|نائب رئيس الولايات المتحدة|
20 يناير، 2017
|الرئيس||دونالد ترمپ (المُنتخب)|
|حاكم رقم 50|
14 يناير، 2013
|خلفه||إريك هولكمومب (المُنتخب)|
|رئيس مؤتمر الحزب الجمهوري|
3 يناير، 2009 – 3 يناير، 2011
|عضو مجلس النواب الأمريكي
عن الدائرة 6th في إنديانا
3 يناير، 2003 – 3 يناير، 2013
|عضو مجلس النواب الأمريكي
عن الدائرة 2nd في إنديانا
3 يناير، 2001 – 3 يناير، 2003
|سبقه||ديڤد م. مكنتوش|
|وُلِد||مايكل ريتشارد پنس
يونيو 7, 1959
كلومبس، إنديانا، الولايات المتحدة
|الزوج||[كارن پنس (ز. خطأ: زمن غير صحيح–خطأ في التعبير: عامل < غير متوقع)|
|الجامعة الأم||هانوڤر كولدج
جامعة إنديانا، إندياناپوليس
|الموقع الإلكتروني||Gubernatorial website
نائب رئيس الولايات المتحدة
مايك رتشارد "مايك" پنس Michael Richard "Mike" Pence (وُلِد 7 يونيو 1959) هو سياسي أمريكي ونائب رئيس الولايات المتحدة المنتخب. وهو حالياً حاكم إنديانا رقم 50. كجمهوري، أُنتخب پنس لأول مرة في مجلس النواب الأمريكي عام 2000.
وُلد ونشأ في كلومبس، إنديانا، وتخرج پنس من هانوڤر كولدج حيث حصل حصل على شهادته الجامعية في الحقوق من كلية حقوق روبرت هـ. مكيني، جامعة إنديانا قبل أن يدخل مجال العمل الخاص. بعد ذلك خسر مرتين في انتخابات الكونگرس عام 1988 و1990، نجح في العام 2000 حيث كان ممثلاً عن دائرة إنديانا الثانية والسادسة في مجلس النواب الأمريكي من 2001 حتى 2013، رافعاً متقلداً منصب رئيس مؤتمر الحزب الجمهوري من 2009 حتى 2011. يصف پنس نفسه على أنه أيديولوجي المبدأ ومؤيد لحركة حفل الشاي، مع الإشارة إلى أنه كان "مسيحي، محافظ، وجمهوري، على الترتيب".
عام 2012 أُنتخب پنس لمنصب حاكم إنديانا الخمسين. وقد دافع بنجاح عن أكبر تخفيض ضريبي في تاريخ إنديانا، حيث ضغط من أجل المزيد من التمويل للمبادرات التعليمية، واستمر في زيادة فائض ميزانية الدولة. ومع ذلك، فقد أثار الكثير من الجدل على مستويات عليا. بعد توقيع قانون استعادة الحرية الدينية، واجه پنس مقاومة شرسة من أعضاء حزبه المعتدلين، مجتمع الأعمال، والمدافعين عن المثلية الجنسية. في النهاية، أُجبر على توقيع مشروع قانون إضافي ليكون بمثابة تعديل الهدف منه حماية المثليين. كما وقع پنس على مشروعات قوانين الاجهاض المثيرة للجدل، بما في ذلك القوانين التي تحظر الإجهاض إذا كان سبب الإجراء هو جنس الجنين أو جنسه أو إعاقته.
في خضم حملة اعادة انتخابه كحكم لإنديانا، انسحب پنس في يوليو 2016 لييصبح الشريك الانتخابي المرشح لمنصب نائب الرئيس، للمرشح الرئاسي الجمهوري دونالد ترمپ. في 8 نوفمبر 2016، أُنتخب پنس نائباً لرئيس الولايات المتحدة.
- 1 النشأة
- 2 مجلس النواب الأمريكي
- 3 حاكم إنديانا
- 4 حملة نائب الرئيس 2016
- 5 نائب الرئيس المنتخب للولايات المتحدة
- 6 المواقف السياسية
- 6.1 سياسة الاجهاض والتربية الجنسية
- 6.2 سياسة حقوق المثليين
- 6.3 السياسات المالية والاقتصادية
- 6.4 قضايا الصحة العامة
- 6.5 سياسة الهجرة
- 6.6 سياسة الضمان الاجتماعي
- 6.7 قانون پاتريوت
- 6.8 التجارة والسياسة الخارجية
- 6.9 سياسة التغير المناخي
- 6.10 سياسة الجريمة
- 6.11 سياسة القمار
- 6.12 سياسة تمويل الحملات السياسية
- 7 الحياة الشخصية
- 8 التاريخ الانتخابي
- 9 الهامش
- 10 وصلات خارجية
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وُلد مايكل ريتشارد "مايك" پنس في 7 يونيو، 1959، في كلومبس، إنديانا، كواحداً من ستة أطفال لنانسي جان (لقبها قبل الزواج كاولي) وإدوارد ج. پنس الابن (1929-1988)، الذي كان يملك مجموعة محطات للغاز. كانت عائلته ديمقراطية كاثوليكية أيرلندية. سُمي على اسم جده الأكبر، ريتشارد مايكل كاولي، الذي هاجر من مقاطعة سليگو، أيرلندا، إلى الولايات المتحدة عن طريق جزيرة إليس واصبح سائق شاحنة في شيكاغو، إلينوي. جدا والدته كانا من دونبگ، مقاطعة كلير.
تخرج پنس من ثانوية كولمبس نورث عام 1977. حصل على بكالوريوس الفنون في التاريخ من هانوڤر كولدج عام 1981، ودكتواره القانون من كلية حقوق روبرت هـ. مكيني، جامعة إنديانا في إندياناپوليس، إنديانا، عام 1986. عندما كان في هانوڤر، انضم پنس لأخوية فاي گاما دلتا، حيث أصبح رئيس قسم. بعد تخرجه من هانوڤر، كان پنس مستشار قسم القبول بالكلية، من 1981 حتى 1983.
بعد تخرجه من كلية الحقوق عام 1986، كان پنس محامياً في مكتب خاص. خسر انتخابات الكونگرس عامي 1988 و1990. أصبح عام 1991 رئيساً لمؤسسة إنديانا پوليسي رڤيو، الذي يصف نفسه على أنه مركز أبحاث سياسات سوق حرة، وعضو في شبكة السياسة الولائية.
