الاتحاد الألماني

الاتحاد الألماني

Deutscher Bund
علم ألمانيا
Civil ensign
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms (1848–66)
The German Confederation in 1815 *   Member states *   Territory of member states outside of the confederation
The German Confederation in 1815
  •   Member states
  •   Territory of member states outside of the confederation
المكانة كونفدرالية
العاصمة Frankfurt
اللغات الشائعة
الدين Roman Catholic, Protestant
Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria  
• 1815–1835
Francis I
• 1835–1848
Ferdinand I
• 1850–1866
Franz Joseph I
التشريع Federal Convention
التاريخ  
8 June 1815
13 March 1848
29 November 1850
14 June 1866
23 August 1866
Area
1815 630,100 kم2 (243,300 ميل2)
التعداد
• 1815
29200000
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Confederation of the Rhine
Austrian Empire
Kingdom of Prussia
North German Confederation
Austrian Empire
Kingdom of Bavaria
Kingdom of Württemberg
Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Principality of Liechtenstein
Today part of

الاتحاد الألماني (بالألمانية: Deutscher Bund؛ بالإنگليزية: German Confederation) كان ارتباطاً لـ 39 دولة ناطقة بالألمانية في وسط أوروپا، خـُلـِق في مؤتمر ڤيينا في 1815 لتنسيق اقتصادات البلدان المنفصلة الناطقة بالألمانية وأن يحل محل الامبراطورية الرومانية المقدسة، التي انحلت في 1806.[1]

The Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention. The ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it.[2]

The Confederation was finally dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866. The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor (Kaiser) after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.

Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state.[3] However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers, especially member states Austria and Prussia.

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التاريخ

التأسيس

The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty. The states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were:

  1. Anhalt-Bernburg (inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, 1863)
  2. Anhalt-Dessau
  3. Anhalt-Köthen (inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, 1847/53)
  4. Austrian Empire (including Crown of BohemiaBohemia, Moravia and Austrian Silesia – and Austrian lands – Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Littoral, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, and Vorarlberg)
  5. Baden
  6. Bavaria
  7. Brunswick
  8. Hanover
  9. Electorate of Hesse (also known as Hesse-Kassel)
  10. Grand Duchy of Hesse (also known as Hesse-Darmstadt)
  11. Hohenzollern-Hechingen (became part of Prussia in 1850)
  12. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (became part of Prussia in 1850)
  13. Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark
  14. Holstein-Oldenburg
  15. Liechtenstein
  16. Lippe-Detmold
  17. Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands
  18. Mecklenburg-Schwerin
  19. Mecklenburg-Strelitz
  20. Nassau
  21. Prussia
  22. Reuss, elder line
  23. Reuss, younger line
  24. Saxony
  25. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
  26. Saxe-Coburg (ruler became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1826)
  27. Saxe-Gotha (partitioned 1826)
  28. Saxe-Hildburghausen (ruler became Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, 1826)
  29. Saxe-Meiningen
  30. Schaumburg-Lippe
  31. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
  32. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
  33. Waldeck
  34. Württemberg
  35. Hesse-Homburg (inherited by the grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1866) (joined by treaty in 1820)
  36. Lübeck (joined by treaty in 1820)
  37. Frankfurt (joined by treaty in 1820)
  38. Bremen (joined by treaty in 1820)
  39. Hamburg (joined by treaty in 1820)

In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg (held by the Netherlands) was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866. The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation.

The monarchs of the member states of the German Confederation meet at Frankfurt in 1863

