils of Ministers of Crimea was in violation with the Constitution of Ukraine and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.[221]

All three former presidents of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk, Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yushchenko called on Ukraine to renounce the Kharkiv Agreements.[222] Leonid Kuchma's press-center later denounced such a statement on behalf of Leonid Kuchma. [223]

On March 1, 2014, the acting President of Ukraine ordered the Armed Forces of Ukraine to full combat readiness.[224]

On 1 March, the Oblast council of Luhansk Oblast voted to demand giving Russian language the status of second official language, stopping ″persecution of Berkut fighters″, disarming Maidan self-defense units and banning a number political organizations like Svoboda and UNA-UNSO. For the case the authorities failed to comply with the demands, the Oblast council reserved itself the ″right to ask for help from the brotherly people of the Russian Federation.″[225]

القرم

النسبة المئوية للأشخاص المتحدثين بالروسية كلغة أصلية في تعداد 2001 (في المناطق).

Operations of the Kerch ferry were suspended on 27 February 2014.[226] The Ukrainians in Crimea called on Ukrainian officials to secure peace and security for Crimeans and for European officials to influence the Russian position in regards to separatist attitudes.[227] The new chairman of the Council of Ministers hopes to receive financial help from the Russian Federation with support from Viktor Yanukovych.[228] In the telephone conversation Volodymyr Konstantinov explained Nestor Shufrych (MP) that Crimea does not want a secession, but only to expand its right.[229] The former chief of the general staff Yuriy Ilyin was reported to be hospitalized with a heart attack in the Ukrainian Navy hospital in Sevastopol.[230]


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ڤيكتور يانوكوڤيتش

Late at night on 27 February 2014, the former president of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych, who is wanted along with Zakharchenko under suspicion of mass killing of people,[231] arrived in Rostov-on-Don escorted by jet fighters.[232] On 28 February he conducted a press-conference.[232] In this press conference Yanukovych stated "Crimea must remain part of the Ukrainian state retaining broad autonomy rights".[233] According to him the unrest in Crimea was "an absolutely natural reaction to the bandit coup that has occurred in Kiev"; and he stated he was confident that the people of Crimea "do not want to obey and will not obey nationalists and bandits".[233] He insisted that military action was "unacceptable" and that he would not request Russian military intervention.[234][235]

روسيا

Request ("ultimatum") by Council of Ministers of Crimea to Ukrainian 55th Anti-Aircraft Artillery regiment in Yevpatoria to lay down arms under control of Russian Black Sea Fleet for the period of Crimean referendum

The State Duma Committee on Commonwealth of Independent States Affairs, headed by Leonid Slutsky, visited Simferopol on February 25, 2014 and said: "If the parliament of the Crimean autonomy or its residents express the wish to join the Russian Federation, Russia will be prepared to consider this sort of application. We will be examining the situation and doing so fast."[236] They also stated that in the event of a referendum for Crimea region joining Russian Federation they would consider its results "very fast".[237][238] Later Slutsky announced that he was misunderstood by Crimean press and no decision regarding simplifying the process of acquiring Russian citizenship for people in Crimea has been made yet.[239] And added that if "fellow Russian citizens are in jeopardy you understand that we do not stay away".[240] On 25 February in a meeting with Crimean politicians he stated that Viktor Yanukovich was still the legitimate president of Ukraine.[241] That same day in the Russian Duma, they announced they were determining measures so that Russians in Ukraine who 'did not want to break from the Russian World' could acquire Russian citizenship.[242]

On February 26, 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian Armed Forces to be "put on alert in the Western Military District as well as units stationed with the 2nd Army Central Military District Command involved in aerospace defense, airborne troops and long-range military transport." Despite media speculation it was for in reaction to the events in Ukraine Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said it was in separate consideration from the unrest in Ukraine.[243] On February 27, 2014, the Russian government dismissed accusations about violation by the Russian side of the basic agreements in regards of the Black Sea Fleet: "All movements of armored vehicles are undertaken in full compliance with the basic agreements and did not require any approvals".[244][245][246]

On February 27, 2014, the Russian governing agencies presented the new law project on granting citizenship.[247]

The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs called on the West and particularly NATO to "abandon the provocative statements and respect the neutral status of Ukraine".[248] In its statement the ministry claims that agreement on settlement of the crisis which was signed on 21 February and was witnessed by foreign ministries from Germany, Poland and France has to this date, not been implemented[248] (Vladimir Lukin from Russia had not signed it[249]).