ترك پنس مؤسسة إنديانا پوليسي رڤيو عام 1993، وفي العام التالي بدء اذاعة عرض مايك پنس، برنامج حواري إذاعي على WRCR-FM في رشڤيل، إنديانا. يطلق پنس على نفسه "رش ليمبو في نزع الكافيين" حيث يعتبر نفسه محافظاً سياسياً في حين أنه ليس صراحةً مثل ليمبو. كان عرضاً مشتركاً مع شبكة إنديانا ويبث في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع الساعة 9 صباحاً حتى الظهيرة على 18 محطة عبر الولاية، ومنها WIBC في إندياناپوليس. من 1995 حتى 1999، كان پنس مذيعاً لبرنامج حواري سياسي يذاع في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع من إندياناپوليس.
مجلس النواب الأمريكي
عام 1988، خاض پنس الانتخابات لعضوية الكونگرس ضد العضو الديمقراطي الشاغر فليپ شارپ، لكنه خسر. خاض الانتخابات ضد شارپ عام 1990، تاركاً عمله من أجل التفرغ للحملة الانتخابية، لكنه خسرة ثانية. أثناء السباق الانتخابي، استخدم پنس "التبرعات السياسية لدفع رهن منزله، فواتير بطاقته الائتمانية الشخصية، فواتير البقالة، أجرة بطولة الگولف وأقساط سيارة زوجته." بينما كان ينفق التبرعات بطريقة غير قانونية في ذلك الوقت، قيل أنه كان يقوض حملته الانتخابية.
أثناء الحملة الانتخابية عام 1990، مول پنس اعلاناً تلفزيونياً، يقوم فيه ممثل، بارتداء ثوب وشعر مستعار ويتحدث بلهجة شرق أوسطية، شاكراً خصمه، شارپ، لعدم فعله شيئاً لدفع الولايات المتحدة إلى التوقف عن استيراد النفط كرئيس للجنة الطاقة في الكونگرس. رداً على هذا النقد، ردت حملة پنس الانتخابية بأن الاعلان لم يكن عن العرب؛ لكنه كان يشير إلى افتقاد شارپ للقيادة. عام 1991، كتب پنس مقالاً بعنوان "اعترافات عضو حملة انتخابية سلبي"، نشره في إنديانا پوليسي رڤيو، اعتذر فيه عن القيام بإعلان سلبي ضد شارپ.
أحيا مايك پنس عمله السياسي بخوضه انتخابات مجلس النواب الأمريكي مرة أخرى عام 2000، حيث فاز هذه المرة بمقعد في الدائرة الثانية لولاية إنديانا بعد اختيار النائب الشاغر لستة سنوات ديڤد م. مكينتوش خوض الانتخابات على منصب حاكم إنديانا. الدائرة (التي أعيد ترقيمه بالرقم 6) بدأت عام 2002 تضم جميع مناطق المقاطعات الـ19 في شرق إنديانا. كعضو كونگرس، تبنى پنس الشعار الذي استخدمه في الراديو، واصفاً نفسه على أنه "مسيحي، محافظ وجمهوري، على الترتيب". بينما في الكونگرس، كان مؤيد حركة حفل الشاي.
في عامه الأول بالمنصب كون پنس سمعة على أنه الشخص ذو القناعات القوية المستعد للذهاب بطريقته الخاصة. عارض قانون لجورج د. بوش No Child Left Behind Act لعام 2001، فضلاً عن توسع الرعاية الطبية الذي قدمه بوش في العام التالي. أُعيد انتخاب پنس أربع فترات أخرى بفرق أصوات مقبول. في انتخابات مجلس النواب 2006 و2008، هزم المرشح الديمقراطي باري ولش.
بدأ پنس في تسلق هيكل قيادة الحزب ومن 2005 حتى 2007 كان رئيس لجنة الدراسة الجمهورية، مجموعة من الجمهوريين المحافظين بالمجلس. في نوفمبر 2006، أعلن پنس ترشحه لزعامة الحزب الجمهوري (زعيم الأقلية) في مجلس النواب الأمريكي. ركز إعلان پنس على "عودة قيم" الثورة الجمهورية لعام 1994. ومع ذلك، فقد خسر لصالح جون بونر النائب عن أوهايو الذي حصل على 168 صوت، مقابل 27 صوت لپنس، وصوت واحد للنائب جون بارتون من تكساس. في يناير 2009، أُنتخب پنس كرئيس للمؤتمر الجمهروي، ثالث أعلى منصب قيادي جمهوري. خاض السباق الانتخابي بلا معارض وفاز بالإجماع. كان أول عضو مجلس نواب من إنديانا يتقلد منصب قيادي بالمجلس منذ عام 1981. خلال سنوات الاثنى عشر بالمجلس، قدم پنس 90 مشروع قانون وقرار؛ لم يصبح أي منهم قانوناً. كانت مهام لجنته في المجلس كالتالي:
- الكونگرس 107 (2001–2003): الزراعة، الأعمال الصغيرة
- الكونگرس 108 (2003–2005): الزراعة، العلاقات الدولية، القضاء 
- الكونگرس 109 (2005–2007): الزراعة، العلاقات الدولية، القضاء
- الكونگرس 110 (2007–2009): الشؤون الخارجية، القضاء، اللجنة المختارة للتحقيق في مخالفات التصويت، 2 أغسطس 2007
- الكونگرس 111 (2009–2011): الشؤون الخارجية
- الكونگرس 112 (2011–2013): الشؤون الخارجية، القضاء.
عام 2008، أدرجته مجلة إسكوير كواحداً من أفضل عشرة أعضاء بالكونگرس، حيث كتبت بأن "المحافظة التقليدية الأصيلة لدى پنس وضعته في مواجهة الأعضاء القدامى في حزبه." أشير إلى پنس على أنه المرشح الجمهوري المحتمل لمنصب الرئاسة في 2008 و2012. في سبتمبر 2010، أُختير پنس كأفضل شخصيات مختارة لمنصب الرئيس في استطلاع رأي قامت به ڤاليوز ڤوتر سميت. في العام نفسه تشجع على خوض الانتخابات ضد السناتور الديمقراطي الشاغر إيڤان باي، لكنه اختار عدم خوض السباق، حتى بعد إعلان باي الغير متوقع عن تقاعده.
في مايو 2011، أعلن مايك پنس أنه سيطالب بالترشيح الجمهوري لمنصب حاكم إنديانا عام 2012. كانت فترة الحاكم الجمهوري الشاغر ميتش دانيالز قد انتهت. بالرغم الاعتراف القوي بالاسم والحاكم الشهير الآتي من نفس الحزب، إلا أن پنس وجد نفسه في سباق محموم، انتهى بفوزه بنسبة تقارب 50 بالمائة من الأصوات مقابل الديمقراطي جون ر. گرگ والمرشح الليبرالي روپرت بونهام. حلف پنس اليمين كاجم لإنديانا في 14 يناير 2013.
