حلفاء الحرب العالمية الأولى

حلفاء الحرب العالمية الأولى

قوى الوفاق
1914–1918
 *     الحلفاء والقوى المرافقة (ومستعمراتهم) *     القوى المركزية (ومستعمراتهم) *     قوى محايدة
  •      الحلفاء والقوى المرافقة (ومستعمراتهم)
  •      القوى المركزية (ومستعمراتهم)
  •      قوى محايدة
المكانة تحالف عسكري
الحقبة التاريخية الحرب العالمية الأولى
• تأسست
1914
• انحل
1918
التحالفات العسكرية الأوروپية قبل الحرب.

حلفاء الحرب العالمية الأولى Allies of World War I، ويُعرفوا أيضاً بإسم قوى الوفاق، كانوا البلدان التي عارضت القوى المركزية أثناء الحرب العالمية الأولى.

أعضاء تحالف الوفاق الأصلي المبرم في 1907 كانوا الجمهورية الفرنسية، والامبراطورية البريطانية والامبراطورية الروسية. إيطاليا أنهت تحالفها مع القوى المركزية، متعللة بأن ألمانيا والنمسا-المجر بدآ الحرب وأن التحالف كان بطبيعته دفاعياً فقط؛ وبذلك فقد أنهت الحرب في جانب الوفاق في 1915. كما كانت اليابان عضواً هاماً. بلجيكا وصربيا واليونان والجبل الأسود ورومانيا[1] كن أعضاء ثانويين في الوفاق.[2]

معاهدة سيڤر في 1920 عرّفت القوى المتحالفة الرئيسية كالتالي: الامبراطورية البريطانية، والجمهورية الفرنسية وإيطاليا واليابان. القوى المتحالفة ضمت – مع القوى التحالفة الرئيسية – أرمينيا وبلجيكا واليونان والحجاز وپولندا والبرتغال ورومانيا والدولة الصربو-كروانية-سلوڤينية وتشيكوسلوڤاكيا.[3]

الولايات المتحدة أعلنت الحرب على ألمانيا في أبريل 1917 على أساس أن ألمانيا انتهكت حياد الولايات المتحدة بمهاجمة سفن الشحن العالمي وبسبب برقية زيمرمان المرسلة إلى المكسيك.[4] It declared war on Austria-Hungary in December 1917.[5][6] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than as a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[7] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war on her.[8]

بالرغم من أن الدومنيونات ومستعمرات التاج في الامبراطورية البريطانية قاموا مساهمات بارزة في المجهود الحربي للحلفاء، إلا أنه لم يكن لديهم independent foreign policies during World War I. The five-member British War Cabinet (BWC) exercised operational control of British Empire forces. However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit.

ومنذ مطلع 1917 the BWC was superseded by the مجلس وزراء الحرب الامبراطوري, which had Dominion representation. الفيلق الأسترالي والفيلق الكندي were placed for the first time under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,[9] respectively, who reported in turn to British generals.[بحاجة لمصدر] In April 1918 operational control of all Entente forces on the الجبهة الغربية passed to the new supreme commander, فردينان فوش من فرنسا.

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التاريخ

ملصق روسي من عام 1914 يصور الوفاق الثلاثي.

The original alliance opposed to the Central Powers was the الوفاق الثلاثي, which was formed by three Great European Powers:

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian ally Montenegro on 8 August.[بحاجة لمصدر] On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan.

Of the two Low Countries involved in the war, Luxembourg chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist state by the Entente powers: Luxembourg never became part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgium's efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members.[بحاجة لمصدر]. The entrance of the British Empire brought Nepal into the war.

On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war. Liberia, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on 10 November 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Following the Versailles conference, Britain, France, Italy and Japan became the permanent members of the League of Nations council. The United States, meant to be the fifth permanent member, left because the US Senate voted on 19 March 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, thus preventing American participation in the League.

Statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[10]
التعداد
(بالملايين)
الأرض
(مليون كم²)
GDP
(بليون $)
الموجة الأولى: 1914
روسيا الامبراطورية الروسية (بما فيها پولندا) 173.2 21.7 257.7
Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6
الاجمالي 176.4 22.1 264.3
الجمهورية الفرنسية الثالثة فرنسا 39.8 0.5 138.7
المستعمرات الفرنسية 48.3 10.7 31.5
الاجمالي 88.1 11.2 170.2
الامبراطوية البريطانية المملكة المتحدة 46.0 0.3 226.4
المستعمرات البريطانية 380.2 13.5 257
British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8
Total 446.1 33.3 561.2
Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5
Japanese colonies[11] 19.1 0.3 16.3
Total 74.2 0.7 92.8
Yugoslav states[12] 7.0 0.2 7.2
الموجة الثانية (1915–16)
Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3
Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3
Total 37.6 2.3 92.6
Kingdom of Portugal Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4
Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2
Total 14.7 2.5 12.6
Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7
الموجة الثالثة (1917–18)
الولايات المتحدة United States 96.5 7.8 511.6
overseas dependencies[13] 9.8 1.8 10.6
Total 106.3 9.6 522.2
Central American states[14] 9.0 0.6 10.6
Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3
Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7
Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0
Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7
Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9
Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[15]
Population
(millions)
Territory
(million km2)
GDP
($ billion)
November 1914
Allies, total 793.3 76.5 1,096.5
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.6
November 1916
Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,213.4
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.6
November 1918
Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5
Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%
UK, France and USA only 182.0 8.7 876.6
Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%
Central Powers[16] 156.1 6.0 383.9
World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9


الدول الحلفاء المقاتلة الرئيسية

المملكة المتحدة

British soldiers in a trench during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
British battlecruiser HMS Lion hit by shell fire during the Battle of Jutland.
British Sopwith Camel fighter aircraft during the war.