According to RIA News, the political faction A Just Russia initiated in the State Duma amendments to the law on accession to the Russian Federation.[250]

According to ITAR-TASS on February 28 the Russian Ministry of Transport discontinued its further talks with Ukraine in regards to the Kerch Strait Bridge project.[251] However, on 3 March Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia, signed a decree creating a subsidiary of Russian Highways (Avtodor) to build a bridge at an unspecified location along the Kerch strait.[252][253]

On Russian social networks there is a movement to gather volunteers who served in the Russian army to go to Ukraine.[254]

On February 28 President Putin stated it was of "extreme importance of not allowing a further escalation of violence and the necessity of a rapid normalisation of the situation in Ukraine" in telephone calls with key EU leaders.[235] Already on 19 February the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs referred to the Euromaidan revolution as the "Brown revolution".[255][256]

The Federation Council approved that Russia may introduce a limited contingent of Russian troops in Crimea[مطلوب توضيح] for the security of the Black Sea Fleet and the Russians.[257]

In Moscow, on March 2, 2014 an estimated 27,000 rallied in support of the Russian government's decision to intervene in Ukraine.[258] Up to 15,000 participated in a similar rally in St. Petersburg, while around 12,000 rallied in Krasnodar.[258][259] The rallies received considerable attention on Russian state TV and were officially sanctioned by the government.[258]

Russian President Vladimir Putin (seated, middle) speaks to the press on 4 March, denouncing the events in Kiev as an "unconstitutional coup", and insisting that Moscow has a right to protect Russians in Ukraine.[260]

Meanwhile, on March 1, 2014 five people who were picketing next to the Federation Council building against the invasion of Ukraine were arrested.[261] The next day about 200 people protested at the building of the Russian Ministry of Defense in Moscow against Russian military involvement.[262] About 500 people also gathered to protest on the Manezhnaya Square in Moscow and the same number of people on the Saint Isaac's Square in Saint Petersburg.[263] On 2 March about eleven protesters demonstrated in Yekaterinburg against Russian involvement, with some wrapped in the Ukrainian flag.[264] Protests were also held in Chelyabinsk on the same day.[265] The opposition to the military intervention was also expressed by rock musician Andrey Makarevich, who wrote in particular: "You want war with Ukraine? It will not be the way it was with Abkhazia: the folks on the Maidan have been hardened and know what they are fighting for – for their country, their independence. [...] We have to live with them. Still neighborly. And preferably in friendship. But it's up to them how they want to live".[266] The Professor of the Department of Philosophy at the Moscow State Institute of International Relations Andrey Zubov was fired for his article in Vedomosti, criticizing Russian military intervention.[267]

State-run pollster VTSIOM released an opinion poll conducted on March 1-2 showing that President Vladimir Putin's approval rating increased among the Russian public since the Crimean crisis began, up to 67.8%, which is Putin's highest approval rating since May 2012.[268] Additionally, 71% of respondents agreed with the statement that Russia should "more actively defend the interests of Russians in Crimea", while only 17% thought it would be "better not to come into conflict with the Ukrainian authorities".[268]

On March 4, 2014 at press conference in Novo-Ogaryovo President Putin expressed his view on the situation that if a revolution took place in Ukraine, it is a new country with which Russia did not conclude any treaties.[269] He brought up an analogy with events of 1917 in Russia, when as a result of the revolution the Russian Empire fell apart and a new state was created.[269] However, he stated Ukraine would still have to honor its debts.

