ألمانيا المحتلة من قِبل الحلفاء

(تم التحويل من Allied-occupied Germany)
الرايخ الألماني

Deutsches Reich
1945–1949
علم ألمانيا#بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية (1945–49)
The C-Pennant
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949. British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France. Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949.
British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France.
Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
المكانةاحتلال عسكري
العاصمة
اللغات الشائعة
Governors (1945) 
• British zone
F. Mar. Montgomery
• French zone
Gen. Lattre de Tassigny
• US zone
الجنرال آيزنهاور
Marshal G. K. Zhukov
الحقبة التاريخيةالحرب الباردة
• Surrender
8 May 1945
5 July 1945
15 December 1947
23 May 1949
7 October 1949
12 سبتمبر 1990
التعداد
• 1945
64,260,000
• 1949
68,080,000
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
ألمانيا النازية
ألمانيا الغربية
ألمانيا الشرقية
محمية السار
برلين الغربية
Today part of ألمانيا
  1. Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) on 1 January 1957.
  2. Reunited Germany by joining the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
  3. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990.
  4. The western Allied zones of Germany and the western sectors of Berlin.
  5. The Soviet zone of Germany and sector of Berlin.
Map of occupied Berlin
The four sectors of Allied occupied Berlin and exclaves.

Upon defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the destruction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration). The four powers divided 'Germany as a whole' into four occupation zones for administrative purposes, under the United States, United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union respectively; creating what became collectively known as Allied-occupied Germany (بالألمانية: Alliierten-besetztes Deutschland). This division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945).قالب:Citation needed lead The four zones were as agreed in February 1945 by the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union meeting at the Yalta Conference; setting aside an earlier division into three zones (excluding France) proposed by the London Protocol.

At Potsdam, the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union approved the detachment from 'Germany as a whole' of the German eastern territories east of the Oder–Neisse line; with the exact line of the boundary to be determined at a final German Peace Treaty. This treaty was expected to confirm the "shifting westward" of Poland's borders, as the United Kingdom and the United States committed themselves to support in any future peace treaty the permanent incorporation of former eastern German territories into Poland and the Soviet Union. From March 1945 to July 1945, these former eastern territories of Germany had been administered under Soviet military occupation authorities, but following the Potsdam Conference they were handed over to Soviet and Polish civilian administrations and ceased to constitute part of Allied-occupied Germany.

In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, United States forces had pushed beyond the agreed boundaries for the future zones of occupation, in some places by as much as 320 kم (200 ميلs). The so-called line of contact between Soviet and American forces at the end of hostilities, mostly lying eastward of the July 1945-established inner German border, was temporary. After two months in which they had held areas that had been assigned to the Soviet zone, U.S. forces withdrew in the first days of July 1945.[1] Some have concluded that this was a crucial move that persuaded the Soviet Union to allow American, British and French forces into their designated sectors in Berlin, which occurred at roughly the same time (July 1945), although the need for intelligence gathering (see Operation Paperclip) may also have been a factor.[2]

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Territories annexed by Germany (1938–1945)

All territories annexed by Germany before the war from Austria and Czechoslovakia were returned to these countries. The Memel Territory, annexed by Germany from Lithuania before the war, was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and transferred to the Lithuanian SSR. All territories annexed by Germany during the war from Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Poland and Yugoslavia were returned to their respective countries.


Occupation zones

Map of the Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, as well as the line of US forward positions on V-E Day. The south-western part of the Soviet occupation zone, close to a third of its overall area was west of the U.S. forward positions on V-E day.
Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, highlighting the Soviet zone (red), the inner German border (black line), and the zone from which American troops withdrew in July 1945 (purple). The provincial boundaries correspond largely to those of the pre-war states, before the creation of the present Länder (federal states).

American Zone of Occupation

The American zone in Southern Germany consisted of Bavaria with its traditional capital Munich and Hesse with a new capital in Wiesbaden, and of parts of Württemberg and Baden. Those formed Württemberg-Baden and are the northern portions of the present-day German state of Baden-Württemberg.

The ports of Bremen (on the lower Weser River) and Bremerhaven (at the Weser estuary of the North Sea) were also placed under American control because of the American request to have certain toeholds in Northern Germany.

At the end of October 1946, the American Zone had a population of:

  • Bavaria 8.7 mio
  • Hesse 3.97 mio
  • Württemberg-Baden 3.6 mio
  • Bremen 0.48 mio[3]

The headquarters of the American military government was the former IG Farben Building in Frankfurt am Main.


