يورو ميدان

د. نبيل عبد القادر
ساهم بشكل رئيسي في تحرير هذا المقال
يورو ميدان
Euromaidan
Euromaidan collage.jpg
التاريخ 21 نوفمبر 2013[1]مستمرة
المكان أوكرانيا، وخاصة في كييڤ وغرب أوكرانيا
السبب
الأهداف
الطرق مظاهرات، ناشطية دولية، عصيان مدني، مقاومة مدنية، اختراق المواقع الإلكترونية،[8] احتلال المباني الادارية[nb 1]
أسفرت عن
أطراف الصراع الأهلي

Supporters of the European integration of Ukraine

Parliamentary opposition parties:

Other parties:

غيرهم:

الجماعات المسلحة:

حكومة أوكرانيا

Government parties:

Others:

  • Civil servants and pro-government civilian protestors [28][nb 2]
  • Hired supporters[30]

الجماعات المسلحة:


جماعات من روسيا


معارضون للحكومة لكنهم معارضون للتظاهر

الشخصيات الرئيسية
العدد

Kiev:
400,000–800,000 protesters[41]
5,000 "self-defense units"[42]

في أرجاء أوكرانيا:
50,000 (Lviv)[43]
20,000 (Cherkasy)[44]
10,000+ (Ternopil)[45]
other cities and towns

إنفاذ القانون في كييڤ:

  • 4,000 بيركوت
  • 1,000 قوات داخلية

3,000–4,000 titushky[46]


Pro-government/anti-EU demonstrations:
20,000–60,000 (Kiev)
40,000 (خاركيڤ)[47]
15,000 (Donetsk)[48]
10,000 (Simferopol)[49]

2,500 pro-Russia (Sevastopol)[50]
الخسائر
  • قتيل: 10–11
  • الجرحى: 1,850–1,900 (sought medical help as of 21 Jan. 2014)[51]
    681 (hospitalized as of 30 Jan. 2014)[52]
  • المعتقلون: 234[53]
  • المحبوسون: 140[53]
  • Injured: 200-300 (sought medical help as of 21 Jan. 2014)[54][55][56]
    52–75 policemen(hospitalized as of 2 Dec. 2013)[55][56]

يورو ميدان Euromaidan (بالاوكرانية: Євромайдан, Yevromaidan, حرفياً "ميدان اليورو")[nb 5] هي موجة من المظاهرات المستمرة والعصيان المدني في أوكرانيا. بدأت مساء 21 نوفمبر 2013 باحتجاجات شعبية تطالب بمزيد من التكامل الأوروپي. لاحقاً تطورت الاحتجاحجات، بعد إزدياد المطالبات بتنحي الرئيس ڤيكتور يانوكوڤيتش وحكومته.[60] انضمن للاحتجاجات الكثير من المتظاهرين بسبب الفض العنيف للمظاهرات في 30 نوفمبر و"الرغبة في تغيير الحياة في أوكرانيا".[3] في 25 يناير 2014، اتسع نطاق الاحتجاجات لتشمل الفساد الحكومية، استغلال النفوذ، انتهاك حقوق الإنسان في أوكرانيا.[61]

بدأت المظاهرات مساء 21 نوفمبر 2013، عندما اندلعت احتجاجات عفوية في العاصمة كييڤ، بعدما علقت الحكومة الأوكرانية الاستعدادات لتوقيع اتفاقية الشراكة والتجارة الحرة مع الاتحاد الأوروپي، وتفضيلها التبعية الاقتصادية لروسيا.[62] بعد أيام من المظاهرات إزادادات أعداد المتظاهرين بعد انضمام طلاب الجامعات.[63]


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خلفية

فى 30 مارس 2012 وقعت بالأحرف الأولى اتفاقية شراكة بين الاتحاد الأوروبي (الاتحاد الأوروبي) وأوكرانيا ;[64] ومع ذلك، قال زعماء الاتحاد الاوروبي في وقت لاحق أن الاتفاق لن يتم التصديق عليه ما لم تعالج أوكرانيا المخاوف من "تدهور صارخ للديمقراطية وتدهور القضاء في أوكرانيا"، بما في ذلك سجن يوليا تيموشينكو و يوري وتسينكو في عام 2011 و 2012.[65][nb 6] في الأشهر التي سبقت الاحتجاجات الرئيس الاوكراني فيكتور يانوكوفيتش حث البرلمان على اعتماد قوانين بحيث أن أوكرانيا سوف تفي بمعايير الاتحاد الأوروبي.[67][68] في 25 سبتمبر 2013 ذكر رئيس البرلمان الأوكراني (البرلمان الأوكراني ) فولوديمير ريباك أنه كان على يقين من أن برلمان بلاده سوف يمرر جميع القوانين اللازمة لتتناسب مع معايير الاتحاد الاوروبي لاتفاقية الشراكة منذ ذلك الحين، باستثناء ما يختص بالحزب الشيوعي في أوكرانيا، "وحدت البرلمان الأوكراني حول هذه الأمور".[بحاجة لمصدر]

فى منتصف أغسطس 2013 غيرت روسيا الأنظمة الجمركية على الواردات من أوكرانيا.[69] وزير السياسة الأوكرانية الصناعية ميخايلو كورولينكو صرح في 18 ديسمبر 2013 أنه بسبب أن صادرات أوكرانيا قد انخفضت بنسبة 1.4 مليار دولار أمريكي (أو 10٪ انخفاضا في العام على اساس سنوى خلال أول 10 أشهر في السنة). [69] في إحصاءات الخدمات للدولة الأوكرانية التي أعلن عنها في نوفمبر 2013 الذي كان قد إنخفضت بالمقارنة مع نفس الفترة من عام 2012 الإنتاج الصناعي في أوكرانيا في أكتوبر 2013 بنسبة 4.9 في المئة، وفي سبتمبر 2013 بنسبة 5.6 في المئة في أغسطس 2013 وبنسبة 5.4 في المئة (وأن الإنتاج الصناعي في أوكرانيا في عام 2012 وكان الإجمالى قد انخفض بنسبة 1.8 في المئة).[70]