مبادرات سياسات الميزانية والاقتصاد
Pence "inherited a $2 billion budget reserve from his predecessor, Mitch Daniels, and the state has added to that reserve under his watch, though not before requiring state agencies, including public universities, to reduce funding in years in which revenue fell below projections." The state finished fiscal year 2014 with a reserve of $2 billion; budget cuts ordered by Pence for the $14 billion annual state budget include $24 million cut from colleges and universities; $27 million cut from the Family and Social Services Administration; and $12 million cut from the Department of Correction. During Pence's term as governor, the unemployment rate reflected the national average. Indiana's job growth lagged slightly behind the national trend. In 2014, Indiana's economy was among the slowest-growing in the U.S., with 0.4% GDP growth, compared to the national average of 2.2%; this was attributed in part to sluggish manufacturing sector. Carrier Corp. and United Technologies Electronic Controls (UTEC) announced in 2016 that they would be closing two facilities in Indiana, sending 2,100 jobs to Mexico; Pence expressed "deep disappointment" with the moves. Pence was unsuccessful in his efforts to persuade the companies to stay in the state, although the companies agreed to reimburse local and state governments for certain tax incentives that they had received.
In 2013, Pence signed a law blocking local governments in Indiana from requiring businesses to offer higher wages or benefits beyond those required by federal law. In 2015, Pence also repealed an Indiana law that required construction companies working on publicly funded projects to pay a prevailing wage. Indiana enacted right-to-work legislation under Pence's predecessor, Republican governor Mitch Daniels. Under Pence, the state successfully defended this legislation against a labor challenge.
Pence made tax reform, namely a 10% income-tax rate cut, a priority for 2013. While he did not get the 10% cut he advocated, Pence did accomplish his goal of cutting state taxes. Legislators cut the income tax by 5% and also killed the inheritance tax. Speaker of the House Brian Bosma said that the legislative package was the "largest tax cut in our state's history, about $1.1 billion dollars." By signing Senate Bill 1, the state corporate income tax would be dropped from 6.5% to 4.9% by 2021, which would be the second-lowest corporate income tax in the nation.
On June 12, 2013, the Indiana Legislature overrode Pence's veto of a bill to retroactively authorize a local tax. Lawmakers overrode Pence's veto in a 68–23 vote in the House and a 34–12 one in the Senate. Republican legislators overwhelmingly voted against Pence, while most Democrats supported his veto. The Jackson–Pulaski tax fix, one of three bills vetoed by Pence during the session, addressed a 15-year-old county income tax which had been imposed to fund the construction of jail facilities with the stipulation that the tax be lowered by 1% after the first several years. The reduction was not implemented and thus county residents paid an additional 1% tax that they were legally not required to pay. The bill, which was passed by a huge majority of legislators and subsequently vetoed by Pence, allowed money to be kept and not returned to the tax payers as would have otherwise been necessary.
As governor, Pence pressed for a balanced budget amendment to the state's constitution. He initially proposed the initiative in his State of the State address in January 2015. The legislation passed the state Senate. Indiana has had AAA credit ratings with the three major credit-rating agencies since 2010, before Pence took office; these ratings have been maintained throughout Pence's tenure.
In 2014, Pence supported the Indiana Gateway project, a $71.4 million passenger and freight rail improvement initiative paid for by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the federal stimulus package), which Pence had voted against while a congressman. In October 2015, Pence "announced plans to pay off a $250 million federal loan" to cover unemployment insurance payments that spiked during the recession. In March 2016, Pence signed legislation to fund a $230 million two-year road-funding package.
During his tenure as governor, Pence supported significant increases in education funding to pre-schools, voucher programs, and charter schools, but frequently clashed with supporters of traditional public schools. In 2014, a little over one year after taking office, Pence helped establish a $10 million state preschool pilot program in Indiana and testified personally before the state Senate Education Committee in favor of the program to convince fellow Republicans (several of whom opposed the proposal) to approve the plan. Although the plan was initially defeated, Pence successfully managed to revive it, "getting Indiana off the list of just 10 states that spent no direct funds to help poor children attend preschool." Demand for enrollment in the program "far outstripped" capacity, and Pence at first refused to apply for up to $80 million in federal Health and Human Services Preschool Development Grant program funding, arguing that "Indiana must develop our own pre-K program without federal intrusion." After coming under sustained criticism for this position, Pence reversed course and sought to apply for the funds.
In 2015, Pence secured significant increases in charter-school funding from the Legislation, although he did not get everything he had proposed. Legislation signed into law by Pence in 2013 greatly increased the number of students in Indiana who qualify for school vouchers, making it one of the largest voucher programs in the United States. The annual cost of the program is estimated to be $53 million for the 2015-16 school year.
Pence opposed the Common Core State Standards Initiative, calling for the repeal of the standards in his 2014 State of the State address. The Indiana General Assembly then passed a bill to repeal the standards, becoming the first state to do so.
Despite successful advocacy for more funding for pre-schools, voucher programs, and charter schools, Pence has frequently clashed with teachers unions and supporters of public schooling. In one of his first acts as governor, Pence removed control of the Educational Employment Relations Board, which was in charge of handling conflicts between unions and school boards, from Glenda Ritz, a Democrat who was the Indiana Superintendent of Public Instruction (a separately elected position in the state). Pence created a new "Center for Education and Career Innovation" (CECI) to coordinate efforts between schools and the private sector; Ritz opposed the Center, viewing it as a "power grab" and encroachment on her own duties. Pence eventually disestablished the Center in order to help defuse the conflict. In May 2015, Pence signed a bill stripping Ritz of much of her authority over standardized testing and other education issues, and reconstituting the State Board of Education dominated by Pence appointees. The bill also allowed the board to appoint a chairman other than the Superintendent of Public Instruction starting in 2017, and added the State Board of Education (controlled by Pence) as a "state educational authority" along with the Department of Education (controlled by Ritz) for purposes of accessing sensitive student data. Pence and Ritz also clashed over non-binding federal guidelines that advised Indiana public schools must treat transgender students in a way that corresponds to their gender identity, even if their education files indicate a different gender.
During Pence's term in office, the Republican-controlled Indiana General Assembly "repeatedly tried to roll back renewable energy standards and successfully ended Indiana's energy efficiency efforts." Pence has been an outspoken supporter of the coal industry, declaring in his 2015 State of the State address that "Indiana is a pro-coal state," expressing support for an "all-of-the-above energy strategy," and stating: "we must continue to oppose the overreaching schemes of the EPA until we bring their war on coal to end." In 2015, Pence sent a letter to President Obama denouncing the EPA's Clean Power Plan (which would regulate carbon emissions from existing power plans) and stating that Indiana would refuse to comply with the plan. Indiana joined other states in a lawsuit seeking to invalidate the plan. In 2016, Pence stated that even if legal challenges failed, Indiana would continue to defy the rule and would not come up with its own plan to reduce emissions.