Russian politicians have speculated that there are already 143,000 Ukrainian refugees in Russia.[270] The Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs refuted those claims of refugees increase in Russia.[271] At a briefing on 4 March 2014, the director of department of information policy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine Yevhen Perebiynis claimed that Russia was misinforming its own citizens as well as the entire international community to justify its own actions in the Crimea.[272]

On March 5, 2014 an anchor of the Russian-owned international news channel RT America, Abby Martin, in an interview with Piers Morgan, said she "did not agree" with how her employer RT was covering the Ukrainian crisis, but claims RT still supports her despite her differences of opinion.[273] Also on 5 March 2014, another RT America anchor, Liz Wahl, of the network's Washington, DC bureau, resigned on air, explaining that she could not be "part of a network that whitewashes the actions of Putin" and citing her Hungarian ancestry and the memory of the Soviet repression of the Hungarian Uprising as a factor in her decision.[274]

Prominent dissident Mikhail Khodorkovsky said that Crimea should stay within Ukraine with broader autonomy.[275]

دعاية الحرب

Russia's Channel One spoke about mass migration from Ukraine to Russia showing video footage with situation on the border with Poland.[276]

معارضة التدخل العسكري

On 1 March, five people who were picketing next to the Federation Council building against the invasion of Ukraine were arrested.[277] The next day about 200 people protested at the building of the Russian Ministry of Defense in Moscow against Russian military involvement.[278] About 500 people also gathered to protest on the Manezhnaya Square in Moscow and the same number of people on the Saint Isaac's Square in Saint Petersburg.[279] On March 2 about eleven protesters demonstrated in Yekaterinburg against Russian involvement, with some wrapped in the Ukrainian flag.[280] Protests were also held in Chelyabinsk on the same day.[281]


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الدولية

International reaction to the 2014 Crimean crisis according to official governmental statements.[lower-alpha 1]
  Statements only voicing concern or hope for peaceful resolution to the conflict
  Support for Ukrainian territorial integrity
  Condemnation of Russian actions
  Condemnation of Russian actions as a military intervention or invasion
  Support for Russian actions and/or condemnation of the Ukrainian interim government
  "Recognition of Russian interests"

  Ukraine
  Russia

  No official statements / No data available


قائمة العقوبات

العقوبات الغربية ضد روسيا، مارس 2014.


المنظمات الدولية

  •  الاتحاد الأوروپي — On March 1, Foreign Affairs Chief Catherine Ashton stated that the EU "deplores" Russia's decision to use military action in Ukraine, describing it as an "unwarranted escalation of tensions." She called on "all sides to decrease the tensions immediately through dialogue, in full respect of Ukrainian and international law." And added that "The unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine must be respected at all times and by all sides. Any violation of these principles is unacceptable. More than ever, restraint and sense of responsibility are needed."[282]

المنظمات الحكومية

  • OSCE logo.svg OSCE – A diplomatic group was dispatched by the OSCE consisting of official representative and a head of the OSCE Commissar on affairs of national minorities.[283]
  •  الأمم المتحدة — On March 1, while members of the UN Security Council were meeting in an emergency closed-door session, a spokesman for the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon delivered a statement saying that the Secretary General was "gravely concerned about the deterioration of the situation" in Ukraine and planned to speak shortly with the Russian President Vladimir Putin. Ban's statement called for "full respect for and preservation of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine" and demanded "immediate restoration of calm and direct dialogue between all concerned."[284] The Security Council itself expressed support for the unity, territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine. The Council agreed that it was important that all political actors in Ukraine exercise maximum restraint and called for an inclusive dialogue recognizing the diversity of the Ukrainian society.[285]
  •  ناتو — On March 2, 2014, NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen convened the North Atlantic Council today because of Russia’s military action in Ukraine. And because of President Putin’s threats against this sovereign nation.[286]