في 21 تشرين الثاني 2013 (أ) أوقفت الحكومة الأوكرانية مرسوم الاستعدادات لتنفيذ اتفاق الشراكة.[71][72] The reason given was that the previous months Ukraine had experienced "a drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries".[73][nb 7] The government also assured "Ukraine will resume preparing the agreement when the drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries are compensated by the European market".[73] According to Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov "the extremely harsh conditions" of an IMF loan (presented by the IMF on 20 November 2013), which included big budget cuts and a 40% increase in gas bills, had been the last argument in favor of the Ukrainian government's decision to suspend preparations for signing the Association Agreement.[75][76] On 7 December 2013 the IMF clarified that it was not insisting on a single-stage increase in natural gas tariffs in Ukraine by 40%, but recommended that they be gradually raised to an economically justified level while compensating the poorest segments of the population for the losses from such an increase by strengthening targeted social assistance.[77] The same day IMF Resident Representative in Ukraine Jerome Vacher stated that this particular IMF loan is worth US$4 billion and that it would be linked with "policy, which would remove disproportions and stimulated growth".[78][nb 8]

President Yanukovych did attend the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit in Vilnius (where originally it was planned that the Association Agreement would be signed on 29 November 2013)[67] but the Association Agreement was not signed.[80][81] Both Yanukovych and high level EU officials did signal that they wanted to sign the Association Agreement at a later date.[82][83][84]


الرأي العام

Ukrainians have shown preference to extending economic ties with the EU. According to an August 2013 study of a Donetsk company Research & Branding Group[85] 49% of Ukrainians supported signing the Association Agreement, while 31% opposed it and the rest had not decided yet. The strongest support (74%) was in the Western oblasts of Ukraine, following by the Central oblasts (57% supporters), while the support for the Agreement was weaker in the Southern oblasts (38% support vs 45% oppose) and Eastern oblasts (29% support vs 43% oppose). In a GfK poll conducted October 2–15, 2013, 45% of respondents believed Ukraine should sign an Association Agreement with the EU, whereas only 14% favored joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 15% preferred non-alignment.[86] Another poll conducted in November by IFAK Ukraine for DW-Trend showed 58% of Ukrainians supporting the country's entry into the European Union.[87] On the other hand a November 2013 poll by Kyiv International Institute of Sociology showed 39% supporting the country's entry into the European Union and 37% supporting Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.[88]

مقارنة بالثورة البرتقالية

Pro-EU demonstrations at Maidan Nezalezhnosti, Kiev

The pro-European Union protests are Ukraine's largest since the Orange Revolution of 2004, which saw Yanukovych forced to resign as Prime Minister over allegations of voting irregularities. Although comparing the 2013 events in the same East-West vector as 2004, with Ukraine remaining "a key geopolitical prize in eastern Europe" for Russia and the EU, The Moscow Times noted that Yanukovych's government was in a significantly stronger position following his election in 2010.[89] The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were "largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine's political opposition unprepared" compared to their well-organized predecessors.[90] In an interview with opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, when asked if the current opposition was weaker than it was in 2004 he argued, that it was stronger because the stakes were higher, "I asked each [of the opposition leaders]: "Do you realize that this is not a protest? It is a revolution [...] we have two roads – we go to prison or we win"[91]

Paul Robert Magocsi illustrated the effect of the Orange Revolution on Euromaidan, saying "Was the Orange Revolution a genuine revolution? Yes it was. And we see the effects today. The revolution wasn't a revolution of the streets or a revolution of (political) elections, it was a revolution of the minds of people, in the sense that for the first time in a long time, Ukrainians, and people living in territorial Ukraine saw the opportunity to protest and change their situation. This was a profound change in the character of the population of the former Soviet Union."[92] Lviv-based historian Yaroslav Hrytsak also remarked on the generational shift, "This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine's independence (who were born around the time of 1991); it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year). It's a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don't have futures."[93] According to Hrytsak: "Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older. This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors".[94] In a Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (49.8% of those aged 18 to 29), higher than the national average of 43.2% support.[95][96] A November 2013 poll by the same institute found the same result with 50.8% aged 18 to 29 wanting to join the European Union while 39.7% was the national average of support.[95] An opinion poll by GfK conducted October 2–15 found that among respondents aged 16–29 with a position on integration, 73% favored signing an Association Agreement with the EU, while only 45% of those over the age of 45 favored Association. The lowest support for European integration was among people with incomplete secondary and higher education.[86]

احتجاجات أم ثورة؟

The front cover of The Ukrainian Week during the Russia-Georgia war of 2008: "Next will be Ukraine"

There is ongoing expert discussion on whether the Euromaidan movement constitutes a revolution, and many protest leaders (such as Oleh Tyahnybok) already use this term frequently when addressing the public. Tyahnybok called in an official 2 December press release for police officers and members of the military to defect to 'the Ukrainian revolution'.[97]

In a Skype interview with media analyst Andrij Holovatyj, Vitaly Portnikov, Council Member of the "Maidan" National Alliance and President and Editor-in-Chief of the Ukrainian television channel TVi, stated "EuroMaidan is a revolution and revolutions can drag on for years" and that "what is happening in Ukraine goes much deeper. It is changing the national fabric of Ukraine."[98]

Select media outlets in the region have dubbed the evolution of the movement, Eurorevolution (اوكرانية: Єврореволюція).[بحاجة لمصدر] On 10 December President Viktor Yanukovych stated "Calls for a revolution pose a threat to national security".[99] Former Georgian president Mikhail Saakashvili has described the movement as "the first geopolitical revolution of the 21st century."[100]

Political expert Anders Åslund commented on this aspect: "Revolutionary times have their own logic that is very different from the logic of ordinary politics, as writers from Alexis de Tocqueville to Crane Brinton have taught. The first thing to understand about Ukraine today is that it has entered a revolutionary stage. Like it or not, we had better deal with the new environment rationally."[101]


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المطالب

On 29 November, a formal from organizers resolution proposed the following:[93]

  1. Form a coordinating committee to communicate with the European community.
  2. To state that the president, parliament and the Cabinet of Ministers aren't capable of carrying out a geopolitically strategic course of development for the state and calls on Yanukovych's resignation.
  3. Demand the cessation of political repressions against EuroMaidan activists, students, civic activists and opposition leaders.

The resolution stated that on 1 December, on the 22nd anniversary of Ukraine's independence referendum, that the group will gather at noon on Independence Square to announce their further course of action.[93]

After the (on the night of) 30 November forceful disperse of all protesters from Maidan Nezalezhnosti the dismissal of Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko became one of the main demands.[102]

A petition to the U.S. White House demanding sanctions against Viktor Yanukovych and Ukrainian government ministers gathered over 100,000 signatures in four days.[103][104][105][106]

Students nationwide have also demanding the dismissal of Minister of Education Dmytro Tabachnyk.