سياسة حيازة السلاح
In 2014, over the opposition of Indiana school organizations, Pence signed a bill which allows firearms to be kept in vehicles on school property. In 2015, following a shooting in Chattanooga, Pence recruited the NRA to train the Indiana National Guard on concealed carry. Some National Guard officials from other states questioned why a civilian organization would be involved in a military issue. In May 2015, Pence signed into law Senate Bill 98, which limited lawsuits against gun and ammunition manufacturers and sellers and retroactively terminated the City of Gary's still-pending 1999 lawsuit against gun manufacturers and retailers that allegedly made illegal sales of handguns. The bill was supported by Republicans such as state Senator Jim Tomes, who hoped that the measure would attract more gun-related businesses to Indiana, but opposed by Gary mayor and former Indiana attorney general Karen Freeman-Wilson, who viewed the measure as "an unprecedented violation of the separation of powers between the legislative and judicial branches of state government." In 2016, Pence signed Senate Bill 109 into law, legalizing the captive hunting of farm-raised deer in Indiana.
قضايا الصحة العامة
Beginning in December 2014, there was an HIV outbreak in Southern Indiana. In 2011, Planned Parenthood ran five rural clinics in Indiana. They tested for HIV and offered prevention, intervention and counseling for better health. The one in Scott County performed no abortions. The Republican controlled legislature and Pence defunded Planned Parenthood. Scott County has been without an HIV testing center for two years. Pence had long been a vocal opponent of needle exchange programs, which allow drug users to trade in used syringes for sterile ones in order to stop the spread of diseases, despite evidence that such programs prevent the spread of AIDS and hepatitis C, and do not increase drug abuse.
In March 2015, after the outbreak began, Pence allowed at least five counties to open needle exchanges, but has not moved to lift the state ban on funding for needle exchanges. Critics say Pence's compromise has been ineffective because counties had no way to pay for needle exchanges themselves. Indiana State Health Commissioner Jerome Adams defended Pence, saying that publicly-funded needle exchange programs are controversial in many conservative communities. In middle America, Adams said, you can't “just point your finger at folks and say, ‘You need to have a syringe exchange and we’re going to pay for it with your tax dollars.’”
In 2015, Pence and the Obama administration agreed to expand Medicaid in Indiana, in accordance with the Affordable Care Act. As part of the expansion, Pence negotiated modifications to the program for Indiana that included co-payments by participants. The co-payments are linked to healthy behaviors on the part of the participants, so that, for example, a participant who quit smoking would receive a lower co-payment. Participants can lose benefits for failing to make the payments.
Despite several successful policy initiatives, Pence found himself in several high profile controversies, including some that brought national attention. On March 26, 2015, Pence signed Indiana Senate Bill 101, also known as the Indiana "religious objections" bill (Religious Freedom Restoration Act, or RFRA), into law. The law's signing was met with criticism by people and groups who felt the law was carefully worded in a way that would permit discrimination against LGBT persons. Such organizations as the NCAA, the gamer convention Gen Con, and the Disciples of Christ spoke out against the law. Apple CEO Tim Cook and Salesforce.com CEO Marc Benioff condemned the law, with Salesforce.com saying it would halt its plans to expand in the state. Angie's List announced that they would cancel a $40 million expansion of their Indianapolis based headquarters due to concerns over the law. The expansion would have moved 1000 jobs into the state. The mayors of San Francisco and Seattle banned official travel to Indiana. Thousands protested against the policy. Five GOP state representatives voted against the bill, and Greg Ballard, the Republican mayor of Indianapolis, criticized it as sending the "wrong signal" about the state.
Pence defended the law, stating that it was not about discrimination. In an appearance on the ABC News program This Week with George Stephanopoulos, Pence stated, "We are not going to change this law", while refusing to answer whether examples of discrimination against LGBT people given by Eric Miller of anti-LGBT group Advance America would be legal under the law. Pence denied the law permitted discrimination and wrote in a March 31, 2015, Wall Street Journal op-ed, "If I saw a restaurant owner refuse to serve a gay couple, I wouldn't eat there anymore. As governor of Indiana, if I were presented a bill that legalized discrimination against any person or group, I would veto it." In the wake of the backlash against the RFRA, on April 2, 2015, Pence signed legislation revising the law to prevent potential discrimination.
Another controversy arose in March 2016 when Pence signed into law H.B. 1337, a bill that both banned certain abortion procedures and placed new restrictions on abortion providers. The bill banned abortion if the reason for the procedure given by the pregnant person was the fetus' race or gender or a fetal abnormality. In addition, the bill required that all fetal remains from abortions or miscarriages at any stage of pregnancy be buried or cremated, which according to the Guttmacher Institute was not required in any other state. The law was described as "exceptional for its breadth"; if implemented, it would have made Indiana "the first state to have a blanket ban on abortions based solely on race, sex or suspected disabilities, including evidence of Down syndrome." Days after the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt, a federal court issued a preliminary injunction blocking the bill from taking effect, with U.S. District Judge Tanya Walton Pratt determining that the bill was likely to be unconstitutional and that the State of Indiana would be unlikely to prevail at trial.
On January 26, 2015 it was widely reported that Pence had planned to launch a state-run, taxpayer-funded news service for Indiana. The service, called "JustIN", was to be overseen by a former reporter for The Indianapolis Star, and would feature breaking news, stories written by press secretaries, and light features. At the time, it was reported that the two employees who would run the news service would be paid a combined $100,000 yearly salary. The target audience was small newspapers that had limited staff, but the site would also serve to communicate directly with the public. The publisher of the Commercial Review of Portland, Indiana, said, "I think it's a ludicrous idea ... the notion of elected officials presenting material that will inevitably have a pro-administration point of view is antithetical to the idea of an independent press." There was speculation that the news service would publish pro-administration stories that would make Pence look good in the event of a presidential run.
According to the Associated Press, the idea "of stories prewritten for the media set off a wave of criticism from journalists around the country, who likened the Indiana endeavor to state-run media in Russia and China. Headlines like 'Pravda in the Plains' accompanied calls for Pence to scrap the idea." David A. Graham of The Atlantic regarded the announcement of JustIN as evidence of a disturbing changing trend in how the public gets news. After a week or so of controversy about the idea, Pence scrapped the idea saying, "However well-intentioned, after thorough review of the preliminary planning and careful consideration of the concerns expressed, I am writing you to inform you that I have made a decision to terminate development of the JustIN website immediately."
As governor, Pence attempted unsuccessfully to prevent Syrian refugees from being resettled in Indiana. In February 2016, a federal judge ruled that Pence's order to cut off federal funds for a local non-profit refugee resettlement agency was unconstitutional; Pence has appealed. In December 2015, Pence stated that "calls to ban Muslims from entering the U.S. are offensive and unconstitutional".