الدول

  •  أستراليا - On March 2, the Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said that Russia's actions in Ukraine were "not the kind... of a friend and neighbour and I think Russia should back off".[287]
  •  بلاروس – On 28 February 2014, the Foreign Ministry expressed its concerns about events in Ukraine.[288]
  •  بلغاريا — On March 1, Bulgaria's President Rosen Plevneliev said in a statement that "Bulgaria is for preserving the sovereignty, the territorial integrity and the democratic future of Ukraine". The President further said that the presence of foreign forces and their unauthorized activity within the territory of a sovereign state "raises serious concern" and called for an end to any provocative actions that could lead to "irreparable consequences not only for the region, but also for the international order".[289] In a later statement that day, following the Russia's Parliament decree allowing the usage of Russian armed forces in Crimea, President Plevneliev reiterated that "the only lasting solution may be achieved by peaceful means and if the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine is guaranteed" and that "[t]he usage of military force to occupy foreign territories is violation of the rules of international law". The President also called on the UN Security Council and the countries-guarantors to the Budapest Memorandum to ensure a peaceful solution to the problem and to avoid a further escalation of the tension. In conclusion, President Plevneliev stated that "[t]he people of Ukraine should alone decide what their future should be in a democratic way", reminding that new presidential elections are due to be held in Ukraine in May 2014.[290]
  •  كندا —On Feb. 28 Foreign Minister Baird "congratulated the new government and emphasized the need to honour the 1994 Budapest Declaration’s commitment to Ukraine’s territorial sovereignty and national unity at this critical time."[291] On a March 1 phone call President Obama and Prime Minister Harper "affirmed the importance of unity within the international community in support of international law, and the future of Ukraine and its democracy.'[292] On the same day, Harper condemned Russia's military intervention in Ukraine; He announced that Canada had both recalled its ambassador to Russia and withdrew from preparations for the 40th G8 summit, which is to be chaired by Russia.[44]
  •  إستونيا — Foreign Minister Urmas Paet stated on March 1 that, "The Russian parliament's decision to authorise the use of troops in Ukraine is a clear threat to Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity," and that Russia's "...military threats and actions against Ukraine must stop." He called for the Ukrainian leadership to pursue all actions to reduce tensions and restore societal unity.[293]
  •  فنلندا — Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja stated on March 1, that Russia is implementing an military takeover of Crimean territory and by doing so Russia is violating several international treaties and laws. [294]
  •  فرنسا — The representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Romen Nadal, expressed his concerns on events in Crimea and reminded the foreign minister Laurent Fabius repeatedly called upon to preserve the unity and integrity of Ukraine.[295]
  •  جورجيا — President Giorgi Margvelashvili called on the international community "not to allow new conflict in Europe and to use all the available means in order to avert possible aggression and to preserve sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine."[296]
  •  المجر — In a statement issued 1 March, Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed concern about the situation on the Crimean Peninsula. The Ministry noted that the Visegrád Four Foreign Ministers had asked both the Kiev government leaders and the Donetsk region's political leaders to abstain from provocative steps that may heighten tension and lead to violence.[297]
  •  أيرلندا - Minister for Foreign Affairs Eamon Gilmore expressed concern regarding the developments in Ukraine. The Irish Government called on the Russian Federation to abide by international law and to respect Ukraine's territorial integrity and independence. [298]
  •  لاتڤيا — President of Latvia, Speaker of the parliament, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister issued a joint statement stating that "Latvia strongly stands for the territorial integrity of Ukraine and is of the opinion that any measures aimed at splitting Ukrainian society and questioning the territorial integrity of the country must be condemned in the strongest terms possible."[299]
  •  لتوانيا — The Foreign Ministry announced that it called the Russia Ambassador to Lithuania to discuss the situation in Ukraine.[300]
  •  پولندا — On March 1, 2014 Poland "strongly appeal[ed] for respecting Ukraine’s territorial integrity, and observing international law, including fundamental principles of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe...We urge states-signatories to the Budapest Memorandum of December 1994, which gives Ukraine security assurances, to respect and fulfil their commitments.[301]
  •  رومانيا — On the 2nd of March, president Traian Basescu said that any Russian Federation military presence in Ukraine, without Ukraine's approval and beyond the limits of bilateral accords, would be seen as an act of aggression. [302]
  •  إسپانيا — The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation released a statement in support of the new Ukrainian government, saying the following: "The Spanish government is concerned about the situation in Ukraine, which remains uncertain and unstable. The current tension in Crimea is especially concerning". The government also expressed its "full support for the territorial integrity of Ukraine", and urged all actors to "cooperate in finding a solution, while dismissing any use of force".[303]
  •  السويد — Foreign Minister Carl Bildt tweeted on March 1, "Russian military intervention in Ukraine is clearly against international law and principles of European security."[304]
  •  تركيا — Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu stated on 28 February that "Turkey attaches importance to democracy and democracy-based political stability in Ukraine's future" and that "Crimea is important for Turkey as it is Turkey's door to Ukraine and it is also important for our Tatar compatriots."[305]
  •  المملكة المتحدة — The Foreign Secretary William Hague said he was "deeply concerned" at the escalation of tensions and the decision of the Russian parliament to authorise military action. He also said "This action is a potentially grave threat to the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine. We condemn any act of aggression against Ukraine". [306]
  •  الولايات المتحدة — Secretary of State John Kerry said in a press conference with German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier on 27 February, "We all have to understand that nowhere is there a greater connection to or link to Russia in several different ways than there is in Crimea, but that as the days unfold, this should not become a tension or a struggle between the United States, Russia, East, West, et cetera. This is about the people of Ukraine being able to make their decisions." Kerry further urged Russia to respect Ukraine's borders and territorial integrity.[307] The US offered Russia cooperation to resolve situation in Ukraine.[308]
On 28 February, President Barack Obama's statement was released warning Russia not to intervene in Crimea. The statement said that President Obama is "deeply concerned by reports of military movements taken by the Russian Federation inside of Ukraine." It added that "any violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity would be deeply destabilizing, which is not in the interest of Ukraine, Russia, or Europe" and that it would be "a clear violation of Russia's commitment to respect the independence and sovereignty and borders of Ukraine, and of international laws."[309] John Kerry condemned the Russian invasion of Ukraine on 2 March in an interview for Face the Nation. He called it an "incredible act of aggression," and said that "you just don't in the 21st century behave in 19th century fashion by invading another country on completely trumped up pretext."[43]
On March 1, President Obama held a phone conservation with Putin and said that the Russian invasion was a "violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity... [and a] breach of international law." He warned of "greater political and economic isolation" and threatened to withdraw the United States from the 40th G8 summit chaired by Russia.[310]