On 5 December Batkivshchyna faction leader Arseniy Yatsenyuk stated "Our three demands to the Verkhovna Rada and the president remained unchanged: the resignation of the government, the release of all political prisoners, first and foremost, [former Ukrainian Prime Minister] Yulia Tymoshenko, and nine individuals who were illegally convicted [who were present at a rally on Bankova Street on December 1] and the suspension of all criminal cases, and the arrest of all Berkut officers who were involved in the illegal beating up of children on Maidan Nezalezhnosti".[107] The opposition also demanded that the government resumed negotiations with the IMF for a loan that they saw as key to helping Ukraine "through economic troubles that have made Yanukovych lean toward Russia".[108]

خط زمني للأحداث

19 يناير

في 19 كانون الثاني، وقعت احتجاجات حاشدة يوم الأحد التاسع على التوالي، وإحتشد ما يربو إلى 200،000 شخص في وسط كييف احتجاجا على القوانين الجديدة لمكافحة الاحتجاج، ويطلق عليها اسم " القوانين الدكتاتورية" .[109][110] وحضر هذا التجمع لفيف من زعماء المعارضة، ولكن كان أيضا أول ظهور علني لتيتيانا شورنوفول منذ هجومها المزعوم ضد السلطات.[109] العديد من المحتجون تجاهلو حظر إخفاء الوجه من خلال ارتداء أقنعة حزبية، في حين ارتدى آخرون الخوذات والأقنعة الواقية من الغازات.[109] زعيم أوتوميدان دميترو بولاتوف طالب بتسمية مرشح واحد للمعارضة ، وهتف الحشد أيضا ضد القادة ضد الامتثال لهذا العمل. ارسيني ياتسينيوك و أولكسندر Turchynov أعلنوا أن برلمانا بديلا جديدا سينشأ.

نشطاء أوروميدان ناشدوا الجيش أن يكون "ولاؤهم الرسمي للشعب الأوكراني" بدلا من "النظام الإجرامي"،وطالبوا أفراد الجيش والشرطة لعدم تنفيذ "أوامر إجرامية"، وعلى الأخص في استخدام القوة ضد المدنيين ، بل وعد الذين سيتم فصلهم لرفضهم تلك الأوامر أن يعاد تعيينهم بمجرد تنصيب حكومة جديدة لأوكرانيا.الرئيس السابق لالبحرية الأوكرانية ، اللواء ايهور Tenyukh، الذي أقيل من قبل الرئيس يانوكوفيتش في عام 2010،قد حذر من المخاطر التي تمثلها الانقلاب على الجكومة " المخطط لها من قبل السلطات الحالية" و دعا أفراد القوات المسلحة على تحدي الأوامر "غير المشروعة" من ​​هم في السلطة.[111] "غدا النظام سوف استعباد أنت أيضا. لذا فاننا ندعو لك الوفاء القسم العسكري الخاص من الولاء للشعب الأوكراني وليس إلى السلطات الذين ذهبوا خارج القضبان "، و قد نقل عنه ذلك القول.[111] بدأت الاشتباكات بعد ان انتشر الآلاف في محيط البرلمان عبر شارع هروشيفيشكوهو ، وكانت كردونات الشرطة في استقبالهم وفرض الحصار على سيارات عسكرية وعربات النقل والحافلات الصغيرة.[109][111] حذرت الشرطة خلال مكبر الصوت، قائلا: "أيها المواطنون، أفعالك غير قانونية وضد الدولة". وحذروا أيضا أن أى تقدم في غضون ثلاثة أمتار من الشرطة من شأنه أن يعتبر تهديدا لحقوق ضباط الشرطة وسيدفع إلى الرد.[109] التوترات تطورت في نهاية المطاف، وتبادل الجانبان قذائف كما هاجم محتجون حواجز الشرطة المسلحين بالعصي والأنابيب، والخوذ، والأقنعة الواقية من الغازات. كان في استقبالهم مع الصواعق وقنابل الدخان .[112][113]

Interior troops holding protective position under Molotov Cocktail rain, Dynamivska str. Euromaidan Protests. Events of 19 Jan 2014


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23 يناير

أدت الهدنة التي جرت ، بين الجانبين إلى إعطاء مهلة من المعارضة للحكومة والتي تنتهي في الساعة 8 مساء إلى إنتشار النار في منطقة الصراع وفى متجر أسفل الطابق الأول من مبنى من سبعة طوابق، و 40 متر مربع في منطقة (في 2 حارة المتحف). [114] وكان سبب الحريق هو حرق الاطارات المطاطية التي تعمل على منع vulytsia هروشيفيشكوهو.[114] تم حرق الإطارات لتوفير ستار من الدخان للمحتجين.[114]

نشطاء يورو ميدان قاموا بتوثيق وحشية الشرطة مع حالات سادية في مناسبات متعددة من BERKUT والجنود من قوات الداخلية في أوكرانيا، حيث اعتدى ضباط على النشطاء وحتى على الناس بشكل عشوائي وعاملوهم بإذلال بالإستخدام المفرط للغة البذيئة، وإجبارهم على خلع ملابسهم عراة.[115][116] في شريط فيديو تم تسريبه إلى موقع يوتيوب، قامت قوات وزارة الداخلية بتعذيب وإذلال ناشط يورو ميدان على الشارع هروشيفيشكوهو؛ حيث تم تجريده عاريا في البرد بعد تعرضه للضرب، وتم تصويره من قبل ضباط.[44][117] كان الفيديو تم إلتقاطه من قرب مشيرا إلى أن تم تسريبه من قبل ضابط علامة على الاستياء في صفوف الشرطة.[44] بي بي سي نيوز أجرت مقابلة مع متظاهر آخر كان يقوم بتصوير أعمال الشغب بشارع هروشيفيشكوهو، ثم تعرض للضرب وطعن على يد الشرطة.[118] في 23 يناير أظهرت تقارير أن شرطة مكافحة الشغب لم تشارك في استخدام قنابل بدائية وقنابل المسامير والشظايا الأخرى إلى قنابل الصوت التقليدية [119] يوم 23 يناير عام 2014، وزارة الداخلية من أوكرانيا اعتذر رسميا عن "الإجراءات غير المقبولة من أناس يرتدون زي الشرطة" الذين هم في الفيديو الفاضح الذى يظهر تصوير المعتقل عاريا.[120]

