حرب خاطفة

(تم التحويل من الحرب الخاطفة)
A medium field gray German tank advancing through a field surrounded by German soldiers in field gray uniforms.
The classic characteristic of what is commonly known as "blitzkrieg" is a highly mobile form of infantry and armour working in combined arms teams.

الحرب الخاطفةBlitzkrieg هي نوع من الحرب سريعة الحركة، طورها الألمان أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية (1939- 1945م). في الحرب الخاطفة حيث تقوم دبابات البانزر السريعة، أو القوات المختلفة، بهجوم ساحق على خطوط العدو ثم تكتسح إلى الداخل، تدعمها قاذفات الانقضاض. وطور الروس خطة الدفاع في العمق ليقابلوا بها الحرب الخاطفة. وكانوا يتركون الألمان يكتسحون للداخل، ثم يفرون من شراكهم أو يحيطون بالألمان المتقدمين ويدمرونهم. وقد سُميِّت غارات الألمان على لندن والمدن البريطانية الأخرى أثناء عامي 1940م، 1941م، بالغارات الجوية الخاطفة.

A chart or list of units that make up a Panzer Division. It is laid out in the style of a spider diagram. The image depicts the organization of a Panzer Division from Headquarters to Company level.
Organization of a 1941 German panzer division.
Heinz Guderian

طورت عدة دول المبادئ التي قام عليها مفهوم الحرب الخاطفة خلال العشرينيات والثلاثينيات من القرن الماضي، لكن الجيش الألماني (الفيرماخت) كان من طبق هذا المفهوم واستخدمه على نطاق واسع خلال الحرب العالمية الثانية. تتضمن الحرب الخاطفة شن قذف مدفعي مكثف يهدف إلى إلحاق أكبر قدر من الخسائر بقوات العدو، بالإضافة إلى التأثير على معنويات الجنود المدافعين. ثم يعقب ذلك هجوماً بالوحدات الجوية من قاذفات ومقاتلات لتدمير النقاط الدفاعية للعدو، بعد ذلك يأتي دور وحدات المدرعات التي تتبعها وحدات مشاة ميكانيكية مجهزة بآليات مدرعة ومدفعية مضادة للطائرات.

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التفوق الجوي

A British designed single engine ground attack aircraft equipped with cannon and rockets
The Hawker Typhoon posed a serious threat to German armour and motor vehicles during the Battle of Normandy in 1944.


عمليات

بولندا 1939

A map of Poland showing the German invasion from east Germany, East Prussia and German-occupied Czechoslovakia in September 1939
In Poland, fast moving armies encircled Polish forces (blue circles), but the blitzkrieg idea never really took hold – artillery and infantry forces acted in time-honoured fashion to crush these pockets.

أوروبا الغربية 1940

German advances during the Battle of Belgium
German advances during the Battle of France

الاتحاد السوفياتي الجبهة الشرقية 1941-1944

Map depicting Allied breakthroughs of the German line. The German armour is held back and committed to seal the breakthrough
After 1941–42, armored formations were increasingly used as a mobile reserve against Allied breakthroughs. The black arrows depict armored counter-attacks.

انظر أيضا

المصادر

الهوامش

مراجع

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وصلات خارجية