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تعليق

Several scholars, including Alexander J. Motyl, Paul A. Goble, Timothy D. Snyder, and Andreas Umland, have discussed the possibility of Russian military intervention in Crimea specifically, due to its unique geopolitical nature and demographics.[311][312]

Nina L. Khrushcheva, the great-granddaughter of former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and a Russian Affairs professor at the The New School, says that the aims of Crimea is not necessarily independence from Ukraine, but rather continued dependence on Russia. However, this has instead led Putin to justify continued backing for Yanukovych as well as his own desires to re-take the peninsula. Nevertheless, she acknowledges that Putin's long term goal may not annexation of Crimea, since this could cause ethnic Crimean Tatars, who had been forcibly displaced by Stalin to Central Asia, to demand a return to Crimea and possibly cause the Islamic insurgency to spread out of Northern Caucasus. Furthermore, she also states that if Russia sets a precedent of recovering "lost territory", this could inspire countries such as China or Georgia to demand back their own "stolen lands". [313]

Volodymyr Panchenko, of the Kiev-based think-tank International Center for Policy Studies, says that the aim of Russia is for Crimea to be "more or less controlled by Russian troops," but that if or when a referendum is held "more than 80 percent" of votes would be for secession from Ukraine. The way events are unfolding in Crimea "is not a good precedent for the other provinces."[314]

انظر أيضاً

الهوامش

  1. ^ It also noted that "certain politicians, local government officials, leaders of civil society organizations, and radically inclined individuals have attempted to create grounds for escalating the civil conflict, and have spread autonomous and separatist attitudes among the people, which could lead to the demise of our as a united nation and loss of its national sovereignty." In addition, the statement said that certain lawmakers of every level have begun separatist negotiations with representatives of foreign nations. "Open consultations are being held on the possible division of the country into separate parts in violation of the Ukrainian constitution," read the statement. "This could lead to an escalation of conflict between different sectors of society, inciting ethnic or religious hatred and military conflict."[71]
  2. ^ Sevastopol is the only city in Ukraine whose residents do not get to elect their mayor directly, due to the city's special status.[15]

