الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية

(تم التحويل من North German Confederation)
الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية

Norddeutscher Bund
1867–1871
علم الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية
العلم
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
The North German Confederation within Europe circa 1870
The North German Confederation within Europe circa 1870
The North German Confederation (red). The southern German states that joined in 1870 to form the German Empire are in orange. Alsace-Lorraine, the territory annexed following the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, is in tan. الأرض الحمراء في الجنوب هي الإمارة الأصلية لبيت هوهن‌تسولرن، حكام مملكة پروسيا.
The North German Confederation (red). The southern German states that joined in 1870 to form the German Empire are in orange. Alsace-Lorraine, the territory annexed following the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, is in tan. الأرض الحمراء في الجنوب هي الإمارة الأصلية لبيت هوهن‌تسولرن، حكام مملكة پروسيا.
المكانة كونفدرالية
العاصمة برلين
اللغات الشائعة German, Danish, Low German, Czech, Lithuanian, Polish, Sorbian
الدين Majority:
Protestant (Lutheran, Reformed, Prussian United)
الرئيس  
• 1867–1871
William I
المستشار  
• 1867–1871
أوتو فون بسمارك
التشريع Reichstag
• Federal Council
Bundesrat
الحقبة التاريخية New Imperialism
18 أغسطس 1866
16 April 1867
19 July 1870
18 January 1871
Currency Vereinsthaler
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Wappen Deutscher Bund.svg German Confederation
Schleswig Arms.svg Duchy of Schleswig
Province of Prussia
Province of Posen
German Empire
Today part of  ألمانيا
 الدنمارك
 بلجيكا
 لتوانيا
 پولندا
 التشيك
 روسيا
الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية (الحدود بالأحمر؛ مملكة پروسيا بالأزرق)

الكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية (بالألمانية: Norddeutscher Bund[1]) was a confederation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants. It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the later الامبراطورية الألمانية (1871–1918), when several south German states such as باڤاريا joined.

After several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation (founded in 1815), the North German major power Prussia left the German Confederation with some allies. It came to war between those states on one hand and southern states led by Austria on the other. After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia and its allies founded the North German Confederation. At first, it was a military alliance between independent states, the so-called August Alliance (August-Bündnis), but the states already had the intention to form a federation or confederation with a constitution. This was realised in 1867. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany; many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire.

The North German Confederation continues as the German nation state which still exists today. On January 1st, 1871, the country received a new constitution that gave it the name 'German Empire'.

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التاريخ


الحرب الألمانية وآثارها

Georg Bleibtreu: „Schlacht bei Königgrätz“, Gemälde von 1868. Diese Schlacht in Böhmen war der entscheidende preußische Sieg gegen Österreich.

في الحرب الألمانية سنة 1866، انتصرت پروسيا وحلفاؤها على النمسا ومملكة باڤاريا وWurttemberg, Saxony and Hanover, as well as other states such as Baden and the Grand Duchy of Hesse . In the pre-eminence with Austria (July 26), Prussia secured permission to rearrange the situation in the north of Germany to the main line . The expression " North-German Confederation" appears first . Prussia had previously arranged this arrangement with France's Emperor Napoleon III. Voted.

معاهدات أغسطس ورايخستاگ الممثلين

Feierliche Eröffnung des konstituierenden Reichstags im königlichen Schloss، برلين في 24 فبراير 1867


حتى دستور 1867

ثلاث سنوات من التشريع

The constitution opened the Confederation for the south German states to join. But in the situation of 1866/1867, France would not have accepted such an enlargement of Prussia's power. Bismarck, shortly after the war with Austria and amid negotiations about the constitution, could not afford a military conflict with France.[2]

During the roughly four years of the North German Confederation its major action existed in legislation unifying Northern Germany. The Reichstag decided on laws concerning (e.g.):

  • free movement of the citizens within the territory of the Confederation (1867)
  • a common postal system (1867/1868)
  • common passports (1867)
  • Prussian military laws replacing local military regulation (1867)
  • equal rights for the different denominations (1869)

The North German Confederation became a member of the Zollverein, the German customs union of 1834. After negotiations in 1867, on 1 January 1868 it was transformed to a closer organisation with new institutions: a council for the governments and a parliament. Bismarck hoped that the Zollverein might become the vehicle of German unification. But in the 1868 Zollverein elections the South Germans voted mainly for anti-Prussian parties.