When asked if he accepts evolution, Pence answered "I believe with all my heart that God created the heavens and the earth, the seas and all that’s in them. How he did that I'll ask him about some day." In a 2002 statement on the floor of the House (reported in the Congressional Record), Pence told his colleagues "... I also believe that someday scientists will come to see that only the theory of intelligent design provides even a remotely rational explanation for the known universe."
حملة اعادة الانتخاب والانسحاب
Pence ran for a second term as governor. He was unopposed in the May 3, 2016, Republican primary for governor. He was to face Democrat John R. Gregg, former speaker of the Indiana House of Representatives, in a rematch of the 2012 race. However, Pence filed paperwork ending his campaign on July 15, 2016, as Trump announced his selection of Pence as his vice presidential running mate.
حملة نائب الرئيس 2016
|مشاع المعرفة فيه ميديا متعلقة بموضوع Mike Pence vice presidential campaign, 2016.|
Donald Trump considered naming Pence as his vice presidential running mate along with other finalists including New Jersey governor Chris Christie and former House speaker Newt Gingrich. The Indianapolis Star reported July 14 that Pence would end his re-election campaign and accept the Republican vice presidential nomination instead. This was widely reported on July 14, 2016. The following day, Trump officially announced on Twitter that Pence would be his running mate.
Immediately after the announcement, Pence said that he was "very supportive of Donald Trump's call to temporarily suspend immigration from countries where terrorist influence and impact represents a threat to the United States". Pence said that he was "absolutely" in sync with Trump's Mexican wall proposal, stating that Mexico was "absolutely" going to pay for it.
During Pence's preparations for the vice presidential debate in October 2016, Scott Walker played the role of Tim Kaine. (In Kaine's own debate prep, Robert Barnett was selected to play Pence).
In response to lewd comments made by Donald Trump in 2005, and reported in the Washington Post on Friday, October 7, 2016, Pence said “I do not condone his remarks and cannot defend them", but Pence made clear that he was standing by the presidential candidate. The candidate's campaign substituted Pence for Trump at a campaign event from which Trump was 'uninvited' by Paul Ryan, the Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives.
According to the New York Times, Pence called Trump on Saturday, October 8, 2016 and told him that he would not appear at the campaign event with Ryan as a replacement for Trump and that Trump would need to handle the next 48 hours on his own, as Pence said he did not think he would be an effective surrogate for Trump. On Monday, October 10, 2016, Pence appeared on CNN and said that it was "absolutely false to suggest that at any point in time we considered dropping off this ticket" and that it is the "greatest honor of my life" to be nominated as Trump's running mate.
On October 27, 2016, a chartered Boeing 737 carrying Pence skidded off a runway at LaGuardia Airport in New York City and was slowed by an engineered materials arrestor system; no injuries were reported.
نائب الرئيس المنتخب للولايات المتحدة
في 8 نوفمبر 2016، أُنتخب پنس نائباً لرئيس الولايات المتحدة حيث كان شريكاً انتخابياً لترمپ. تولى المنصب رسمياً في 20 يناير 2017، وأصبح خامس هوسر يتقلد هذا المنصب، بعد شويلر كولفاكس، توماس هندريكس، توماس ر. مارشال ودان كوايل.
سياسة الاجهاض والتربية الجنسية
Pence is an opponent of abortion, and his unwavering support of abortion restrictions has gained him the support of grassroots conservative activists. He began seeking to defund Planned Parenthood in 2007 and in three congressional sessions, he introduced legislation to block organizations that provide abortion services from receiving any Title X funding, even for services not related to reproductive health or family planning.
Pence has criticized comprehensive sex education. In 2002, he criticized a speech by then-Secretary of State Colin Powell, who stated that it was "important for young people... to protect themselves from the possibility of acquiring any sexually transmitted disease" through the use of condoms. Pence called Powell's comments a "sad day" and expressed his support for abstinence education. He asserted that "condoms are a very, very poor protection against sexually transmitted diseases" and that Powell was "maybe inadvertently misleading millions of young people and endangering lives".
Pence opposed President Obama's executive order eliminating restrictions on embryonic stem-cell research, saying, "I believe it is morally wrong to create human life to destroy it for research... I believe it is morally wrong to take the tax dollars of millions of pro-life Americans." He asserted that "scientific breakthroughs have rendered embryonic stem-cell research obsolete."
سياسة حقوق المثليين
Pence has been a staunch opponent of efforts to expand LGBT civil rights. In 2000, Pence stated "Congress should oppose any effort to recognize homosexuals as a 'discrete and insular minority' entitled to the protection of anti-discrimination laws similar to those extended to women and ethnic minorities." He called for "an audit to ensure that federal dollars were no longer being given to organizations that celebrate and encourage the types of behaviors that facilitate the spreading of the HIV virus" and instead advocated for resources to be directed toward conversion therapy programs, "[for] those seeking to change their sexual behavior." Pence has said that homosexuals should not serve in the military, saying, "Homosexuality is incompatible with military service because the presence of homosexuals in the ranks weakens unit cohesion." Pence opposed the repeal of don't ask, don't tell, saying in 2010 that allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve in the military would "have an impact on unit cohesion." In 2007, Pence voted against the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which would have banned workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Pence opposed the 2009 Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Act, saying that Barack Obama wanted to "advance a radical social agenda" and said that pastors "could be charged or be subject to intimidation for simply expressing a Biblical worldview on the issue of homosexual behavior." Pence opposes both same-sex marriage and civil unions. While in the House, he said that "societal collapse was always brought about following an advent of the deterioration of marriage and family". He has advocated a constitutional same-sex marriage ban but did not champion such a proposed ban for his first year as governor.
السياسات المالية والاقتصادية
Pence was a co-sponsor of H.J.Res.73, a 2011 spending limit amendment to the U.S. Constitution. This amendment would limit federal spending to "the average annual revenue collected in the three prior years, adjusted in proportion to changes in population and inflation." In regards to adopting the gold standard, Pence stated in 2011, "the time has come to have a debate over gold and the proper role it should play in our nation’s monetary affairs". Pence proposed legislation to end the dual mandate of the Federal Reserve (maximizing employment and stabilizing prices), requiring the Fed to just focus on price stability and not full employment. He has been a proponent of a flat federal tax rate. Pence opposed the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) (the "Wall Street bailout") of 2008. Pence also opposed the auto industry rescue package of 2008–09, which guided General Motors and Chrysler through bankruptcy.