بعد محادثات سلام مع الرئيس يانوكوفيتش، تناول زعماء المعارضة كليتشكو وTyahnybok الحشد في شارع هروشيفيشكوهو ،أن تعلن هدنة مقترحة مع الحكومة في مقابل الإفراج عن جميع المتظاهرين المقبوض عليهم أو المحتجزين. الأخبار أظهرت استقبالا سيئا مع الجماهير، الذين هتفوا "كذاب!" و "الحرية أو الموت!" واستهجنوا قادتهم.[121][122] Tyahnybok، الذين يفضلون الهدنة، حذروا من أن الرئيس صرح عن نواياه لاعتقال 1،000 من النشطاء خلال خمسة أيام المقبلة، والذين كانو قبل القمع يحبزون التوصل الى اتفاق لم يتم التوصل إلى.[123] ثم دعا كليتشكو لإضراب وطني، مشيرا إلى انه مستعد للتضحية بنفسه. ثم عقد إتفاقا مع الجماهير مما أدى إلى قطع المحادثات مع يانوكوفيتش وتوسيع مجال الإحتجاجات في كييف لتشمل شارع هروشيفيشكوهو .[124][125]

ردود الفعل الداخلية

رود الفعل الدولية

المسيرات

الاحتجاجات في أنحاء أوكرانيا

Euromaidan Protests.png
المدينة ذروة المشاركين التاريخ المصادر
كييڤ 400,000–800,000 1 ديسمبر [41][126]
Lviv 50,000 1 Dec [43]
Cherkasy 20,000 23 يناير [44]
Ternopil 10,000+ 8 ديسمبر [127]
لوتسك 8,000 1 ديسمبر [128]
Dnipropetrovsk 5,000–7,000 8 ديسمبر [93][129]
Ivano-Frankivsk 5,000+ 8 ديمبر [130]
سومي 5,000+ 25 يناير [131]
خاركيڤ 5,000 1 ديسمبر [132]
Poltava 5,000 24 يناير [133]
Zaporizhia 5,000 8 ديسمبر [134]
Chernivtsi 4,000–5,000 1 ديسمبر [128]
Rivne 3,000–5,000 2 ديسمبر [135]
Mukacheve 3,000 24 نوفمبر [136]
Bila Tserkva 2,000+ 24 يناير [137]
Sambir 2,000+ 1 ديسمبر [138]
Khmelnytskyi 2,000 8 ديسمبر [130]
Vinnytsia 2,000 8 ديسمبر، 22 يناير [139]
Zhytomyr 2,000 23 يناير [140]
Kirovohrad 1,000 8 ديسمبر، 24 يناير [133][141]
Kryvyi Rih 1,000 1 ديسمبر [142]
Luhansk 1,000 8 ديسمبر [143]
Uzhhorod 1,000 24 يناير [144]
Odessa 500–1,000 8 دسيمبر [134][139][145]
Drohobych 500–800 25 نوفمبر [146]
Kherson 600+ 8 ديسمبر [147]
Simferopol 500+ 8 ديسمبر/28 يناير [134][148]
Mykolaiv 500 24 يناير [149]
Mariupol 400 26 يناير [150]
دونتسك 300 1 ديسمبر [151]
Chernihiv 150–200 22 نوفمبر [152]
Vasylkiv 70 4 ديسمبر [153]
The largest pro-European Union protests outside Kiev have taken place at the Taras Shevchenko monument in Lviv
Pro-European Union protests in Luhansk


احتلال المباني الادارية

Since 23 January several Western Ukrainian Oblast (province) Governor buildings and regional councils (RSA's[nb 9]) have been occupied by Euromaidan activists.[12] Several RSA's of the occupied oblasts then decided to ban the activities and symbols of the Communist Party of Ukraine and Party of Regions in their oblast.[13] In the cities Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk and Odessa protesters also tried to take over their local RSA.[12]

مظاهرات خارج أوكرانيا

Smaller protests or Euromaidans have been held internationally, primarily among the larger Ukrainian diaspora populations in North America and Europe. The largest took place on 8 December in New York, with over 1,000 attending. Notably, in December 2013, Warsaw's Palace of Culture and Science,[154] Buffalo Electric Vehicle Company Tower in Buffalo,[155] Cira Centre in Philadelphia,[156] the Tbilisi City Hall in Georgia,[157] and Niagara Falls on the U.S./Canada border[158] were illuminated in blue and yellow as a symbol of solidarity with Ukraine.

مسيرات نوفمبر الموالية للحكومة

A pro-government counter protest reportedly gathered 10,000 people on 25 November.[159] The Party of Regions allegedly paid UAH₴100 to its supporters to participate in a three-hour rally, with supporters calling for "building Europe in Ukraine [...] but on terms and conditions favorable for Ukraine".[160] According to the Kyiv Post, demonstrators held anti-EU and homophobic banners.[39] On 29 November a 2-hour 3,000 people strong pro-government rally took place on European Square.[93][161] Party of Regions member of parliament Vladyslav Lukianov told the crowd "I'm sure that our movement to Europe will never change. We support this choice. Let the land shatter from our steps. Together we will win".[93][162] The Kyiv Post again reported incentives were given to attend and described attendants in appearance "to be homeless; still more look drunk. The crowd consists mostly of men."[93] Euronews spoke of many being "bussed in from the east of the country where pro-Russian sentiment is strong. They, too, carried national flags as well as those of the ruling Party of Regions."[81] Many in the crowd refused to talk to Euronews.[163]

On 30 November, several thousand protesters had been brought into خاركيڤ on buses to stage a rally to support the government on Freedom Square. Some 170 buses were reported on the scene, and the number of attendees was according to organizers allegedly over 70,000;[164] news agencies reported the size of the crowd to be 40,000.[47] The event lasted only 1 hour.[47] Reports indicated attendees were paid UAH₴50 to attend,[165] and reports indicated that many were public sector workers who did not attend on their own accord.[164] The rally was both pro-administration and pro-European Integration.[164]

A rally in support of President Yanukovych held by the Donetsk Regional State Administration and the Party of Regions was to be held in Donetsk on 2 December, but was cancelled due to failure to organize enough people.[166]