القوات المسلحة

State Area [km²] Population[A 1] Matriculation class[A 2]
(proportion of total)
Annual expenditures
(in Austrian Gulden)[A 3]
Army Corps Troop Totals[A 4]
الامبراطورية النمساوية[A 5] [A 6]197,573 [A 6]10,086,900 31.44% 9,432,000 I, II, III 158,037
مملكة پروسيا[A 7] [A 6]185,496 [A 6]9,957,000 26.52% 7,956,000 IV, V, VI 133,769
مملكة باڤاريا 76,258 4,120,000 11.8% 3,540,000 VII 59,334
Kingdom of Hannover 38,452 1,549,000 4.33% 1,299,000 X (1st Div., part) 21,757
Kingdom of Württemberg 19,504 1,547,400 4.63% 1,389,000 VIII (1st Div.) 23,259
Kingdom of Saxony 14,993 1,480,000 3.98% 1,194,000 IX (1st Div.) 20,000
Grand Duchy of Baden 15,269 1,175,000 3.31% 993,000 VIII (2nd Div.) 16,667
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt 7,680 720,000 2.05% 615,000 VIII (3rd Div., part) 10,325
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 13,304 455,000 1.19% 357,000 X (2nd Div., part) 5,967
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 2,929 85,000 0.24% 72,000 X (2nd Div., part) 1,197
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg 6,420 250,000 0.73% 219,000 X (2nd Div., part) 3,740
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg (with the Duchy of Limburg) 2,586 259,500 0.40% 120,000 IX (2nd Div., part) 2,706
Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar 3,593 233,814 0.67% 201,000 Reserve (part) 3,350
Electoral Hesse 9,581 629,000 1.88% 564,000 IX (2nd Div., part) 9,466
Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau 840 57,629 0.19% 57,000 Reserve (part) 1,422
Duchy of Anhalt-Cöthen[A 8] 727 36,000 0.10% 30,000 Reserve (part) 325[A 9]
Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg[A 10] 780 43,325 0.12% 36,000 Reserve (part) 616
Duchy of Brunswick 3,690 245,783 0.69% 20,000 X (1st Div., part) 3,493
Duchies of Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg[A 11] 9,580 450,000 0.12% 35,000 X (2nd Div., part) 6,000
Duchy of Nassau 4,700 360,000 1.00% 300,000 IX (2nd Div., part) 6,109
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg 1,287 114,048 0.33% 99,000 Reserve (part) 1,638
Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha[A 12] 2,688 156,639 0.37% 111,000 Reserve (part) 1,860
Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen[A 13] 0 0 0% 0 Reserve (part) 0[A 14]
Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen 2,293 136,000 0.38% 114,000 Reserve (part) 1,918
Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 906 42,341 1.40% 420,000 VIII (3rd Div., part) 356[A 15]
Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen 236 17,000 0.05% 15,000 VIII (3rd Div., part) 155[A 16]
Principality of Lippe-Detmold 1,133 77,500 0.23% 69,000 Reserve (part) 1,202
Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe 536 23,128 0.07% 21,000 Reserve (part) 350
Principality of Liechtenstein 159 5,800 0.02% 6,000 Reserve (part) 91
Principality of Reuß elder line 316 24,500 0.07% 21,000 Reserve (part) 1,241
Principality of Reuß younger line 826 59,000 0.17% 51,000 Reserve (part) see Reuß elder line
Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 940 60,000 0.18% 54,000 Reserve (part) 899
Principality of Waldeck 1,121 56,000 0.17% 51,000 Reserve (part) 866
Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 862 51,767 0.15% 45,000 Reserve (part) 751
Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg[A 17] 275 23,000 0.07% 21,000 Reserve (part) 333
Free City of Lübeck 298 45,600 0.13% 39,000 X (2nd Div., part) 669
Free City of Hamburg 410 154,000 0.43% 129,000 X (2nd Div., part) 2,163
Free City of Bremen 256 52,000 0.16% 48,000 X (2nd Div., part) 748
Free City of Frankfurt 101 54,000 0.16% 48,000 Reserve (part) 1,119
Notes
  1. ^ For the year 1835.
  2. ^ The matriculation class determined the percentage of expenditures for 1835.
  3. ^ For the year 1835.
  4. ^ For the year 1860.
  5. ^ بدون المجر، ترانسلڤانيا، Galicia (but with Auschwitz and Zator), Dalmatia, سلاڤونيا، Croatia and upper Italian lands apart from Trieste.
  6. ^ أ ب ت ث federal share.
  7. ^ بدون East Prussia, West Prussia, and Posen.
  8. ^ Merged with Anhalt-Dessau in 1847.
  9. ^ Figures for 1835; merged with Anhalt-Dessau army in 1847.
  10. ^ Merged with Anhalt-Dessau in 1863.
  11. ^ Troops were attached to the Danish army until 1864, as the King of Denmark was also Duke of both lands.
  12. ^ Gotha passed to Saxe-Coburg in 1825.
  13. ^ Partitioned between Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Meiningen in 1826.
  14. ^ No figures reported before partition.
  15. ^ Figures for 1835; merged with Prussian army in 1850.
  16. ^ Figures for 1835; merged with Prussian army in 1850.
  17. ^ Merged with Grand Ducal Hesse in 1863.


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أثر الثورة الفرنسية والغزوات الناپليونية

Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich dominated the German Confederation from 1815 until 1848

The late 18th century was a period of political, economic, intellectual, and cultural reforms, the Enlightenment (represented by figures such as Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Adam Smith), but also involving early Romanticism, and climaxing with the French Revolution, where freedom of the individual and nation was asserted against privilege and custom. Representing a great variety of types and theories, they were largely a response to the disintegration of previous cultural patterns, coupled with new patterns of production, specifically the rise of industrial capitalism.


Zollverein: التكامل الاقتصادي

Zollverein وتوحيد ألمانيا

Further efforts to improve the confederation began in 1834 with the establishment of a customs union, the Zollverein. In 1834, the Prussian regime sought to stimulate wider trade advantages and industrialism by decree—a logical continuation of the program of Stein and Hardenberg less than two decades earlier. Historians have seen three Prussian goals: as a political tool to eliminate Austrian influence in Germany; as a way to improve the economies; and to strengthen Germany against potential French aggression while reducing the economic independence of smaller states.[4]


ثورات 1848

War Ensign of the Reichsflotte
Naval Jack of the Reichsflotte


فض الاتحاد

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صعود بسمارك

A new generation of statesmen responded to popular demands for national unity for their own ends, continuing Prussia's tradition of autocracy and reform from above. Germany found an able leader to accomplish the seemingly paradoxical task of conservative modernization. Bismarck was appointed by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future Kaiser Wilhelm I) to circumvent the liberals in the Landtag of Prussia, who resisted Wilhelm's autocratic militarism. Bismarck told the Diet, "The great questions of the day are not decided by speeches and majority votes ... but by blood and iron" — that is, by warfare and industrial might.[5] Prussia already had a great army; it was now augmented by rapid growth of economic power.