British Zone of Occupation


Within the British Zone of Occupation, the CCG/BE re-established the German state of Hamburg, but with borders that had been drawn by Nazi Germany in 1937. The British also created the new German states of:

Also in 1947, the American Zone of Occupation being inland had no port facilities – thus the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and Bremerhaven became exclaves within the British Zone.

The British headquarters were originally based in Bad Oeynhausen from 1946, but in 1954 it was moved to Mönchengladbach where it was known as JHQ Rheindahlen.

Belgian, Polish and Norwegian Zones

Army units from other nations were stationed within the British occupation zone. The Belgians were allocated a territory which was garrisoned by their troops.[4] The zone formed a 200 kiloمترs (660,000 قدم) strip from the Belgian-German border at the south of the British zone, and included the important cities of Cologne and Aachen. The Belgian army of occupation in Germany (known as the Belgian Forces in Germany from 1951) became autonomous in 1946 under the command, initially, of Jean-Baptiste Piron.[5]

Belgian soldiers would remain in Germany until 31 December 2005.[6]

Polish units mainly from 1st Armoured Division also had a place in the occupation; they were stationed in the northern area of the district of Emsland as well as in the areas of Oldenburg and Leer. This region bordered the Netherlands and covered an area of 6,500 km². The zone had a large camp constructed largely for displaced persons and was administered by the Polish government in exile. The administrative centre of the Polish occupation zone was the city of Haren. The city was nicknamed named Maczków after Stanisław Maczek during this time.

In 1946, the Norwegian Brigade Group in Germany had 4,000 soldiers in Hanover.

Another special feature of the British zone was the Enclave of Bonn. It was created in July 1949 and was not under British or any other allied control. Instead it was under the control of the Allied High Commission.


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French Zone of Occupation


Included in the French zone was the town of Büsingen am Hochrhein, a German exclave separated from the rest of the country by a narrow strip of neutral Swiss territory. The Swiss government agreed to allow limited numbers of French troops to pass through its territory in order to maintain law and order in Büsingen.[بحاجة لمصدر]

At the end of October 1946, the French Zone had a population of:

  • Rheinland Pfalz 2.7 mio
  • Baden (South Baden) 1.2 mio
  • Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1.05 mio[3]

Luxembourg zone

From November 1945, Luxembourg was allocated a zone within the French sector.[7] The Luxembourg 2nd Infantry Battalion was garrisoned in Bitburg and the 1st Battalion was sent to Saarburg.[7] The final Luxembourg forces in Germany, in Bitburg, left in 1955.[7]

Soviet zone of occupation

Pink: portions of Germany east of the Oder–Neisse line attached to Poland (except for northerly East Prussia and the adjoining Memel Territory, not shown here, which were joined directly to the Soviet Union.) Red: the Soviet Occupation zone of Germany.
The Supreme Commanders of the Four Powers on 5 June 1945 in Berlin: Bernard Montgomery, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Georgy Zhukov, and Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

The Soviet occupation zone incorporated Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Soviet Military Administration in Germany was headquartered in Berlin-Karlshorst.

Berlin

While located wholly within the Soviet zone, because of its symbolic importance as the nation's capital and seat of the former Nazi government, the city of Berlin was jointly occupied by the Allied powers and subdivided into four sectors. All four occupying powers were entitled to privileges throughout Berlin that were not extended to the rest of Germany – this included the Soviet sector of Berlin which was legally separate from the rest of the Soviet zone.


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Governance and the emergence of two German states

The original Allied plan to govern Germany as a single unit through the Allied Control Council broke down in 1946–1947 due to growing tensions between the Allies, with Britain and the US wishing cooperation, France obstructing any collaboration in order to unwind Germany into many independent states, and the Soviet Union unilaterally implementing from early on elements of a Marxist political-economic system (enforced redistribution of land, nationalisation of businesses). Another dispute was the absorption of post-war expellees. While the UK, the US and the Soviet Union had agreed to accept, house and feed about six million expelled German citizens from former eastern Germany and four million expelled and denaturalised Czechoslovaks, Poles, Hungarians and Yugoslavs of German ethnicity in their zones, France generally had not agreed to the expulsions approved by the Potsdam agreement (a decision made without input from France). Therefore, France strictly refused to absorb war refugees who were denied return to their homes in seized eastern German territories or destitute post-war expellees who had been expropriated there, into the French zone, let alone into the separated Saar protectorate.[8] However, the native population, returning after Nazi-imposed removals (e.g., political and Jewish refugees) and war-related relocations (e.g., evacuation from air raids), were allowed to return home in the areas under French control. The other Allies complained that they had to shoulder the burden to feed, house and clothe the expellees who had to leave their belongings behind.