On 3 December, 1,000 attended a rally in Kiev put on by the Party of Regions to support the president.[167] The same day, it was reported by journalists of Espreso.tv that a Party of Regions organized rally in Kiev was paying UAH₴200 to participants via online job postings.[168]

On 4 December, 15,000 rallied in in Donetsk in support of the president, many of whom were bussed in.[48] The Party of Regions denied any allegations of forcing anyone to attend.[169]

المسيرات المناهضة للحكومة في منتزه مارينسكي، ديسمبر

Russian Orthodox Antimaidan protesters waving Imperial Russian flags and orthodox banners

A rally and tent camp action in support of President Viktor Yanukovych and at initiative of the Party of Regions began on 3 December in Mariinsky park located close by the Verkhovna Rada building (the parliament).[170][171] The Party of Regions's press service reported on Sunday 6 December that over 15,000 people were taking part in a pro-government rally there.[171] According to city police, there were some 3,000 people in the park the day before.,[171] and the press estimated them at 2,000.[172] Police heavily guards this event from not only anti-government protesters,[173] but also from any journalists and on-lookers.

According Segodnya, people attending the pro-government Marinsky Park event were hired or obliged to attend, and forced to stay for a pre-determined time. In one incident on 8 December, protesters were held at the rally against their will by armed security.[172][بحاجة لمصدر أفضل]

Speaking on condition of anonymity to the Kyiv Post, one demonstrator said that participants of the rally are paid UAH₴300 or more in order to earn money without going to work. She also recalled cases when they were not let outside the rally for the whole day, while inside the camp there was a build up of garbage and dirty toilets on the grounds.[174] Mark MacKinnon, senior international correspondent for The Globe and Mail, attempted to interview a demonstrator at the ongoing anti-Maidan, but although was refused the demonstrator indicated to him that she actually supported the Euromaidan protests.[175]

In parliament on 13 December Svoboda leader Oleh Tyahnybok said people on the government payroll in medical, education and other sectors were being bullied into coming to a planned pro-government rally that weekend; Speaker of parliament and Party of Regions member Volodymyr Rybak responded, saying that it is wrong to pressure people and it has to stop.[176]

On 23 December, the pro-government rally ended.[177]

المسيرة الموالية للحكومة في يورو ميدان، 14-15 ديسمبر

Police guard the entrance to the empty 'AntiMaidan' demonstration site on European Square, Kiev, on the morning of 14 December. This 'demonstration' was financed by the government and public access was restricted.
The 'corridor' on Khreshchatyk between the Euromaidan and 'Antimaidan' demonstrations, looking towards Maidan Nezalezhnosti, 8:00 am, 14 December.

On December 14 it was announced by the Party of Regions that they intend to hold a rally on European Square under the banner "Let's Save Ukraine".[176][178] The move to create a second rally in the city by officials was condemned by former president Leonid Kravchuk.[179] According to party officials, 20,000 were expected to come from Donetsk and 10,000 from Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.[176] Many others were expected to arrive from Crimea, Odessa Oblast, and a number of other regions.[180] In the lead up to the rally, it was reported on 12 December that "thousands" of residents from Dnipropetrovsk (mostly government employees, students of technical schools, and athletes) were traveling to Kiev to join in the pro-government rallies. Those interviewed said they were doing so reluctantly, and only for 2 days, at a rate of UAH₴400-500 a day.[181][182] It was also reported that state employees were coerced to join the group under threat of dismissal.[29] On the day of the rally, UDAR MP Roman Chereha accused officials of bringing in children from shelters, promising them food and shelter.[183] On 13 December, the Donetsk regional organization of the Party of Regions said that people wishing to go to Kiev will be provided with food rations and will be transported on a specially commissioned train, paid for by the party.[184] In Odessa, several trains carrying roughly 3,000 departed the city carrying students and teachers to participate in the pro-government rally; students, some of the Odessa Law Academy, admitted they would receive school credit for attending, others would receive financial compensation.[185] It was similarly reported in Luhansk that over 1,000 had departed via rail, and those attending were largely coal miners from the region. Luhansk mayor Sergei Kravchenko in an address stated that over 1,500 residents would support the government at the rally.[186] Meanwhile in Zaporizhia, it was reported that a train packed with 1,600 "athletic men and workers of state enterprises and companies" was departing to Kiev. Conductors said it was a private, rented train with tickets not available to the public.[176] In a list released by journalist Tatiana Honchenko, a total of 27 trains, each with on average 20 cars had been rented by the Party of Regions for the weekend event to transport supporters from across Ukraine to Kiev.[187]

Opposition leaders Arseniy Yatseniuk and Ihor Miroshnychenko issued a warning, citing inside information, that authorities were planning to use the large pro-government rally in order to start a civil conflict and justify issuing a state of emergency, which would require the use of Berkut riot police and military to clear European Square and Maidan.[180][188] Yatsenyuk specifically warned against the use of hired thugs (titushky) who will infiltrate and start to wreak havoc in the pro-European encampment cloaked in either European Union or national colors.[180] Opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, however, called for calm and assured that the pro-government rally will be attended by peaceful, state-paid employees and students.[180] Oleksandr Yefremov, head of the Party of Regions parliamentary faction reiterated "This will be an exclusively peaceful demonstration, our people are always easy to get along with...we will also rely on the police to create a safe buffer between the two rallies."[180] However, a statement by Party of Regions MP Vadym Kolesnichenko acknowledged the creation of vigilante groups being formed in the south-east of Ukraine and across Crimea to "protect public order and the Constitution", and that one such group in Sevastopol already had already amassed 800 recruits; adding that they would be involved in the events of the weekend.[189] In an interview by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty with an attendee on the day of the event, the subject (who taught boxing) revealed that he and a group of others were offered UAH₴1,000 by organizers to instigate a fight with protesters on Maidan.[190]