In 2007, Pence voted against the raising of the federal minimum wage to $7.25 (from $5.15) an hour over two years, stating that it would "hurt the working poor.” While in the House, Pence voted against the Employee Free Choice Act ("card check"). He voted against the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. He had publicly opposed the bill denouncing it as a failure, and called for a federal spending freeze. Nevertheless, several months after voting against the bill, Pence privately sought $6 million in stimulus funds for projects in his district, and in 2010, hosted a job fair for stimulus-backed employers. A Pence spokesperson stated "... once it became law, he had a responsibility to support local efforts to secure funding for projects that could benefit people in his district." Pence voted against the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
Pence was a supporter of earmark reform. He voted against the $139.7 billion Transportation-Treasury spending bill in June 2006, and in favor of a series of amendments proposed that same month by Jeff Flake which would strip other members' earmarks from the federal budget. On occasion, however, Pence secured earmarks for projects in his district.
قضايا الصحة العامة
Pence voted against the act that created Medicare Part D, a Medicare prescription-drug benefit. Pence voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In June 2012, after the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act in NFIB v. Sebelius, Pence likened the ruling to the September 11 terrorist attacks in a closed-door meeting of the House Republican Conference. He immediately apologized for making the statement.
In 2001, Pence wrote an op-ed arguing against the tobacco settlement and tobacco regulation, saying that they would create "new government bureaucracies" and encroach on private lives. He stated that "despite the hysteria from the political class and the media, smoking doesn't kill." Pence asserted, "2 out of every three smokers does not die from a smoking related illness and 9 out of ten smokers do not contract lung cancer," while acknowledging that "smoking isn't good for you" and people who smoke should quit. In 2009, Pence voted against the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which allows the FDA to regulate tobacco products. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pence's state of Indiana has one of the worst smoking problems in America.
In June 2006, Pence unveiled an immigration plan (which he described as "No Amnesty Immigration reform") that would include increased border security, followed by strict enforcement of laws against hiring illegal aliens, and a guest worker program. This guest worker program would have required participants to apply from their home country to government-approved job placement agencies that match workers with employers who cannot find Americans for the job. The plan received support from conservatives such as Dick Armey, but attracted criticism from other conservatives such as Phyllis Schlafly, Richard A. Viguerie, and Pat Buchanan, who viewed Pence as lending "his conservative prestige to a form of liberal amnesty."
In 2009, Pence opposed birthright citizenship (the legal principle set forth by the Citizenship Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution that "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside"). He co-sponsored a bill that would have limited citizenship to children born to at least one parent who is a citizen, immigrants living permanently in the U.S. or non-citizens performing active service in the Armed Forces.
In 2010, Pence voted against the DREAM Act, which would grant the undocumented children of illegal immigrants conditional non-immigrant status if they met certain requirements. In 2010, Pence stated that Arizona S.B. 1070, which at the time of passage in 2010 was the nation's broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration legislation, was "a good faith to try and restore order to their communities".
سياسة الضمان الاجتماعي
Pence supported President George W. Bush's unsuccessful 2005 proposal to partially privatize Social Security by allowing workers to invest part of their Social Security payroll taxes in private investment accounts and reduce the increase in benefits for high-income participants. Pence had previously proposed a similar but more aggressive reform plan than Bush's.
When asked in 2010 if he would be willing to make cuts to Social Security, Pence answered, "I think everything has to be on the table." When asked if he would raise the retirement age, he said, "I'm an all-of-the-above guy. We need look at everything on the menu."
Pence supported the USA Patriot Act on its passage in 2001, and in 2005 called the act "essential to our continued success in the war on terror here at home." Pence was a sponsor of legislation in 2009 to extend three expiring provisions of the Patriot Act (the library records provision, the roving-wiretap provision, and the lone-wolf provision) for an additional ten years.
التجارة والسياسة الخارجية
Pence "has been a longtime, aggressive advocate of trade deals" between the U.S. and foreign countries. Pence has been a supporter of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and during his tenure in the House, he voted for every free-trade agreement that came before him. Pence voted in favor of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA); in favor of keeping the U.S. in the World Trade Organization; and in favor of permanent normal trade relations with China. Pence also supported bilateral free-trade agreements with Colombia, South Korea, Panama, Peru, Oman, Chile and Singapore. Pence's strong stance in favor of free trade sharply differs from the stance of his running mate Trump, who has condemned globalization and the liberalization of trade.
Pence voted against the Trade and Globalization Act of 2007, which would have expanded trade adjustment assistance to American workers adversely affected by globalization. However, in 2014 Pence called for the "swift adoption" of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), urging Indiana's congressional delegation to support the trade deal.
Pence supported the Iraq War Resolution, which authorized military action against Iraq. During the Iraq War, Pence opposed setting a public withdrawal date from Iraq. During an April 2007 visit to Baghdad, Pence and John McCain visited Shorja market, the site of a deadly attack in February 2007, that claimed the lives of 61 people. Pence and McCain described the visit as evidence that the security situation in Iraqi markets had improved. The visit to the market took place under tight security, including helicopters overhead, and the New York Times reported that the visit gave a false indication of how secure the area was because of the extremely heavy security forces protecting McCain. Pence chaired the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on the Middle East and was a prominent supporter of George W. Bush's Iraq War troop surge of 2007. At the time, Pence stated that "the surge is working" and defended the initial decision to invade in 2003.
Pence has opposed closing the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and trying the suspected terrorists in the United States. As an alternative, Pence has said that the "enemy combatants" should be tried in a military tribunal.
Pence has stated his support of Israel and its right to attack facilities in Iran to prevent the Iranians from developing nuclear weapons, has defended the actions of Israel in its use of deadly force in enforcing the blockade of Gaza, and has referred to Israel as "America's most cherished ally". He visited Israel in 2014 to express his support, and in 2016 signed into law a bill which would ban Indiana from having any commercial dealings with a company that boycotts Israel.
Pence criticized Russian President Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama's alleged weak leadership, saying: "When Donald Trump and I observe that, as I’ve said in Syria, in Iran, in Ukraine, that the small and bullying leader of Russia has been stronger on the world stage than this administration, that’s stating painful facts. That's not an endorsement of Vladimir Putin. That’s an indictment of the weak and feckless leadership."
Two weeks prior to the NATO intervention in Libya, Pence thanked the Obama administration and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton for their efforts to isolate the Gaddafi regime. Pence expressed support for "a no-fly zone" and stated that "Gaddafi must go."
