معركة اليونان

معركة اليونان
جزء من حملة البلقان أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية
Battle of Greece WWII 1941 map-en.svg
هجوم ألمانيا النازية على اليونان
التاريخ6–30 أبريل 1941
الموقع
اليونان وجنوب ألبانيا
النتيجة انتصار المحور
التغيرات
الإقليمية
اليونان سقطت تحت احتلال المحور
المتحاربون
Axis:
Flag of ألمانيا النازية ألمانيا النازية
Flag of مملكة إيطاليا مملكة إيطاليا
Flag of مملكة بلغاريا مملكة بلغاريا
Allies:
Flag of مملكة اليونان مملكة اليونان
 المملكة المتحدة
 أستراليا
 نيوزيلندا
القادة والزعماء
ألمانيا النازية Wilhelm List
ألمانيا النازية Maximilian von Weichs
مملكة إيطاليا Ugo Cavallero
مملكة اليونان Alexander Papagos
المملكة المتحدة Henry Maitland Wilson
أستراليا Thomas Blamey
نيوزيلندا Bernard Freyberg
القوى
Germany:[1][2]
680,000 men
1,200 tanks
700 aircraft
1Italy:[3]
565,000 men
463 aircraft[4]
163 tanks
Total: 1,245,000 men
1Greece:[5][6]
430,000 men, 20 tanks
British Empire:[7][8][9][10][11]
262,612 men
100 tanks
200–300 aircraft
الضحايا والخسائر
1Italy:[11]
13,755 dead,
63,142 wounded,
25,067 missing
3Germany:[12]
1,099 dead,
3,752 wounded,
385 missing
1Greece:[11]
13,408 dead,[13]
42,485 wounded,[14]
1,290 missing
British Empire:[7]
903 dead,
1,250 wounded,
13,958 captured

1Statistics about the strength and casualties of Italy and Greece refer to both the Greco-Italian War and the Battle of Greece (at least 300,000 Greek soldiers fought in Albania).[2]
2Including Cypriots and Palestinians. British, Australian and New Zealand troops were 58,000.ح. 58,000.[7]

3Statistics about German casualties refer to the Balkans Campaign as a whole and are based on Hitler's statements to the Reichstag on 4 May 1941.[11][12][15]
قالب:Campaignbox German invasion of Greece

معركة اليونان (وتُعرف أيضاً بإسم العملية ماريتا Marita، ‏بالألمانية: Unternehmen Marita؛ بالإنگليزية: Battle of Greece)[16] هي الاسم الشائع لغزو المحور لليونان المنضوية ضمن للحلفاء من قِبل ألمانيا النازية في أبريل 1941 أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية. وقد تضافرت مع الغزو الإيطالي الفاشي الفاشل المعروف بإسم الحرب الإيطالية اليونانية. وعادة ما تُميـَّز عن معركة كريت، التي جاءت في أعقاب إخضاع بر اليونان الرئيسي. تلك العمليات للمحور كانت جزءاً من حملة البلقان الأكبر لألمانيا.

At the time of the German invasion, Greece was at war with Fascist Italy, following the Italian invasion on 28 October 1940. The Greeks joined the Allies and defeated the initial Italian attack and the counter-attack of March 1941. When Operation Marita began on 6 April, the bulk of the Greek Army was on the Greek border with Albania, then a protectorate of Italy, from which the Italian troops had attacked. German troops invaded from Bulgaria, creating a second front. Greece had already received a small, inadequate reinforcement from British Empire forces in anticipation of the German attack, but no more help was sent afterward. The Greek army found itself outnumbered in its effort to defend against both Italian and German troops. As a result, the Bulgarian defensive line did not receive adequate troop reinforcements and was quickly overrun by the Germans, who then outflanked the Greek forces at the Albanian border, forcing their surrender. The British Empire forces were overwhelmed and forced to retreat, with the ultimate goal of evacuation. For several days, Allied troops played an important part in containing the German advance on the Thermopylae position, allowing ships to be prepared to evacuate the units defending Greece.[17] The German Army reached the capital, Athens, on 27 Aprila[›] and Greece's southern shore on 30 April, capturing 7,000 British Empire forces and ending the battle with a decisive victory. The conquest of Greece was completed with the capture of Crete a month later. Following its fall, Greece was occupied by the military forces of Germany, Italy and Bulgaria.[18]

ولاحقاً أنحى هتلر باللوم لفشل غزوه الاتحاد السوڤيتي، الذي توجـَّب تأجيله، على فشل موسوليني فتح اليونان.[19] هذا التفسير لهزيمة ألمانيا الكارثية أمام الاتحاد السوڤيتي دحضه معظم المؤرخون، الذين اتهموا هتلر بمحاولة ازاحة اللوم (لهزيمة بلاده) عن نفسه وإلصاقه بحليفته، إيطاليا.[20] إلا أن معركة اليونان كان لها عواقب وخيمة لمجهودات المحور الحربية في مسرح عمليات شمال أفريقيا. إنو فون رينتلن، الذي كان ملحقاً عسكرياً في روما، أكـَّد من وجهة النظر الألمانية، على الخطأ الاستراتيجي المتمثل في عدم الاستيلاء على مالطا.[21]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

خلفية

الحرب الإيطالية اليونانية

Hitler always faces me with a fait accompli. This time I am going to pay him back in his own coin. He will find out from the papers that I have occupied Greece.

