الحرب العالمية الثانية في يوغسلاڤيا

الحرب العالمية الثانية في يوغسلاڤيا
جزء من الحرب العالمية الثانية
National Liberation War collage.jpg
مع عقارب الساعة من أعلى اليسار: أنتى پاڤليتش يزور أدولف هتلر في Berghof, Stjepan Filipović hanged by the occupation forces, Draža Mihailović confers with his troops, a group of Chetniks with German soldiers in a village in Serbia, Josip Broz Tito with members of the British mission
التاريخ 6 أبريل 1941 – 15 مايو 1945
(4 سنة , 1 شهر, 1 أسبوع و 2 يوم )
الموقع يوغسلاڤيا
النتيجة Allied victory
المتحاربون
April 1941:
 ألمانيا النازية
Flag of مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946)
Flag of مملكة المجر (1920–1946) مملكة المجر
Flag of مملكة بلغاريا مملكة بلغاريا
April 1941:
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia
 
1941–43:
 ألمانيا النازية
Flag of مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946)
 كرواتيا[1]
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg VNS[2]
Flag of مملكة المجر (1920–1946) مملكة المجر
Flag of مملكة بلغاريا مملكة بلغاريا
1941–43:
Chetniks Flag.svg Chetniks[3]
1941–43:
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Partisans

1943–45:
 ألمانيا النازية
 كرواتيا
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg VNS (until 1944)
Flag of مملكة المجر (1920–1946) مملكة المجر
Flag of مملكة بلغاريا مملكة بلغاريا (until 1944)
Flag of Albania.svg Albania (until 1944)
Flag of the Slovene Home Guard.svg Slovene Home Guard
(1943–45)
Chetniks Flag.svg Pećanac Chetniks


Chetniks Flag.svg Chetniks

1943–45:
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Partisans
 المملكة المتحدة
 الاتحاد السوڤيتي
(1944–45)

Flag of the Bulgarian Homeland Front.svg Bulgaria
(1944–45)
Flag of Albania 1944.svg Albania (1944–45)
 الولايات المتحدة (limited involvement)
القادة والزعماء

ألمانيا النازية Maximilian von Weichs
ألمانيا النازية Alexander Löhr
 #
ألمانيا النازية Edmund Glaise von Horstenau
مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) Mario Roatta
Flag of Hungary (1920–1946).svg Miklós Horthy
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Ante Pavelić
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Slavko Kvaternik
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg Milan Nedić
Chetniks Flag.svg Kosta Pećanac  
Flag of the Slovene Home Guard.svg Leon Rupnik
مملكة بلغاريا Bogdan Filov

ألبانيا Xhemo Hasa 

Kingdom of Yugoslavia Dušan Simović
Kingdom of Yugoslavia Danilo Kalafatović


Chetniks Flag.svg Draža Mihailović
Chetniks Flag.svg Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin
Chetniks Flag.svg Dobroslav Jevđević
Chetniks Flag.svg Pavle Đurišić أُعدِم
Chetniks Flag.svg Momčilo Đujić
Chetniks Flag.svg Zaharije Ostojić أُعدِم
Chetniks Flag.svg Petar Baćović أُعدِم
Chetniks Flag.svg Vojislav Lukačević

Chetniks Flag.svg Jezdimir Dangić

Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Josip Broz Tito
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Mihajlo Apostolski
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Milovan Đilas
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Aleksandar Ranković
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.svg Kosta Nađ
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Peko Dapčević
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Koča Popović
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Petar Drapšin
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Svetozar Vukmanović Tempo
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Arso Jovanović
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Sava Kovačević 
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Ivan Gošnjak
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Boris Kidrič
Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg Franc Rozman Stane 
الاتحاد السوڤيتي Fyodor Tolbukhin

Flag of the Bulgarian Homeland Front.svg Vladimir Stoychev
القوة

ألمانيا النازية 300,000 (1944)[1]
مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) 321,000 (1943)[2]
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg 170,000 (1943)[3]
130,000 (1945)[4]
Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg 40,000 (1943)[2]
مملكة بلغاريا 70,000 (1943)[5][2]

Flag of the Slovene Home Guard.svg 12,000 (1944)[2]
Chetniks Flag.svg 93,000 (1943)[6][7]

Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.svg 100,000 (1943)[8]
800,000 (1945)[9]

الاتحاد السوڤيتيFlag of the Bulgarian Homeland Front.svg 580,000 (1944)
الإصابات والخسائر

ألمانيا النازية Germany:[10][4]
19,235 killed
14,805 missing;
مملكة إيطاليا (1861–1946) Italy:[5]
9,065 killed
15,160 wounded
6,306 missing;

Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg NDH:[11]
99,000 killed
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.svg Partisans:[11] 245,549 killed
399,880 wounded
31,200 died from wounds
28,925 missing
قتلى مدنيين: ~581,000[12]
Total Yugoslav casualties: ~1,200,000

a ^ 
b ^ 
c ^ 

d ^ 
قالب:Campaignbox Yugoslavia

العمليات العسكرية في الحرب العالمية الثانية في يوغسلاڤيا بدأت في 6 أبريل 1941، حين تعرضت مملكة يوغسلاڤيا لغزو خاطف من قوى المحور وتم تقسيمها بين ألمانيا وإيطاليا والمجر وبلغاريا وأنظمة عميلة. وإثر ذلك، اندلعت حرب تحرير بأسلوب العصابات ضد قوات المحور المحتلة والأنظمة العميلة اللائي أقمنها، بما في ذلك دولة كرواتيا المستقلة وحكومة الخلاص الوطني الصربية، بقيادة KPJ-led republican Yugoslav Partisans. Simultaneously, a multi-side civil war was waged between the Partisans, the Serbian royalist Chetniks, Croatian nationalist Ustaše and Home Guard, as well as Slovene Home Guard troops.[13]

Both the Yugoslav Partisans and the Chetnik movement initially resisted the occupation. However, after 1941, Chetniks extensively and systematically collaborated with the Italian occupation forces until the Italian capitulation, and thereon also with German and Ustaše forces.[14][15] The Axis mounted a series of offensives intended to destroy the Partisans, coming close to doing so in the winter and spring of 1943.