المسنعمرات والتوابع

في أوروپا

جبل طارق، Cyprus and Malta were British dependencies in Europe.

في أفريقيا

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روسيا

Russian artillery firing.

فرنسا

جنود فرنسيون يعبرون نهر في طريقهم للڤردان أثناء معركة الڤردان.

اليابان

Japanese soldiers landing in Tsingtao during the Siege of Tsingtao in which Allied forces seized control of Germany's Kiautschou Bay concession.

إيطاليا

قوات الألپ الإيطالية.

الدول المؤازرة المقاتلة الأخرى

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بلجيكا

Belgium had declared its neutrality when the war began, but Germany disregarded Belgium's neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of Paris. As a result, Belgium became a member of the Allies.

البرازيل

جنود برازيليون في الحرب العالمية الأولى.

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers.

الجبل الأسود

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

نجد والأحساء

وافقت إمارة نجد والأحساء على دخول الحرب كحليف لبريطانيا في معاهدة دارين في 26 ديسمبر 1915.[17]

صربيا

جنود صرب في الحرب العالمية الأولى.

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.

الدول المؤازرة الرئيسية

الولايات المتحدة

Non-state combatants

Four non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:

الزعماء

مملكة صربيا صربيا

مملكة الجبل الأسود الجبل الأسود

الإمبراطورية الروسية روسيا

بلجيكا بلجيكا

فرنسا فرنسا

المملكة المتحدة الامبراطورية البريطانية

كندا Dominion of Canada

أستراليا كومنولث أستراليا

الراج البريطاني امبراطورية الهند

Union of South Africa اتحاد جنوب أفريقيا

نيوزيلندا نيوزيلندا

نيوفاوندلاند دومنيون نيوفاوندلاند

إمبراطورية اليابان اليابان

مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) إيطاليا

مملكة رومانيا رومانيا

مملكة اليونان اليونان

  • Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
  • Constantin I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, without formally resigning.
  • George: Crown Prince of Greece, designated King after his father retired form the throne, he refused to become the new king and followed his father in exile.
  • Alexander: King of Greece, he became King of Greece after his father and brother retired from the throne.
  • Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general in the Hellenic Army.

الولايات المتحدة الولايات المتحدة

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.

الپرتغال البرتغال

The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919.

تايلند سيام (تايلند)

انظر المقال الرئيسي: سيام في الحرب العالمية الأولى

البرازيل البرازيل

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

  • Venceslau BrásPresident of Brazil
  • Admiral Pedro Frontin, Chief of DNOG (Brazilian Expeditionary Fleet)
  • General Napoleão Felipe Aché, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918–1919)
    • M.D. Nabuco Gouveia – Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission

الأفراد والخسائر

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties.)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia 412,953[48] 61,928[19] 152,171 214,099 52%
Belgium 267,000[49] 38,172[20] 44,686 82,858 31%
Canada 628,964[50] 64,944[21] 149,732 214,676 34%
France 8,410,000[51] 1,397,800[22] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
Greece 230,000[52] 26,000[23] 21,000 47,000 20%
India 1,440,437[53] 74,187[24] 69,214 143,401 10%
Italy 5,615,000[54] 651,010[25] 953,886 1,604,896 29%
Japan 800,000[55] 415[26] 907 1,322 <1%
Monaco 80[27] 8[27] 0 8[27] 10%
Montenegro 50,000[56] 3,000 10,000 13,000 26%
Nepal 200,000[28] 30,670 21,009 49,823 25%
New Zealand 128,525[57] 18,050[29] 41,317 59,367 46%
Portugal 100,000[58] 7,222[30] 13,751 20,973 21%
Romania 750,000[59] 250,000[31] 120,000 370,000 49%
Russia 12,000,000[60] 1,811,000[32] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
Serbia 707,343[61] 275,000[33] 133,148 408,148 58%
Siam 1,284[62] 19 0 19 2%
South Africa 136,070[63] 9,463[34] 12,029 21,492 16%
United Kingdom 6,211,922[64] 886,342[35] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
United States 4,355,000[65] 116,708[36] 205,690 322,398 7%
Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%

