هجوم ربيع 1945 في إيطاليا

هجوم ربيع 1945
جزء من الحملة الإيطالية في الحرب العالمية الثانية
The British Army in Italy 1945 NA24308.jpg
British troops pick their way through the ruins of Argenta, 18 April 1945
التاريخ6 April 1945 - 2 May 1945
الموقع
Emilia-Romagna, Lombardy and the Veneto regions, northern Italy
النتيجة
  • Decisive Allied victory
  • German surrender in Italy
  • Partisans capture & execute Mussolini
  • Italian Social Republic disestablished
الخصوم
 المملكة المتحدة
 الولايات المتحدة
پولندا Polish Army
 الراج البريطاني
 البرازيل
 نيوزيلندا
Flag of اتحاد جنوب أفريقيا اتحاد جنوب أفريقيا
Flag of مملكة إيطاليا مملكة إيطاليا
and others
Flag of ألمانيا النازية ألمانيا النازية
 الجمهورية الإيطالية الاشتراكية
القادة والزعماء
المملكة المتحدة Harold Alexander
الولايات المتحدة Mark Clark
المملكة المتحدة Richard McCreery
الولايات المتحدة Lucian Truscott
ألمانيا النازية Heinrich von Vietinghoff #
ألمانيا النازية Traugott Herr #
ألمانيا النازية Joachim Lemelsen #
الجمهورية الإيطالية الاشتراكية Benito Mussolini 
الجمهورية الإيطالية الاشتراكية Rodolfo Graziani #
القوات
15th Army Group[nb 1]
British 8th Army 632,980 fighting strength[2]
U.S. 5th Army 266,883 fighting strength[1]
Army Group C 394,000 fighting strength[3][nb 2]
الخسائر
16,258 casualties[nb 3]
incl. 2.860 killed [4]
30-32,000 casualties[nb 4]

هجوم ربيع عام 1945 في إيطاليا هي آخر الحملات التي قامت بها قوات الحلفاء في إيطاليا في الحرب العالمية الثانية ما بين 9 أبريل إلى 2 مايو 1945 بغرض الاستيلاء على ما تبقى من أراضيها في يد القوات الألمانية، وانتهت بالاستسلام النهائي للقوات الألمانية في إيطاليا.

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خطة الهجوم

Allied Spring Offensive April 1945: Note that 21 ID NZ is actually New Zealand 2nd Infantry Division
Men of the Jewish Brigade ride on a Churchill tank in the Mezzano-Alfonsine sector, 14 March 1945


المعركة

British Churchill tanks being filmed by an AFPU (Army Film and Photographic Unit) cameraman during the advance of 56th Division north-east of Argenta, Italy, 17 April 1945
5th Army offensive, April 1945

Aftermath

Secret surrender negotiations between representatives of the Germans and Western Allies had taken place in Switzerland (Operation Crossword) in March but had resulted only in protests from the Russians that the Western Allies were attempting to negotiate a separate peace.

On 28 April, von Vietinghoff (who by then was in Bolzano under siege by partisans) sent emissaries to Allied Army headquarters. On 29 April, they signed an instrument of surrender to the effect that hostilities would formally end on 2 May.[5] Confirmation from von Vietinghoff of the arrangements did not reach Allied 15th Army Group headquarters until the morning of 2 May. It emerged that Kesselring had had his authority as Commander of the West extended to include Italy and had replaced von Vietinghoff with General Schulz from Army Group G on hearing of the plans. However, after a period of confusion during which the news of Hitler's death arrived, Schulz obtained Kesselring's agreement to the surrender and von Vietinghoff was reinstated to see it through.[6]

See also

Notes

Footnotes
  1. ^ Total army group strength including Lines of Communication and support troops totalled 1,333,856[1]
  2. ^ In addition the army group had 91,000 Lines of Communication and anti-aircraft troops and controlled a further 100,000 local police[3]
  3. ^ From 9 April 1945 until the end of Operation Grapeshot, thus casualties exclude those suffered during the preliminary operations.
    5th Army: 7,965 casualties. American: 6,834 (1,288 killed, 5,453 wounded and 93 missing) casualties; South African: 537 (89 killed, 445 wounded and 3 missing) casualties; Brazilian: 594 (65 killed, 482 wounded and 47 missing) casualties.
    8th Army: 7,193 casualties. British: 3,068 (708 killed, 2,258 wounded and 102 missing) casualties; New Zealand: 1,381 (241 killed and 1,140 wounded) casualties; Indian: 1,076 (198 killed, 863 wounded and 15 missing) casualties; Colonial: 46 (11 killed and 35 wounded) casualties; Polish: 1,622 (260 killed, 1,355 wounded and 7 missing) casualties.
    Italians fighting with both armies: 1,100 (242 killed, 828 wounded and 30 missing) casualties.[4]
  4. ^ British estimated around 30,000 casualties were inflicted upon the Axis forces during this offensive, while a German staff officer estimated 32,000 casualties suffered during Operation Grapeshot.[4]
Citations
  1. ^ أ ب Jackson, p. 230.
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Jackson223
  3. ^ أ ب Jackson, p. 236.
  4. ^ أ ب ت Jackson, p. 334
  5. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Blaxland, p277
  6. ^ Blaxland. pp279-80


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