—Benito Mussolini, speaking to Count Ciano[22][23]


Italian Invasion 1940 in Pindus Epirus.svg
Greek Offensive 1940 41 in Northern Epirus.svg
Italian invasion and initial Greek counter-offensive
28 October – 18 November 1940.
Greek counter-offensive and stalemate
14 November 1940 – 23 April 1941.

قرار هتلر للهجوم على اليونان والغوث البريطاني

I wanted, above all, to ask you to postpone the operation until a more favorable season, in any case until after the presidential election in America. In any event I wanted to ask you not to undertake this action without previously carrying out a blitzkrieg operation on Crete. For this purpose I intended to make practical suggestions regarding the employment of a parachute and an airborne division.

Letter Adolf Hitler addressed to Mussolini on 20 November 1940[24]


قوة التجريدة البريطانية

جنود أستراليون في الإسكندرية، مصر يتجهون لليونان
We did not then know that he [Hitler] was already deeply set upon his gigantic invasion of Russia. If we had we should have felt more confidence in the success of our policy. We should have seen that he risked falling between two stools and might easily impair his supreme undertaking for the sake of a Balkan preliminary. This is what actually happened, but we could not know that at the time. Some may think we builded rightly; at least we builded better than we knew at the time. It was our aim to animate and combine Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey. Our duty so far as possible was to aid the Greeks.

Winston Churchill[25]

الافتتاحية

الطبوغرافيا

الاستراتيجية

Winston Churchill believed it was vital for Britain to take every measure possible to support Greece. On 8 January 1941, he stated that "there was no other course open to us but to make certain that we had spared no effort to help the Greeks who had shown themselves so worthy."[26]


قوات الدفاع والهجوم

Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Blamey, commander of Australian I Corps, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson, commanding general of the Empire expeditionary force ('W' Force) and Major General Bernard Freyberg, commander of the New Zealand 2nd Division, in 1941 in Greece



الغزو الألماني

الاندفاع عبر جنوب يوغسلاڤيا والتقدم نحو سالونيك

التقدم الألماني حتى 9 أبريل 1941، حين استولت الفرقة الثانية پانزر على سالونيك.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الهجوم المضاد اليوناني-اليوغسلاڤي

خط متاكساس

The dispositions of forces in the Florina Valley, 10 April 1941. The blue arrows indicate German advances and the Allied lines are shown in red. Vevi and the Klidi Pass are upper centre, the Australian 19th Brigade HQ is in the centre and Mackay Force HQ is at Perdika, lower centre.

مضائق أولمپوس وسرڤيا

Australian anti-tank gunners resting, soon after their withdrawal from the Vevi area

انسحاب واستسلام جيش إپيروس اليوناني

Retreating Greek soldiers, April 1941

موقع ثرموپيلاي

German artillery firing during the advance through Greece


الاندفاع الألماني نحو أثينا

The quarrel over the troops' victorious entry into Athens was a chapter to itself: Hitler wanted to do without a special parade, to avoid injuring Greek national pride. Mussolini, alas, insisted on a glorious entry into the city for his Italian troops. The Führer yielded to the Italian demand and together the German and Italian troops marched into Athens. This miserable spectacle, laid on by our gallant ally, must have produced some hollow laughter from the Greeks.

Wilhelm Keitel[27]

Damage from the German bombing of Piraeus on 6 April 1941. During the bombing, a ship carrying nitroglycerin was hit, causing a huge explosion[28]

You are listening to the voice of Greece. Greeks, stand firm, proud and dignified. You must prove yourselves worthy of your history. The valor and victory of our army has already been recognised. The righteousness of our cause will also be recognised. We did our duty honestly. Friends! Have Greece in your hearts, live inspired with the fire of her latest triumph and the glory of our army. Greece will live again and will be great, because she fought honestly for a just cause and for freedom. Brothers! Have courage and patience. Be stout hearted. We will overcome these hardships. Greeks! With Greece in your minds you must be proud and dignified. We have been an honest nation and brave soldiers.[29]


إخلاء قوات الامبراطورية

Little news from Greece, but 13,000 men got away to Crete on Friday night and so there are hopes of a decent percentage of evacuation. It is a terrible anxiety... War Cabinet. Winston says "We will lose only 5,000 in Greece." We will in fact lose at least 15,000. W. is a great man, but he is more addicted to wishful thinking every day.