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  157. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة rferl1
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  159. ^ Warning shots deter Hungarian-led OSCE mission, Politics.hu, 9 March 2014.
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  176. ^ أ ب OSCE observers weren't officially invited to Crimean referendum - Crimean authorities
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  178. ^ أ ب http://www.rte.ie/news/2014/0311/601408-ukraine/ Yanukovych denounces Ukrainian elections as 'illegitimate'
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  208. ^ The CEC assured that Crimean referendum cannot be held. Ukrayinska Pravda. 27 February 2014.
  209. ^ Turchynov instructed to quickly develop a new language law. Urkayinska Pravda. 27 February 2014.
  210. ^ New Ukrainian government gets to work, Euronews (27 February 2014).
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  212. ^ أ ب Rada supported the resolution on Crimea against Russian intervention. Ukrayinska Pravda. 28 February 2014.
  213. ^ Rada urged Russia not to encroach on the territory of Ukraine. Ukrinform. 28 February 2014.
  214. ^ Ukraine's acting President dismisses Chief of General Staff. Pravda. 28 February 2014.
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  216. ^ GPU is preparing petition for extradition of Yanukovych. UNIAN 28 February 2014.
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  218. ^ Leader of Ukrainian radical organization Right Sector denies plans to send armed units to Crimea, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014).
  219. ^ "п⌡п╦п╢п╣я─ "п÷я─п╟п╡п╬пЁп╬ я│п╣п╨я┌п╬я─п╟" п╞я─п╬я┬ п╬п╠я─п╟я┌п╦п╩я│я▐ п╥п╟ п©п╬п╪п╬я┴я▄я▌ п╨ п■п╬п╨я┐ пёп╪п╟я─п╬п╡я┐ - п÷п╣я─п╡я▀п╧ п©п╬ я│я─п╬я┤п╫я▀п╪ п╫п╬п╡п╬я│я┌я▐п╪ Б─■ LIFE | NEWS". Lifenews.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  220. ^ Пресс-секретарь "Правого сектора" заявил о взломе сообщества организации ВКонтакте
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  222. ^ Three presidents urged to discontinue the "Kharkiv Agreements". Ukrayinska Pravda. March 1, 2014
  223. ^ Leonid Kuchma's press-center refutes the statement. Interfax
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  225. ^ Облсовет Луганская угрожает разоружить Майдан руками "братской" России
  226. ^ Kerch ferry is not being serviced, special order. Ukrayinska Pravda. 27 February 2014.
  227. ^ Ukrainians of Crimea asked the Ukrainian authorities to prevent a war on the peninsula. Interfax. 27 February 2014.
  228. ^ Crimea used Yanukovych to ask for money in Russia. Ukrayinska Pravda. 28 February 2014.
  229. ^ Konstantinov explained to Shufrych what they want in Crimea. Ukrinform. 28 February 2014.
  230. ^ Former chief of general staff Illin got to the Sevastopol hospital. Ukrinform. 28 February 2014.
  231. ^ Yanukovych and Zakharchenko are on the international wanted list. Ukrayinska Pravda. 26 February 2014.
  232. ^ أ ب Did Yanukovych indeed arrived to Rostov-on-Don accompanied by fighters? Ukrayinska Pravda. 28 February 2014.
  233. ^ أ ب Crimea must remain part of Ukraine, enjoy broad autonomy rights – Yanukovych, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014).
  234. ^ Ukrainian ex-leader Viktor Yanukovych vows fightback, BBC News (28 February 2014).
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  239. ^ "В Госдуме опровергли данные о выдаче паспортов РФ жителям Крыма (V Gosdume oprovergli dannyye o vydache pasportov RF zhitelyam Kryma)" [The State Duma has denied information about issuing passports to residents of Crimea RF]. Argumenty i Fakty (in Ukrainian). 25 February 2014. 