Despite the setbacks, the Partisans remained a credible fighting force, gaining recognition from the Western Allies and laying the foundations for the post-war Yugoslav state. With support in logistics and air power from the Western Allies, and Soviet ground troops in the Belgrade Offensive, the Partisans eventually gained control of the entire country and of the border regions of Italy and Austria.

The human cost of the war was enormous. The number of war victims is still in dispute, but is generally agreed to have been at least one million. Non-combat victims included the majority of the country's Jewish population, many of whom perished in concentration and extermination camps (e.g. Jasenovac, Banjica) run by the client regimes.

The Croatian Ustaše regime committed war crimes against local Serbs, Jews, Roma, Croats, and Muslims. The Chetniks pursued ethnic cleansing against Muslims and Croats and the Italian occupation authorities pursued violence against Slovenes and Croats. The Wehrmacht carried out mass executions of civilians in retaliation for resistance activity e.g., the Kragujevac massacre.

Finally, during and after the final stages of the war, Yugoslav authorities and Partisan troops carried out reprisals, including the deportation of the Danube Swabian population, forced marches and executions of thousands of captured collaborators and civilians fleeing their advance (Bleiburg repatriations), atrocities against the Italian population in Istria (Foibe massacres) and purges against Serbs, Hungarians and Germans associated with the fascist forces.


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الغزو

احتلال وتقسيم يوغسلاڤيا 1941.

في 6 أبريل 1941 تم غزو مملكة يوغسلاڤيا من كل الجهات من قوى المحور: ألمانيا وإيطاليا وحليفتهم المجر.



المقاومة المبكرة

أدولف هتلر في ماريبور، يوغسلافيا في 1941. He later ordered his officials "to make these lands German again".[2]


الخسائر

خسائر اليوغسلاڤ

الضحايا حسب القومية
القومية 1964 list [16]Kočović Žerjavić[12]
صرب 346,740 487,000 530,000
كروات 83,257 207,000 192,000
سلوڤين 42,027 32,000 42,000
مونتنجرين 16,276 50,000 20,000
مقدون 6,724 7,000 6,000
مسلمون 32,300 86,000 103,000
سلاڤ آخرون 12,000 7,000
ألبان 3,241 6,000 18,000
يهود 45,000 60,000 57,000
غجر 27,000 18,000
ألمان 26,000 28,000
مجر 2,680
سلوڤاك 1,160
ترك 686
آخرون 14,000 6,000
غير معروفين 16,202
الإجمالي 597,323 1,014,000 1,027,000
الخسائر حسب الموقع، حسب قائمة يوغسلاڤية في 1964[12]
الموقع عدد القتلى الناجون
البوسنة والهرسك 177,045 49,242
كرواتيا 194,749 106,220
مقدونيا 19,076 32,374
الجبل الأسود 16,903 14,136
سلوڤينيا 40,791 101,929
صربيا (نفسها) 97,728 123,818
كوسوڤو 7,927 13,960
ڤويڤودينا 41,370 65,957
غير معروفين 1,744 2,213
الإجمالي 597,323 509,849


خسائر الألمان

According to German casualty lists quoted by The Times for July 30, 1945, from documents found amongst the personal effects of General Hermann Reinecke, head of the Public Relations Department of the German High Command, total German casualties in the Balkans amounted to 24,000 killed and 12,000 missing, no figure being mentioned for wounded. A majority of these casualties suffered in the Balkans were inflicted in Yugoslavia.[17] According to German researcher Rüdiger Overmans, German losses in the Balkans were more than three times higher – 103,693 during the course of the war, and some 11,000 who died as Yugoslav prisoners of war.[18]


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انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Mitrovski 1971.
  2. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Tomasevich 2001.
  3. ^ Jelić Butić 1977.
  4. ^ Colić 1977.
  5. ^ Mitrovski & 1971 49.
  6. ^ Microcopy No. T314, roll 566, frames 778 – 785
  7. ^ Borković.
  8. ^ Zbornik dokumenata Vojnoistorijskog instituta: tom XII – Dokumenti jedinica, komandi i ustanova nemačkog Rajha – knjiga 3, p.619
  9. ^ Perica 2004.
  10. ^ Martin K. Sorge (1986). The Other Price of Hitler's War: German Military and Civilian Losses Resulting from World War II. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 62–63. ISBN  978-0-313-25293-8 .
  11. ^ أ ب Geiger 2011.
  12. ^ أ ب ت Žerjavić 1993.
  13. ^ Ramet 2006.
  14. ^ Ramet 2006, pp. 145-155.
  15. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 246.
  16. ^ Cohen 1996.
  17. ^ Davidson, The sixth offensive.
  18. ^ Overmans 2000, p. 336.

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قالب:Campaignbox Yugofront