سياسة التغير المناخي
Pence "does not accept the scientific consensus that human activity is the primary driver of climate change." In 2001, Pence wrote in an op-ed that "Global warming is a myth," saying that "the earth is actually cooler today than it was about 50 years ago". In 2006 and 2009, Pence expressed the view that it was unclear whether climate change was driven by human activity, and in 2009 he told political commentator Chris Matthews that there was a "growing skepticism in the scientific community about global warming”. In 2009, Pence led the Republican effort to defeat the American Clean Energy and Security Act (Waxman-Markey), a Democratic-backed bill to cut greenhouse gas emissions (and therefore combat climate change) through a cap-and-trade system. On September 27, 2016, however, Pence said “there’s no question” that human activity affects both the climate and the environment, while defending Trump's position on the matter. While in the House, Pence "voted to eliminate funding for climate education programs and to prohibit the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gas emissions." Pence also "repeatedly voted against energy efficiency and renewable energy funding and rules" and voted "for several bills that supported fossil fuel development, including legislation promoting offshore drilling." The League of Conservation Voters, an environmentalist group, gave Pence a lifetime rating of 4 percent.
Pence has questioned proposals to decrease penalties for low-level marijuana offenses in Indiana, saying that the state should focus on "reducing crime, not reducing penalties." In 2013, Pence expressed concern that a then-pending bill to revise the state's criminal code was not tough enough on drug crimes, and successfully lobbied to limit the reduction in sentencing of marijuana offenses.
During 2014, Pence sent a letter to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, saying that Indiana would not comply with federal prison rape elimination standards because they were "too expensive." According to the Indiana Department of Corrections, it would cost the state $15–20 million annually to comply with the guidelines. Pence said that a number of rape prevention measures had already been "implemented."
In 2015, Pence signed Senate Bill 94 to lengthen the statute of limitations for rape — continuing for five years after sufficient DNA evidence is uncovered, enough recorded evidence is brought forth or discovered, or the offender confesses to the crime. Pence also signed Senate Bill 8 to allow the death penalty for beheadings if the victim was alive at the time of the offense.
Pence has been an advocate of federal restrictions of online gambling. In 2006, he was one of 35 cosponsors of H.R. 4411, the Goodlatte–Leach Internet Gambling Prohibition Act, and H.R. 4777, the Internet Gambling Prohibition Act.
سياسة تمويل الحملات السياسية
Pence praised the 2010 Supreme Court ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission when it was announced. Pence said:
Freedom won today in the Supreme Court. Today's ruling in the Citizens United case takes us one step closer to the Founding Fathers' vision of free speech, a vision that is cherished by all Americans and one Congress has a responsibility to protect. If the freedom of speech means anything, it means protecting the right of private citizens to voice opposition or support for their elected representatives. The fact that the court overturned a 20-year precedent speaks volumes about the importance of this issue.
Pence and Karen Pence have been married since 1985. They have three children: Michael, Charlotte, and Audrey. During Pence's service in the House, his family lived in Arlington, Virginia, when Congress was in session. Michael Pence's son is a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps.
Pence was raised in a Catholic family, served as an altar boy, and attended parochial school. He became a born-again Christian in college, while a member of a nondenominational Christian student group, and identified his freshman year—and specifically "a Christian music festival in Asbury, Kentucky, in the spring of 1978" referring to the Icthus Music Festival at then Asbury College in Wilmore, Kentucky—as the moment he made a "commitment to Christ." After that point, Pence continued to attend Mass (where he met his wife) and was a Catholic youth minister. Pence called himself Catholic in a 1994 news piece, although by 1995, he and his family had joined an evangelical megachurch, the Grace Evangelical Church. In 2013, Pence said his family was "kind of looking for a church." He has described himself as "a Christian, a conservative and a Republican, in that order," and as "a born-again, evangelical Catholic." Pence is a lifelong fan of the Chicago Cubs.
|Indiana's 2nd Congressional District Election (1988)|
|ديمقراطي||Philip R. Sharp||116٬915||53.20%|
|Indiana's 2nd Congressional District Election (1990)|
|ديمقراطي||Philip R. Sharp||93٬495||59.37%|
|Indiana's 2nd Congressional District Election (2000)|
|مستقل||William "Bill" Frazier||19٬077||9.15%|
|Libertarian||Michael E. Anderson||2٬422||1.16%|
|Indiana's 6th Congressional District Election (2002)|
|ديمقراطي||Melina Ann Fox||63٬871||34.40%|
|Indiana's 6th Congressional District Election (2004)|
|ديمقراطي||Melina Ann Fox||85٬123||31.29%|
|Libertarian||Chad (Wick) Roots||4٬397||1.62%|
|Indiana's 6th Congressional District Republican Primary Election (2006)|
|Indiana's 6th Congressional District Election (2006)|
|ديمقراطي||Barry A. Welsh||76٬812||39.99%|
|Indiana's 6th Congressional District Election (2008)|
|ديمقراطي||Barry A. Welsh||94٬223||33.38%|
|Libertarian||George T. Holland||7٬534||2.67%|
|Indiana's 6th Congressional District Election (2010)|
|ديمقراطي||Barry A. Welsh||56٬647||29.92%|
|Libertarian||Talmage "T.J." Thompson, Jr.||6٬635||3.51%|
|Republican Indiana gubernatorial election primary in Indiana, 2012|
|2012 Indiana gubernatorial election|
|جمهوري||Mike Pence / Sue Ellspermann||1,264,877||49.62%||-8.22%|
|ديمقراطي||John Gregg / Vi Simpson||1,183,213||46.42%||+6.38%|
|Libertarian||Rupert Boneham / Brad Klopfenstein||101,028||3.96%||+1.84%|
|No party||Donnie Harold Harris / George Fish (write-in)||34||0%||—|
|الإقبال على الانتخابات||2,549,152||57.81%||-2.08%|
|Republican primary results|
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- ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ Emily McFarlan & Miller Kimberly, 5 faith facts on Mike Pence: A 'born-again, evangelical Catholic', Religion News Service (July 15, 2016), republished in the National Catholic Reporter.
- ^ أ ب ت Amber Phillips, 10 things you should know about Mike Pence, Donald Trump’s likely running mate, The Washington Post (July 14, 2016).
- ^ Michael Muskal, Mike Pence to run for Indiana governor: Republicans had expected Rep. Mike Pence, a 'tea party' favorite, to join the state race to succeed Gov. Mitch Daniels, who may make a run for the GOP presidential nomination, Los Angeles Times (May 5, 2011).
- ^ "Indiana business leaders embrace RFRA fix". Indy Star. 2 April 2015.
- ^ Edward Pence obituary, The Republic, accessed 11/10/2016
- ^ "Wedding Bells Ring Out For 3 S. Side Couples". Chicago Daily Tribune. April 5, 1956.
- ^ أ ب Cuetara, Ines De La (July 14, 2016). "Mike Pence: Everything You Need to Know". ABC News. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- ^ Burton, Danielle (November 15, 2006). What You Didn't Know About Rep. Mike Pence of Indiana, U.S. News & World Report accessed March 31, 2015.
- ^ أ ب Jason Deparle, Star of the Right Loses His Base at the Border, New York Times (August 29, 2006).