Robert Menzies, Excerpts from his personal diary, 27 and 28 April 1941[30]

In the morning of 15 April 1941, Wavell sent to Wilson the following message: "We must of course continue to fight in close cooperation with Greeks but from news here it looks as if early further withdrawal necessary."[31]



الأعقاب

الاحتلال الثلاثي

     إيطالية      ألمانية      بلغارية      أراضي إيطالية


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

معركة كريت

المظليون الألماني يهبطون كريت.


التقييم

قالب:Battle of Greece timeline infobox


الهامش

  1. ^ Collier 1971, p. 180.
  2. ^ أ ب Helios 1945, Greek Wars.
  3. ^ Richter 1998, pp. 119, 144.
  4. ^ History, Hellenic Air Force, http://www.haf.gr/en/history/history/history_6.asp, retrieved on 25 March 2008 .
  5. ^ "Campaign in Greece". The Encyclopedia Americana. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  6. ^ Ziemke.
  7. ^ أ ب ت Beevor 1994, p. 26.
  8. ^ Long 1953, pp. 182–83.
  9. ^ "7" (PDF), History, AU: AWM, http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/histories/18/chapters/07.pdf .
  10. ^ McClymont 1959, p. 486.
  11. ^ أ ب ت ث Richter 1998, pp. 595–97.
  12. ^ أ ب Bathe & Glodschey 1942, p. 246.
  13. ^ Zabecki, David (2014), Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History (4 volumes), ABC-CLIO, p. 563, ISBN 978-1-598849806, "The Greek Army sustained 13,408 killed, 42,485 wounded, and 270,000 prisoners." 
  14. ^ Zabecki, David (2014), Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History (4 volumes), ABC-CLIO, p. 563, ISBN 978-1-598849806, "The Greek Army sustained 13,408 killed, 42, 485 wounded, and 270,000 prisoners." 
  15. ^ Hitler, Adolf, Speech to the Reichstag on 4 May 1941 .
  16. ^ Smith 1986.
  17. ^ Johnston, Mark; Chagas, Carlos (2013), The Australian Army in World War II, Osprey Publishing, p. 18, ISBN 978-1846031236, "For several days Australian troops played a prominent part in a holding action on the Thermopylae Line in southern Greece, allowing ships to be assembled to evacuate thousands to Egypt and Crete on 24–27 April 1941." 
  18. ^ Dear & Foot 1995, pp. 102–6.
  19. ^ Kershaw 2007, p. 178.
  20. ^ Hillgruber 1993, p. 506.
  21. ^ von Rintelen 1951, pp. 90, 92–3, 98–9.
  22. ^ Ciano 1946, p. 247.
  23. ^ Svolopoulos 1997, p. 272.
  24. ^ Blau 1986, p. 5.
  25. ^ Churchill 1991, p. 420.
  26. ^ Lawlor 1994, pp. 191–92.
  27. ^ Keitel 1979, p. 166.
  28. ^ Sampatakakis 2008, p. 28.
  29. ^ Fafalios & Hadjipateras 1995, pp. 248–49.
  30. ^ Menzies 1941.
  31. ^ Long 1953, pp. 104–5.

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المواقع

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  • Hitler, Adolf (1981). Hitlers politisches Testament. Die Bormann Diktate vom Februar und April 1945 (in German). Hamburg: Albrecht Knaus. ISBN 3-81355-111-3. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Kitsikis, Dimitri (1971). "Information et décision: la Grèce face à l'invasion allemande dans les Balkans, 13 décembre 1940 – 6 avril 1941". La guerre en Méditerranée, 1939–1945 (in French). Paris: Centre national de la Recherche scientifique. pp. 181–209. OCLC 660825581. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Panayiotis, Jerasimof Vatikiotis (1998). "Metaxas Becomes Prime Minister". Popular Autocracy in Greece, 1936–41: a Political Biography of General Ioannis Metaxas. Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4869-8.
  • Pelt, Mogens (1998). Tobacco, Arms and Politics: Greece and Germany from World Crisis to World War, 1929–1941. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-450-4.
  • Powell, Dilys (1941). Remember Greece. London: Hodder & Stoughton. OCLC 4550659.
  • Wards, Ian McLean (1952). "Panzer Attack in Greece". In Kippenberger, H. K. (ed.). Episodes & Studies. New Zealand in the Second World War. II. Wellington, NZ: War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs. OCLC 173284173.
الموسوعات
  • "Campaign in Greece". The Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier. 2000. ISBN 0-7172-0133-3. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
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اقرأ نصاً ذا علاقة في

Address to the Reichstag (4 May 1941)