The Interior Ministry's press service told the Kyiv Post on 13 December that the pro-government rally received permission to have up to 200,000 in attendance.[176] According to Zerkalo Nedeli, one of the nation's most influential newspapers, the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine and government ordered the Ministry of Defense to aid in the provision of security, logistics, deployment of field kitchens, and transportation of 200,000 civilians to hold a pro-government rally in Kiev on the weekend of 14–15 December.[191] The Ministry of Internal Affairs is said to have been requested to aid in the security for those coming to Kiev from other regions of the country.[191] The report was covered in the media by The Insider,[192] UNIAN,[193] andUkrayinska Pravda.[194] The Minister of Defense later denied these rumors, citing Article 17 and Article 37 of the Ukrainian Constitution, which prohibits the participation of the Ukrainian Armed Forces in domestic political fights.[195] Despite this, on 13 December tents were seen being set up on property owned by the Ministry of Defense,[196] and in a separate report by Zerkalo Nedeli it was revealed that the Ministry of Defense had been conducting training exercises over the previous two days, including taking inventory of equipment (ex. field kitchens, vehicles) for support of the pro-governmental protests. Resources were also transferred to Ukpromakord, the food supplier of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.[197] Further, on the day of the event witnesses reported and photographed 40 military field kitchens serving pro-government supporters in Mariinsky Park.[183]

Prime Minister Mykola Azarov spoke at the rally and told attendants that Ukraine did not decline its goal of integrating to the EU "We're allegedly betray Ukraine and sign [the agreement on joining] the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. I strongly deny these speculations".[198] He referred to statements that Ukrainian authorities where planning to join this Customs Union as "profiteering".[198] Azarov also urged "Don't divide Ukraine, don't build barricades".[199] Azarov also said the EU had insisted on 'unacceptable conditions' sign the AA, including the introduction of gay marriage and laws protecting sexual minorities. "The opposition leaders are telling fables when they say that we only have to sign the [association] agreement [with the EU] to start traveling to Europe visa-free the next day. Nothing of the sort. We have yet to comply with a whole set of preconditions: we have to legalize same-sex marriages, we have to adopt legislation on equality of sexual minorities, and so on. Is our society ready for this?" Azarov said.[200]

At the event, Party of Regions MP Hryhoriy Smitiukh called attendees to appeal to Russian president Vladimir Putin to lower the price of gas in Ukraine, and engaged the crowd in a chant of "Putin! Putin!".[183]

Organizers claimed over 100,000 attended;[201] police estimated 60,000 attended, which was also estimated to be the maximum capacity of the square;[202] eyewitnesses placed the attendance as low as 20,000.[203][204] At 6:00 p.m. Party of Regions head Oleksandr Efremov announced the end of the meeting, a day earlier than planned.[205] By the end of the rally, only 3,000 remained,[183] and by the evening European Square was deserted.[206]

The rally on 15 December ran from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., and there were various reports that attendees were not paid in full for their time. “People came to express their will. We paid them Hr 300 per day. I did not promise any money to them, I am here with my voters,” said Artur Martovytskiy, a lawmaker from the Party of Regions.[30]

المسيرة الموالية للحكومة في منتزه مرينسكي، يناير

Another rally by supporters of the Party of Regions began on 13 January 2014 and continued until the adoption of the state budget for 2014 on 17 January.[207][208] According to the organizers people are attending the rally because they want "stability in the country" and believe that it is unacceptable to hinder the adoption of the state budget.[207] Protesters are planning to spend the night in the tent city in Mariinsky park.[207] According to the organizers participants in the rally were collecting signatures that will be sent to the Kiev city council with the request to free the center of Kiev of demonstrators, including Khreshchatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti.[207] The organizers stated that the protesters were in favor of a peaceful solution to this issue and were against the violent dispersal of the pro-European rally.[207] Interfax-Ukraine reported on 13 January that about ten tents had been set up in the park and metal shields had been installed perpendicular to Hrushevskoho Street, with law enforcement officers standing behind them.[207]

Prime Minister Azarov criticized Euromaidan coverage in western media, and lack of attention to the 'antimaidan', "The Western media are paying attention to one square and do not pay for another," and said that the antimaidan represents all of Ukraine, whereas Euromaidan as a whole only represents Lviv, Ternopil, and Ivano-Frankivsk. He then stated that the majority of Ukraine supports the president, the government, and no longer has interest in European integration.[209]

Another rally by supporters of the Party of Regions (planned to bring up to 10,000 attendees) in Mariinsky park began on 21 January 2014 against an alleged attempted "coup" by the Euromaidan protesters.[208] It is planned to continue until the end of the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots.[208]

"مناهضو الميدان"

The Communist Party of Ukraine planned to gather 2,000 supporters to a 24 November 2013 rally against signing agreements with the European Union.[210] Communists that did attend, set up tents near the statue of Lenin in Kyiv, intending to protect it from vandalism.[211]

On 25 November in Sevastopol the Russian Bloc and the Communist Party of Ukraine organized an "Anti-Maidan".[212] The meeting was conducted in support of joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia.[212] Previous rallies by the Russian Bloc in the weeks prior included EU flag burning and anti-government, and anti-Ukrainian rhetoric,[213][nb 10] On 26 November, another anti-Maidan protest was organized in Donetsk, attracting only 30 student protesters. Organizers stated that the European Union had ruined the economies of new members, and that joining would bring corruption and gay marriage.[215] The protest was counter to the pro-EU EuroMaidan protest 200 meters away, which attracted no more than 50 protesters. The next day, a small anti-Maidan rally was held by the Russian Bloc and Communists in Mykolaiv.[216] At a November 25 rally in Luhansk, protesters were met with resistance from a group of Don Cossacks, who were against EU membership and referred to pro-EU protesters as fascists.[217]

A 1 December Communist rally in Donetsk gathered about 200 mostly elderly supporters who chanted: "The union of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus is inevitable".[218] The following day, Communist Party of Ukraine MP Antonina Khromova made statements at the Donetsk regional council, approving the use of force to remove protesters in Kiev, which was met with applause. She continued by saying that Ukraine does not need European values, namely, "same-sex marriage" and "African pan handlers".[219]

The Sevastopol city council, on the initiative of the Russian Bloc, opted to appeal to the President and the Government of Ukraine to reorient foreign policy towards Russia and its Customs Union.[220] The Russian Bloc has also demanded the resignation of Minister of Education Dmytro Tabachnyk, for not preventing students from taking part in the Euromaidan protests.[221] On 8 December, the "Russian Community of Sevastopol" organization held a rally in support of Berkut anti-riot troops who made headlines for assaulting students and journalists in Kiev the week prior. Leader of the group, Tatiana Ermakova, expressed outrage at the fact that, according to her, protesters provoked and attacked Berkut troops. "No country in the world would allow such lawlessness which, the for the 17th day occurs on the Maidan," she said.[222] The official statement from Russian Community specifically thanked the anti-riot troops for 'protecting us from the fascists', and called the Euromaidan demonstrators "Nazis" and "Banderites".[223]