Gradually, Bismarck won over the middle class, reacting to the revolutionary sentiments expressed in 1848 by providing them with the economic opportunities for which the urban middle sectors had been fighting.[6]


حرب السبع أسابيع

The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. In the Prague peace treaty, on 23 August 1866, Austria had to accept that the Confederation was dissolved.[7] The following day, the remaining member states confirmed the dissolution. The treaty allowed Prussia to create a new Bundesverhältnis (a new kind of federation) in the North of Germany. The South German states were allowed to create a South German Confederation but this did not come into existence.

الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية

پروسيا أنشأت الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية في 1867 لتشمل كل الدويلات الألمانية شمال نهر ماين وأيضاً أراضي هوهن‌تسولرن في سوابيا. بجانب النمسا، فقد بقيت الدويلات الألمانية الجنوبية باڤاريا و Württemberg, Baden, and Hesse-Darmstadt منفصلة عن باقي ألمانيا. However, due to the successful prosecution of the Franco-German War, the four southern states joined the North German Confederation by treaty in November 1870.[8]

الامبراطورية الألمانية

As the Franco-German War drew to a close, King Ludwig II of Bavaria was persuaded to ask King Wilhelm to assume the crown of the German Empire. On 1 January 1871, the Empire was declared by the presiding princes and generals in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, near Paris. The Diet of the North German Confederation to rename the North German Confederation as the German Empire and give the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia.[9] The new constitution of the state, the Constitution of the German Confederation, effectively transformed the Diet of the Confederation into the German Parliament (Reichstag).[10]

الذكرى الإقليمية

خريطة الاتحاد الألماني

The current countries whose territory were partly or entirely located inside the boundaries of German Confederation 1815–1866 are:

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "German Confederation". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ Deutsche Geschichte 1848/49, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885–1892
  3. ^ Lee, Loyd E. (1985). "The German Confederation and the Consolidation of State Power in the South German States, 1815–1848". Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, 1750–1850: Proceedings. 15: 332–346. ISSN 0093-2574.
  4. ^ Murphy, David T. (1991). "Prussian aims for the Zollverein, 1828–1833". Historian. 53 (2): 285–302. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1991.tb00808.x.
  5. ^ Martin Kitchen, A History of Modern Germany, 1800–2000 (2006) p. 105
  6. ^ Otto Pflanze, Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815–1871 (1971)
  7. ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [u. a.] 1988, p. 571, 576.
  8. ^ Case, Nelson (1902). European Constitutional History. Cincinnati: Jennings & Pye. p. 139. OCLC 608806061.
  9. ^ Case 1902, pp. 139–140
  10. ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [u. a.] 1988, p. 747.
  11. ^ Heinrich Sybel, The Founding of the German Empire by William I. 1890. Volume 1, page 182.
  12. ^ Charles Eugene Little, Cyclopedia of Classified Dates: With an Exhaustive Index, 1900, page 819.
  13. ^ Wilhelm Eichhoff, How Schleswig-Holstein has become what it is. Henry Gaskarth, 1864, page 18.

== المراجع ==* Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German, detailed maps)

للاستزادة

اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

Federative Constitution of Germany, of the 8th June 1815.


  • Blackbourn, David. The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780–1918 (1998) excerpt and text search
  • Blackbourn, David, and Geoff Eley. The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Germany (1984) online edition
  • Brose, Eric Dorn. German History, 1789–1871: From the Holy Roman Empire to the Bismarckian Reich. (1997) online edition
  • Evans, Richard J., and W. R. Lee, eds. The German Peasantry: Conflict and Community from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (1986)
  • Nipperdey, Thomas. Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck (1996), very dense coverage of every aspect of German society, economy and government
  • Pflanze, Otto. Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815-1871 (1971)
  • Ramm, Agatha. Germany, 1789–1919 (1967)
  • Sagarra, Eda (1977). A Social History of Germany: 1648–1914. New York: Holmes & Meier. pp. 37–55, 183–202. ISBN 0841903328.
  • Sagarra, Eda. Introduction to Nineteenth Century Germany (1980)
  • Sheehan, James J. German History, 1770–1866 (1993), 969pp; the major survey in English
  • Werner, George S. Bavaria in the German Confederation 1820–1848 (1977)

Coordinates: 50°06′29″N 8°40′30″E / 50.108°N 8.675°E / 50.108; 8.675

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).