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الامبراطورية الألمانية

النظام السياسي

First session of the (then still provisional) Reichstag on the 24 February 1867
„Es spukt im Reichstage“: Karikatur auf Kanzler Otto von Bismarck, der die Einrichtung von Bundesministerien ablehnt.

The North German Constitution of 16 April 1867 created a national parliament with universal suffrage (for men above the age of 25), the Reichstag. Another important organ was the Bundesrat, the 'federal council' of the representatives of the allied governments. To adopt a law, a majority in the Reichstag and in the Bundesrat was necessary. This gave the allied governments, meaning the states and their princes, an important veto.


السياسة الخارجية

كاريكاتير في Kladderadatsch، 1867. جرمانيا تنادي الراعي بسمارك ليحمي القطيع (الدويلات الألمانية والمتوسطة والصغيرة) من الأسد الفرنسي (ناپليون الثالث). باڤاريا وبادن مصورتان ككلاب الراعي اللتان تنبحان على الأسد.
علم الحرب للكونفدرالية الألمانية الشمالية بـ الأسود-الأبيض-الأحمر

الحرب الألمانية الفرنسية



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الطوابع البريدية

One of the functions of the confederation was to handle mail and issue postage stamps; for details, see postage stamps and postal history of the North German Confederation.


قائمة الدول الأعضاء

Der Norddeutsche Bund in Europa
Gebiete des Norddeutschen Bundes
الولاية العاصمة
الممالك (Königreiche)
Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg پروسيا (Preußen)
(بما فيها لاون‌بورگ)
برلين
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg ساكسونيا (Sachsen) درسدن
الگراندوقيات (Großherzogtümer)
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg Hesse (Hessen)
(Only Upper Hesse, the province north of the نهر ماين)
Giessen
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Schwerin
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg Mecklenburg-Strelitz Neustrelitz
Civil flag of Oldenburg.svg اولدنبورگ اولدنبورگ
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1813-1897).svg زاكسه-ڤايمار-آيزناخ (Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) ڤايمار
الدوقيات (Herzogtümer)
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg آنهالت دساو
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg برونزويك (Braunschweig) براون‌شڤايگ
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1826-1911).svg Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) Altenburg
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) Coburg
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen.svg Saxe-Meiningen (Sachsen-Meiningen) Meiningen
الإمارات (Fürstentümer)
Flagge Fürstentum Lippe.svg ليپه دتمولد
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß jüngere Linie.svg Reuss, junior line گـِرا
Flagge Fürstentum Reuß ältere Linie.svg Reuss, senior line Greiz
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Schaumburg-Lippe Bückeburg
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Rudolstadt
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Sondershausen
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Waldeck-Pyrmont Arolsen
المدن الهانزية الحرة (Freie Hansestädte)
Flag of Bremen.svg برمن
Flag of Hamburg.svg هامبورگ
Flag of the Free City of Lübeck.svg لوبك

انظر أيضاً

References

  1. ^ An alternative translation is "North German Federation."
  2. ^ Görtemaker, Manfred (1983). Deutschland im 19. Jahrhundert: Entwicklungslinien. Opladen. p. 241.

Further reading

  • Craig, Gordon A. Germany, 1866–1945 (1978) pp 11-22 online edition
  • Holborn, Hajo. A History of Modern Germany: 1840–1945 (1969) pp. 173–232
  • Hudson, Richard. "The Formation of the North German Confederation." Political Science Quarterly (1891) 6#3 pp: 424-438. in JSTOR
  • Nipperdey, Thomas. Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck: 1800-1866 (1996), very dense coverage of every aspect of German society, economy and government
  • Pflanze, Otto. Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815–1871 (1971)
  • Taylor, A.J.P. Bismarck: The Man and the Statesman (1967) online edition

الإحداثيات: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).