Occupation policy

American propaganda poster, using images of concentration camp victims to warn against "fraternization"

At the end of the war, General Eisenhower issued a non-fraternization policy to troops under his command in occupied Germany. This policy was relaxed in stages. By June 1945 the prohibition on speaking with German children was made less strict. In July it became possible to speak to German adults in certain circumstances. In September the policy was completely dropped in Austria and Germany.

Nevertheless, due to the large numbers of Disarmed Enemy Forces being held in Rheinwiesenlagers throughout western Germany, the Americans and the British – not the Soviets – used armed units of Feldgendarmerie to maintain control and discipline in the camps. In June 1946, these German military police units became the last Wehrmacht troops to surrender their arms to the western powers.

By December 1945 over 100,000 German civilians were interned as security threats and for possible trial and sentencing as members of criminal organisations.


Insurgency

The last Allied war advances into Germany and Allied occupation plans were affected by rumors of Nazi plans for insurgency (the Nazi Werwolf plan), and successful Nazi deception about plans to withdraw forces to Alpenfestung redoubt. This base was to be used to conduct guerrilla warfare, but the rumours turned out to be false. It has been estimated that no Allied deaths can be reliably attributed to any Nazi insurgency.[9]

Expulsion policy

The Potsdam conference, where the victorious Allies drew up plans for the future of Germany, noted in article XIII of the Potsdam Agreement on 1 August 1945 that "the transfer to Germany of German populations (...) in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary will have to be undertaken"; "wild expulsion" was already going on.

Military governors and commissioners


تاريخ ألمانيا
Flag of Germany.svg
العصور القديمة
شعوب جرمانية
عصر الهجرة
الإمبراطورية الفرانكية
ألمانيا العصور الوسطى
الإمبراطورية الرومانية المقدسة
استيطان شرقي
بناء الأمة
كونفدرالية الراين
الكونفدرالية الألمانية
الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية
ألمانيا الإمبريالية
الإمبراطورية الألمانية
ألمانيا و الحرب العالمية الأولى
جمهورية فايمار
جمهورية فايمار
ألمانيا النازية
ألمانيا النازية
الحرب العالمية الثانية
التقسيم ثم التوحيد
منذ 1945
تدمير ألمانيا عقب الحرب العالمية الثانية
ألمانيا الشرقية
ألمانيا الغربية
إعادة توحيد ألمانيا
ألمانيا اليوم
ألمانيا الحديثة
مواضيع
التاريخ العسكري لألمانيا
الخط الزمني
اللغة الألمانية
[تحرير]



American Zone

Military governors

High commissioner In Office
General Dwight D. Eisenhower 8 May 1945 – 10 November 1945
General George S. Patton (acting) 11 November 1945 – 25 November 1945
General Joseph T. McNarney 26 November 1945 – 5 January 1947
General Lucius D. Clay 6 January 1947 – 14 May 1949
Lt. General Clarence R. Huebner (acting) 15 May 1949 – 21 September 1949

High commissioners

High commissioner In Office
John J. McCloy 21 September 1949 – 1 August 1952
Walter J. Donnelly 1 August 1952 – 11 December 1952
Samuel Reber (acting) 11 December 1952 – 10 February 1953
James Bryant Conant 10 February 1953 – 5 May 1955

British Zone

Military governors

High commissioner In Office
Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein 22 May 1945 – 30 April 1946
Air Chief Marshal Sir William Sholto Douglas (later Lord Douglas) 1 May 1946 – 31 October 1947
General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson (later Lord Robertson) 1 November 1947 – 21 September 1949

High commissioners

High commissioner In Office
General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson 21 September 1949 – 24 June 1950
Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick 24 June 1950 – 29 September 1953
Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar (later Lord Inchyra) 29 September 1953 – 5 May 1955

French Zone

Military commander

High commissioner In Office
Army General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny 8 May 1945 – July 1945

Military governor

High commissioner In Office
Army General Marie-Pierre Kœnig July 1945 – 21 September 1949

High commissioner

High commissioner In Office
André François-Poncet 21 September 1949 – 5 May 1955

Soviet Zone

Military commander

High commissioner In Office
Marshal Georgy Zhukov 8 May 1945 – 9 June 1945

Military governors

High commissioner In Office
Marshal Georgy Zhukov 9 June 1945 – 10 April 1946
Marshal Vasily Sokolovsky 10 April 1946 – 29 March 1949
Army General Vasily Chuikov 29 March 1949 – 10 October 1949

Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission

High commissioner In Office
Army General Vasily Chuikov 10 October 1949 – 28 May 1953

High commissioners

High commissioner In Office
Vladimir Semyonov 28 May 1953 – 16 July 1954
Georgy Pushkin 16 July 1954 – 20 September 1955

See also

المراجع

  1. ^ What Is to Be Done? Time, 9 July 1945
  2. ^ Knowles, Chris (29 January 2014). "Germany 1945–1949: a case study in post-conflict reconstruction". History & Policy. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  3. ^ أ ب Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden
  4. ^ Brüll, Christoph (2011). "Entre ressentiment et ré-éducation, L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945–1952" (PDF). Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent. 23: 55–6.
  5. ^ Brüll, Christoph (2011). "Entre ressentiment et ré-éducation, L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945–1952" (PDF). Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent. 23: 55–94.
  6. ^ Brüll, Christoph (2011). "Entre ressentiment et ré-éducation, L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945–1952" (PDF). Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent. 23: 55.
  7. ^ أ ب ت "L'Armée luxembourgeoise après la libération (1944–1967)". Armée.lu. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ Cf. the report of the Central State Archive of Rhineland-Palatinate on the first expellees arriving in that state in 1950 from other German states in the former British or American zone: "Beyond that [the fact, that until France took control of her zone west only few eastern war refugees had made it into her zone] already since summer 1945 France refused to absorb expellee transports in her zone. France, who had not participated in the Potsdam Conference, where the expulsions of eastern Germans had been decided, and who therefore did not feel responsible for the ramifications, feared an unbearable burden for its zone anyway strongly smarting from the consequences of the war." N.N., "Vor 50 Jahren: Der 15. April 1950. Vertriebene finden eine neue Heimat in Rheinland-Pfalz" Archived 31 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine., on: Rheinland-Pfalz Landesarchivverwaltung, retrieved on 4 March 2013.
  9. ^ Benjamin, Daniel (29 August 2003). "Condi's Phony History". Slate magazine. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

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للاستزادة

  • Bark, Dennis L., and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany Vol 1: From Shadow to Substance, 1945–1963 (1992)
  • Bessel, Richard. Germany 1945: from war to peace (Simon and Schuster, 2012)
  • Erlichman, Camilo, and Knowles, Christopher (eds.). Transforming Occupation in the Western Zones of Germany: Politics, Everyday Life and Social Interactions, 1945-55 (Bloomsbury, 2018). ISBN 978-1-350-04923-9
  • Golay, John Ford. The Founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (University of Chicago Press, 1958)
  • Jarausch, Konrad H.After Hitler: Recivilizing Germans, 1945–1995 (2008)
  • Junker, Detlef, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War (2 vol 2004), 150 short essays by scholars covering 1945–1990 excerpt and text search vol 1; excerpt and text search vol 2
  • Knowles, Christopher. "The British Occupation of Germany, 1945–49: A Case Study in Post-Conflict Reconstruction." The RUSI Journal (2013) 158#6 pp: 84-91.
  • Knowles, Christopher. Winning the Peace: the British in Occupied Germany, 1945-1948. (PhD Dissertation King's College London, 2014).

online, later published as Winning the Peace: The British in Occupied Germany, 1945-1948, 2017, Bloomsbury Academic

  • Main, Steven J. "The Soviet Occupation of Germany. Hunger, Mass Violence and the Struggle for Peace, 1945–1947." Europe-Asia Studies (2014) 66#8 pp: 1380–1382. doi:10.1080/09668136.2014.941704
  • Phillips, David. Educating the Germans: People and Policy in the British Zone of Germany, 1945-1949 (2018) 392 pp. online review
  • Schwarz, Hans-Peter. Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction (2 vol 1995) full text vol 1
  • Taylor, Frederick. Exorcising Hitler: the occupation and denazification of Germany (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011)
  • Weber, Jurgen. Germany, 1945–1990 (Central European University Press, 2004) online edition

Primary sources and historiography

  • Beate Ruhm Von Oppen, ed. Documents on Germany under Occupation, 1945–1954 (Oxford University Press, 1955) online
  • Clay, Lucius D. The papers of General Lucius D. Clay: Germany, 1945–1949 (2 vol. 1974)
  • Miller, Paul D. "A bibliographic essay on the Allied occupation and reconstruction of West Germany, 1945–1955." Small Wars & Insurgencies (2013) 24#4 pp: 751–759. doi:10.1080/09592318.2013.857935

وصلات خارجية