- ^ Carswell, Simon (Mar 21, 2013). "Mike Pence and Donald Trump’s Irish connection: Doonbeg". The Irish Times. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- ^ McMahon, Páraic (15 July 2016). "Doonbeg links aplenty in US Presidential race". clareherald.com. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- ^ Kelly, Niki (February 10, 2016). "Pence pegs Holcomb for state's No. 2 post". The Journal Gazette. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- ^ Tony Cook (May 31, 2014). "Is Gov. Mike Pence moving to the center amid talk of presidential run?". The Indianapolis Star.
- ^ "Here's what you should know about Mike Pence". Huffington Post.
- ^ Karly Moll (November 7, 2012). "Profile: Indiana Gov.-elect Mike Pence". USA Today.
- ^ أ ب "Mike Pence Congressional Papers". Indiana University. 2014.
- ^ "Mike Pence and His Family". Mike Pence for Congress. Archived from the original on January 19, 2001.
- ^ أ ب Montanaro, Domenica (July 14, 2016). "5 Things To Know About Mike Pence". NPR.
- ^ "Arena Profile: Mike Pence". Politico. 2010.
- ^ "Hear Mike Here!". WIBC. Archived from the original on June 11, 2000.
- ^ أ ب Sager, R. (2006). The Elephant in the Room: Evangelicals, Libertarians, and the Battle to Control the Republican Party. Wiley. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-471-79332-8.
- ^ أ ب ت ث ج Rosalind S. Helderman, Tom Hamburger & Alice Crites. "Mike Pence used campaign funds to pay his mortgage — and it cost him an election". Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- ^ أ ب "Arab Group Says Pence TV Ad Is Offensive". Post-Tribune. Associated Press. October 12, 1990.
- ^ Pence, Mike (Summer 1991), Confessions of a negative campaigner, pp. 5–6, Archived from the original on March 5, 2001, https://web.archive.org/web/20010305130534/http://www.cybertext.net/pence/confess.html
- ^ Janie Lorber, "Tea Party Caucus Tackles Racism Charge." The New York Times, July 21, 2010
- ^ "Trump says Pence will help return US to 'safe' and 'prosperous society,' in first official appearance as running mates". July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- ^ أ ب Barbaro, Michael; Davey, Monica (July 15, 2016). "Mike Pence: A Conservative Proudly Out of Sync With His Times". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- ^ Shane Harris, Donald Trump and Mike Pence: Two Newbies, One Dangerous World, Daily Beast (July 15, 2016).
- ^ U.S. Congressman Mike Pence : 6th District Of Indiana Archive copy at the Internet Archive
- ^ U.S. Congressman Mike Pence : 6th District Of Indiana Archive copy at the Internet Archive
- ^ "Boehner elected as Republican leader: Succeeds Hastert in top GOP role in Democratic-controlled House", Associated Press, November 17, 2006
- ^ Michael Barbaro & Monica Davey, Mike Pence: A Conservative Proudly Out of Sync With His Times, New York Times (July 15, 2016).
- ^ Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 107th Congress, Complied by the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
- ^ Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 108th Congress, Complied by the Clerk of the House of Representatives, October 14, 2004, p. 57.
- ^ Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 109th Congress, Complied by the Clerk of the House of Representatives, (final ed.).
- ^ Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 110th Congress, Complied by the Clerk of the House of Representatives (final ed.).
- ^ Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 111th Congress (final ed.), Complied by the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
- ^ Official Alphabetical List of Members with Committee Assignments for the 112th Congress (final ed.), Complied by the Clerk of the House of Representatives, December 27, 2012, p. 13.
- ^ The 10 Best Members of Congress: Text Only Version, Esquire (October 15, 2008).
- ^ Montenaro, Domenico (July 13, 2016). "Curse of the 2012 GOP candidate?". MSN. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009.
- ^ Michael A. Memoli (September 19, 2010). "GOP Rep. Mike Pence gets nod for 2012 presidential run". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2015.
- ^ O'Donnell, Kelly (July 12, 2016). "Team Trump Plans Public Event Friday With VP Pick". NBC News. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
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- ^ Final Vote Results For Roll Call 46: H R 1 Bill Title: Making Supplemental Appropriations For Fiscal Year Ending 2009, Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives January 29, 2009
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- ^ أ ب Sam Stein & Jason Cherkis, Mike Pence Privately Sought Stimulus Funds That He Publicly Criticized, Huffington Post (August 2, 2016).
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Pence, who used to work for a free-market think tank, was a booster of Bush's aborted 2005 plan to partially privatize Social Security.
- ^ أ ب ت ث Sahadi, Jeanne (July 15, 2016). "On Social Security, Trump and Pence couldn't be more different". CNN Money.
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- ^ أ ب Ryan Browne, Pence might share a ticket with Trump but not a worldview, CNN (July 15, 2016).
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- ^ Brandon Smith, Senators Up Marijuana Penalties to Appease the Governor, Indiana Public Media (WFIU/WTIU) (March 28, 2013).
- ^ Dan Carden, Pence reinstates mandatory minimum prison terms for some drug crimes, Times of Northwest Indiana (March 21, 2016).
- ^ Pence Reinstates Mandatory Minimum Sentencing for Drug Offenders, WFHB (March 22, 2016).
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- ^ "Indiana Gov. Pence attends son's commissioning as Marine Corps officer". marinecorpstimes.com. March 20, 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- ^ أ ب ت ث ج Michelle Boorstein, What it means that Mike Pence called himself an 'evangelical Catholic', Washington Post (July 15, 2016).
- ^ Michael Gryboski, 5 Things to Know About Mike Pence, Christian Post (July 14, 2016).
- ^ He, Alan (October 25, 2016). "Pence won't abandon Cubs for Ohio votes". CBS News. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- ^ Thomas, Richard C. (June 1989). "Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- ^ Thomas, Richard C. (April 1991). "Federal Elections 90 Election Results for the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
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- ^ "Indiana Primary Election, May 8, 2012-United States Senator". Secretary of State of Indiana. June 5, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- ^ "Election Results". in.gov/apps/sos. November 28, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- ^ "Indiana Primary Election, May 3, 2016". Pennsylvania Secretary of State. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Governor Mike Pence official government site
- MikePence.com - official campaign site (now redirects to Donald Trump campaign website)
- مايك پنس at the Open Directory Project
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Profile at Ballotpedia
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Voting record maintained by The Washington Post
- Campaign finance reports and data at the Federal Election Commission
- Profile at SourceWatch
|مجلس النواب الأمريكي|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 2nd congressional district
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 6th congressional district
|Chair of the Republican Study Committee
|Chair of the House Republican Conference
|Republican nominee for Governor of Indiana
2012, 2016 (withdrew)
|Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States
|آخر شاغل للمنصب|
|Governor of Indiana
|Vice President of the United States
Taking office 2017
خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).