On 14 December the leaders of the Russian Bloc and Russian Unity met with the Consul General of Russia in Crimea, Vyacheslav Svitlychny, and declared the preparation of an anti-maidan to demand the secession of Crimea from Ukraine.[224]

On 25 January, a pro-government antimaidan was held in Mykolayiv, with attendees largely descried as mostly young men, athletic, and appearing to be titushky. The crowd of 400 spoke out against "fascism" and held signs promoting the unity of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.[225]

On 26 January, an rally was held against the Maidan movement in Simferopol, with 200 attending. Protesters accused journalists of killing people in Kiev.[226] 1,000 gathered in Donetsk, supported by local Regions supporters, communists, and neo-cossacks; there were some injuries in clashes.[227]

On 1 February in Dnipropetrovsk, Communists held a rally in support of merging Ukraine with Russia and Belarus, and called for the imposition of curfews, closing of banks, and the expulsion of foreigners.[228]

المصابون من الإعلاميين والمسعفين جراء هجمات الشرطة

وفقا لعاملين في المجال الطبى على الأرض: 300 اصيبوا بجروح وتم علاجهم في 20 كانون الثاني، 250 في 21 كانون الثاني، وجرح أيضا أكثر من 400 في 22 يناير و 70 يوم 23 يناير.[229]

بالإضافة إلى ذلك، وفقا لمصادر طبية المدينة، وقد طلب ما مجموعه 157 من المحتجين المساعدات الطبية بين 19-23 يناير، وأيضا 72 أدخلوا إلى المستشفيات. [230] وقدمت غالبية الشكاوى في مركز المساعدات الطبية الميدانية التي أنشئت بالقرب من الحواجز على شارع هروشيفيشكوهو في 19 يناير كانون الثاني ومعظم المصابين تجنبوا المستشفيات لأن مثل تلك المعالجة كانت عرضة للاعتقال.[231][232]

النائب Lesya Orobets كانت مستهدفة من قبل الشرطة وتعرضت للضرب في العراء في هجوم بدوافع سياسية، جنبا إلى جنب مع 3 حراس كانوا معها.[109] في حادثة أطلق عليها عقوبة قاسية وغير عادية، اعتقلت شرطة مكافحة الشغب اثنين من المتظاهرين، وجردتهم من ملابسهم، وصبت عليهم المياه، وجعلتهم يذهبوا مرة أخرى إلى الميدان سيرا على الأقدام في درجات حرارة دون الصفر، في حين أنها أطلقت عليهم الرصاص المطاطي.[109][233] إثنان من المتظاهرين فقدا بصريهما.[234]

ادعى عدد من الصحفيين أنه تم استهدافهم من قبل الشرطة، بما في ذلك العديد من الذين يقولون انهم قد اطلق الرصاص عمدا عليهم.[109][235] في المجموع، أصيب 26، مع اثنين على الأقل بجروح خطيرة من قبل الشرطة بإستخدام قنابل الصوت;[236] المزيد من 2 قد اعتقلتهم الشرطة.[237] تم اعتقال أكثر من 30 ناشطا في المجموع.[238] قبل 22، كان لا يقل عن 42 من الصحفيين ضحايا الاشتباكات في شارع هروشيفيشكوهو حتى 22 يناير 2014.[239]

القتلى

يوم 21 يناير، أشار التقرير الأولي عن أول حالة وفاة وقعت بعد سقوط رجل يبلغ من العمر 22 عاما من فوق مبنى من إرتفاع 13 مترا الأعمدة أمام ملعب دينامو في مواجهات مع الشرطة BERKUT، وأصيب بكسور في عموده الفقري الفقرة العنقية. تقارير الحادث أثارت النقاش حول ما إذا كان الرجل قد قفز من المبنى فرارا من الضرب، حيث لقى حتفه، أو إذا كان قد دفع من قبل الشرطة.[240][241] تسببت تقارير في وقت لاحق بعد الارتباك تفيد من قبل الطاقم الطبي أن رجلا آخر 43 سنة، سقط من أعلى، لكنه نجا;[242][243] ومع ذلك ،أفيد بأنه سقط أثناء تثبيت هوائي وليس على حادث بشارع هروشيفيشكوهو .[244]

Berkut troop armed with a shotgun.


في الصباح الباكر من يوم 22 يناير الشرطة قامت بإطلاق النار حيث قتل سيرغي Nigoyan، وهو يبلغ من العمر 20عاما من الأرمن مشارك في يورو ميدان من دنيبروبتروفسك، بينما كان يتسلق الحواجز في الصراع في المنطقة كضمان.[245][246] أفيد أنه تلقى أربع طلقات نارية، بما في ذلك الرأس، وتوفي في مكان الحادث قبل نقله إلى المستشفى.[247][248][249]


استقالة بعض السيلوڤيك

  • On January 29, 2014 number of agents from some formations of special assignment in the Ministry of Internal Affairs submitted their resignation. On that time there are six soldiers of the SBU "Alpha" team from Ivano-Frankivsk and another agent of the "Hryfon" formation who officially submitted to their resignation.[250]


التأثير

دعم يورو ميدان في أوكرانيا

According to an 4 to 9 December 2013 study[251] by Research & Branding Group 49% of all Ukrainians supported Euromaidan and 45% had the opposite opinion. It was mostly supported in West (84%) and Central Ukraine (66%). A third (33%) of residents of South Ukraine and 13% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported Euromaidan as well. The percentage of people who do not support the protesters was in East Ukraine 81%, in South Ukraine 60%[nb 11], in Central Ukraine 27% and in Western Ukraine 11%. Polls have shown that two-thirds of Kievans support the ongoing protests.[253]

A poll conducted by the Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Fund and Razumkov Center, between 20 December and 24 December, showed more than 50% of Ukrainians supporting the Euromaidan protests, while 42% opposing it.[254]

Another Research & Branding Group survey (conducted from 23 December to 27 December) showed that 50% of Ukrainians don't support Euromaidan, while 45% did support it.[255] 43% of those polled thought that Euromaidan's consequences "sooner could be negative", while 31% of the respondents thought the opposite; 17% believed that Euromaidan would bring no negative consequences.[255]

An Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Foundation survey of protesters conducted 7 and 8 December 2013 found that 92% of those who came to Kiev from across Ukraine came on their own initiative, 6.3% was organized by a public movement, and 1.8% were organized by a party.[3][256] 70% said they came to protest the police brutality of November 30, and 54% to protest in support of the European Union Association Agreement signing. Among their demands, 82% wanted detained protesters freed, 80% wanted the government to resign, and 75% want president Yanukovych to resign and for snap elections.[3][257] The poll showed that 49.8% of the protesters are residents of Kiev and 50.2% came from across Ukraine. Thirty-eight percent of the protesters are aged between 15 and 29, 49% are aged between 30 and 54, and 13% are 55 or older. A total of 57.2% of the protesters are men.[3][256]

In the eastern regions of Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv, 29% of the population believe "In certain circumstances, an authoritarian regime may be preferable to a democratic one".[258][259]

الرأي العام في أوكرانيا عن اتفاقية الشراكة أثناء يورو ميدان

According to an 4 to 9 December 2013 study[251] by Research & Branding Group 46% of Ukrainians supported the integration of the country into EU, and 36% - into the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Most support for EU integration could be found in West (81%) and in Central (56%) Ukraine; 30% of residents of South Ukraine and 18% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported the integration with EU as well. Integration with the Customs Union was supported by 61% of East Ukraine and 54% of South Ukraine and also by 22% of Central and 7% of Western Ukraine.

التأثير السياسي

During the annual World Economic Forum meeting at the end of January 2014 in Davos (Switzerland) Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov received no invitations to the main events; according to the Financial Times's Gideon Rachman because the Ukrainian government was blamed for the violence of the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots.[260]

التأثير الاقتصادي

Moody's Investors Service reported on 4 December 2013 "As a consequence of the severity of the protests, demand for foreign currency is likely to rise" and noted that this was another blow to Ukraine's already poor solvency.[261] First deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov stated on 7 December Ukraine risked a default if failed to raise $10 billion "I asked for a loan to support us, and Europe [the EU] agreed, but a mistake was made - we failed to put it on paper".[262]

On 3 December Azarov had warned Ukraine might not be able to fulfill its natural gas contracts with Russia.[263] And he blamed the deal on restoring gas supplies of 18 January 2009 for this.[263]

On 5 December Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that "money to finance the payment of pensions, wages, social payments, support of the operation of the housing and utility sector and medical institutions do not appear due to unrest in the streets" and he added that authorities were doing everything possible to ensure the timely financing of them.[264] Minister of Social Policy of Ukraine Natalia Korolevska stated on 2 January 2014 that these January 2014 payments would begin according to schedule.[265]

On 11 December the second Azarov Government moved the date of social payments due to "the temporarily blocking of the government".[266] The same day Reuters commented (when talking about Euromaidan) "The crisis has added to the financial hardship of a country on the brink of bankruptcy" and added that (at the time) investors thought it more likely than not that Ukraine would default over the next five years (since it then cost Ukraine over US$1 million a year to insure $10 million in state debt).[267]

Fitch Ratings reported on 16 December that the (political) "standoff" had lead to "greater the risk that political uncertainty will raise demand for foreign currency, causing additional reserve losses and increasing the risk of disorderly currency movement".[268] It also added "Interest rates rose sharply as the National Bank sought to tighten hryvnia liquidity".[268]

First Deputy Finance Minister Anatoliy Miarkovsky stated on 17 December the Ukrainian government budget deficit in 2014 could amount to about 3% with a "plus or minus" deviation of 0.5%.[269]

On 18 December, the day after an economical agreement with Russia was signed, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated "Nothing is threatening stability of the financial-economic situation in Ukraine now. Not a single economic factor".[270] However, BBC News reported that the deal "will not fix Ukraine's deeper economic problems" in an article called Russian bailout masks Ukraine's economic mess.[271]

On 21 January 2014 the Kiev City State Administration claimed that protests in Kiev had so far caused the city more than 2 million U.S. dollars worth of damage.[272] It intended to claim compensation for damage caused by all demonstrators, regardless of their political affiliation.[272]


التأثير الاجتماعي

In Kiev, life continued "as normal" outside the "protest zone" (namely Maidan Nezalezhnosti)[273][274]

"Euromaidan" has been named as word of the year for 2013 by modern Ukrainian language and slang dictionary Myslovo,[275] and the most popular neologism in Russia by web analytics company Public.ru.[276]


انظر أيضاً

الهوامش

  1. ^ Since 1 December 2013 Kiev's Town Hall has been occupied by Euromaidan-protesters; this forced the Kiev City Council to meet in the Solomianka Raion state administration building instead.[9]
  2. ^ Reports of some protesters attending under duress from superiors[29]
  3. ^ "Titushky" are alleged provocators during protests.[33]
  4. ^ Early November 2012 Communist Party party leader Petro Symonenko stated that his party will not cooperate with other parties in the new parliament elected in the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election.[37] Nevertheless, in the current parliament its parliamentary faction usually votes similarly to the Party of Regions parliamentary faction.[38]
  5. ^ The term "Euromaidan" was initially used as a hashtag on Twitter.[57] A Twitter account named Euromaidan was created on the first day of the protests.[58] It soon became popular in the international media.[59] The name is composed of two parts: "Euro" is short for Europe and "maidan" refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the main square of Kiev, where the protests are centered.[57]
  6. ^ On 7 April 2013 a decree by Ukrainian President فيكتور يانوكوفيتش حررت يوري وتسينكو من السجن وتم إعفاؤه من المزيد من العقاب.[66]
  7. ^ On 20 December 2013 Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that the public had not been given clear explanations by the authorities of the reason of the decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement.[74]
  8. ^ On 10 December President Yanukovych stated "We will certainly resume the IMF negotiations. If there are conditions that suit us, we will take that path".[79] However, Yanukovych also (once again) stated that the conditions put forward by the IMF were unacceptable "I had a conversation with U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden, who told me that the issue of the IMF loan has almost been solved, but I told him that if the conditions remained... we did not need such loans".[79]
  9. ^ RSA stands for Regional State Administration.
  10. ^ These rallies were described by Batkivshchyna MP Volodymyr Yavorivsky as "raving madness".[214]
  11. ^ According to the Financial Times people in East Ukraine and South Ukraine "tend to be more politically passive than their western counterparts. Locals say they still feel part of Ukraine and have no desire to reunite with Russia – nor are they likely to engage in conflict with the west".[252]

المصادر

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