  240. ^ "Росія обіцяє втрутитися, якщо росіянам в Україні буде загроза (Rosiya obitsyaye vtrutytysya, yakshcho rosiyanam v Ukrayini bude zahroza)" [Russia promises to intervene if the Russians in Ukraine threatened]. Українська правда (Ukrayins'ka pravda) [Ukrainian Pravda] (in Ukrainian). UA. 25 February 2014. 
  241. ^ "У Росії Януковича все ще вважають президентом – Слуцький (U Rosiyi Yanukovycha vse shche vvazhayut' prezydentom – Sluts'kyy)" [In Russia Yanukovych's still the president – Slutsky]. Українська правда (Ukrayins'ka pravda) [Ukrainian Pravda]. UA. 25 February 2014. 
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  247. ^ "Draft law of FMS and the Ministry of Economy of granting citizenship". RIA News. 27 February 2014. 
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  263. ^ "В Москве и Перебурге проходят митинги против российской оккупации Крыма. Уже есть задержанные (V Moskve i Peterburge prokhodyat mitingi protiv rossiyskoy okkupatsii Kryma. Uzhe yest' zaderzhannyye)" [In Moscow and St. Petersburg rallies against the Russian occupation of the Crimea. Already have detained] (in Russian). Центр журналистских расследований (Tsentr zhurnalistskikh rassledovaniy) [Center for Investigative Journalism]. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  264. ^ "Жители Екатеринбурга провели пикеты против ввода российских войск в Крым (Zhiteli Yekaterinburga proveli pikety protiv vvoda rossiyskikh voysk v Krym)" [Inhabitants of Ekaterinburg picketed against Russian troops in the Crimea]. Komsomolskaya Pravda (in Russian). RU. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  265. ^ ""Сколько детей ты готов похоронить, чтобы Крым стал частью России?" Первые антивоенные пикеты прошли на Урале ("Skol'ko detey ty gotov pokhoronit', chtoby Krym stal chast'yu Rossii?" Pervyye antivoyennyye pikety proshli na Urale)" ["How many children are you willing to bury to Crimea became part of Russia?" First anti-war pickets were held in the Urals] (in Russian). RU: Ura. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  266. ^ "Не стреляй! Шевчук, Гребенщиков, Макаревич. Антивоенная риторика (Ne strelyay! Shevchuk, Grebenshchikov, Makarevich. Antivoyennaya ritorika)" [Do not shoot! Shevchuk, Grebenshikov Makarevich. antiwar rhetoric]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  267. ^ "Профессора МГИМО увольняют после критики операции в Крыму (Professora MGIMO uvol'nyayut posle kritiki operatsii v Krymu)" [MGIMO professor fired after criticizing operations in Crimea] (in Russian). BBC Russian Service. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  268. ^ أ ب "Ukraine crisis and Olympics boost Vladimir Putin's popularity in Russia". The Guardian. 6 March 2014. 
  269. ^ أ ب "Putin shares the view that if in Ukraine "revolution" – then on its territory is a new state". Mirror Weekly. 4 March 2014. 
  270. ^ "Russia claims thousands fleeing Ukraine". Nine MSN. AU. 2 March 2014. 
  271. ^ "мзс україні спростувало зростання кількості бігентсив до росії (MZS Ukrayini sprostuvalo zrostannya kil'kosti bihent·syv do rosiyi)" [Ukraine Foreign Ministry refuted the growing number of refugees in Russia]. Ukrinform. 4 March 2014. 
  272. ^ "мзс путін продовґуе дезінформувати весь світ заради виправдання своїх дії (MZS Putin prodovgue dezinformuvaty ves' svit zarady vypravdannya svoyikh diyi)" [Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Putin continues to mislead the whole world for justification of own actions]. UA. Ukrinform. 4 March 2014. 
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خطأ استشهاد: وسوم <ref> موجودة لمجموعة اسمها "lower-alpha"، ولكن لم يتم العثور على وسم <references group="lower-alpha"/> أو هناك وسم </ref> ناقص