ملخص إعلانات الحرب

التاريخ المعلِن على
1914
28 يوليو النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary مملكة صربيا Serbia
30 July الإمبراطورية الروسية Russia النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
1 August الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany الإمبراطورية الروسية Russia
3 August الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany فرنسا France
4 August الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany بلجيكا Belgium
المملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا United Kingdom الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
5 August مملكة الجبل الأسود Montenegro النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
6 August النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary الإمبراطورية الروسية Russia
مملكة صربيا Serbia الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
9 August مملكة الجبل الأسود Montenegro الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
11 August فرنسا France النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
12 August المملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا United Kingdom النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
22 August النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary بلجيكا Belgium
23 August إمبراطورية اليابان Japan الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
25 August إمبراطورية اليابان Japan النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
1 November الإمبراطورية الروسية Russia الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire
2 November مملكة صربيا Serbia الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire
3 November مملكة الجبل الأسود Montenegro الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire
5 November المملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا United Kingdom
فرنسا France
الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire
1915
23 May مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) Italy النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
3 June سان مارينو San Marino النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
21 August مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) Italy الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire
14 October مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria مملكة صربيا Serbia
15 October المملكة المتحدة لبريطانيا العظمى وأيرلندا United Kingdom
مملكة الجبل الأسود Montenegro
مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria
16 October فرنسا France مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria
19 October مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) Italy
الإمبراطورية الروسية Russia
مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria
1916
9 March الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany الپرتغال Portugal
15 March النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary الپرتغال Portugal
27 August مملكة رومانيا Romania النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) Italy الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
28 August الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany مملكة رومانيا Romania
30 August الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire مملكة رومانيا Romania
1 September مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria مملكة رومانيا Romania
1917
6 April الولايات المتحدة United States الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
7 April كوبا Cuba الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
10 April مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria الولايات المتحدة United States
13 April بوليڤيا Bolivia الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
20 April الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire الولايات المتحدة United States
2 July مملكة اليونان Greece الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
الدولة العثمانية Ottoman Empire
مملكة بلغاريا Bulgaria
22 July تايلند Siam الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
4 August ليبريا Liberia الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
14 August جمهورية الصين (1912–49) China الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
6 October پيرو Peru الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
7 October أوروگواي Uruguay الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
26 October البرازيل Brazil الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany[37]
7 December الولايات المتحدة United States النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
7 December الإكوادور Ecuador الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
10 December پنما Panama النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
16 December كوبا Cuba النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
1918
23 April گواتيمالا Guatemala الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
8 May نيكاراگوا Nicaragua الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
النمسا-المجر Austria-Hungary
23 May كوستاريكا Costa Rica الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
12 July هايتي Haiti الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
19 July هندوراس Honduras الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany
10 November مملكة رومانيا Romania الإمبراطورية الألمانية Germany

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  2. ^ First World War.com – Feature Articles – The Causes of World War One
  3. ^ The Treaty of Sèvres, 1920
  4. ^ US Declaration of War
  5. ^ Declarations of War and Authorizations for the Use of Military Force: Historical Background and Legal Implications
  6. ^ H.J.Res.169: Declaration of War with Austria-Hungary, WWI, United States Senate
  7. ^ Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  8. ^ Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  9. ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii
  10. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  11. ^ Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
  12. ^ Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
  13. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
  14. ^ Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
  15. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16.
  16. ^ Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
  17. ^ Abdullah I of Jordan; Philip Perceval Graves (1950). Memoirs. p. 186.
  18. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  19. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[1]-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[2]-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–21[3]-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead[4].
  20. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[5] Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." [6].
  21. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.[7]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[8]
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths[9]-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead[10].
  22. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[11]. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. [12]-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.[13]
  23. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing[14], The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease[15]
  24. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[16].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[17]
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead[18]. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead[19]
  25. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[20]
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data[21].
  26. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army[22].
  27. ^ أ ب ت Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur | Nice-Matin
  28. ^ Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  29. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[23].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[24]
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–21[25]. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead[26].
  30. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW[27].
  31. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office"[28]. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[29].
  32. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[30]. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.[31]
  33. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[32].The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis[33]
  34. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[34]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[35]
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–21[36]. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead[37].
  35. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds[38].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.[39]
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths[40]. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK[41], 507 from "Other colonies"[42] and the Royal Navy (32,287)[43].
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately [44]; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK[45].
  36. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[46], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead [47].
  37. ^ Declarations of War, 1914–1918

مراجع

  • ^ The War Office (2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN  1-84734-681-2 . OCLC 137236769.
  • ^ Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN  0-19-521077-8 . OCLC 233987354.
  • ^ Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN  0-8153-3351-X .
  • ^ The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF).
  • ^ The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register".
  • ^ Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. OCLC 123124938.
  • ^ Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre (in French). Paris. OCLC 4226464.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • ^ Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918–1922 (in French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • ^ Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • ^ Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun – The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN  0-679-75303-6 . OCLC 32615324.
  • ^ Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN  0-7864-1204-6 . OCLC 48066096.

المصادر

انظر قائمة كتب الحرب العالمية الأولى

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)