قوات مشاة البحرية الأمريكية

(تم التحويل من United States Marine Corps)
United States Marine Corps
USMC logo.svg
نشطة 10 November 1775 – present
البلد  الولايات المتحدة
الفرع Marine Corps
النوع Amphibious and expeditionary
الدور Naval Infantry/Ground Force
الحجم 202,779 active (اعتبارا من أكتوبر 2010)[1][2]
40,000 reserve (اعتبارا من 2010)[3]
جزء من Department of Defense
Department of the Navy
Headquarters Headquarters Marine Corps
الكنية The Few, The Proud
الشعار اللفظي Semper Fidelis
Colors Scarlet & Gold[4]         
المشية "Semper Fidelis"Play 
جالب الحظ English Bulldog[5][6]
الاشتباكات
التكريمات
القادة
Commandant Gen James F. Amos
Assistant Commandant Gen Joseph F. Dunford, Jr.
Sergeant Major SgtMaj Carlton W. Kent
الشارات
Eagle, Globe, and Anchor Globeanchor.svg

قوات مشاة البحرية الأمريكية (United States Marine Corps) أو ما يعرف بالمارينز هي أحد الفروع الأربعة للقوات العسكرية الأمريكية، تخضع جزئيا لقوات البحرية (United States Navy) خاصة في الأمور غير القتالية. يعمل في سلاح مشاة البحرية الأمريكي 190،000 الف جندي في الخدمة الفعلية و40،000 الف جندي في الاحتياط. ويقع مركز قيادة في أرلينغتون بولاية فيرجينيا وتضم مكاتب القيادة والتحكم.

مهام سلاح المشاة البحري الأمريكي التعامل والتنسيق مع سلاح البحرية الأمريكية وتوصيل المعونات والأسلحة في الأزمات العالمية والاستخدام في عمليات الابرار المائية والاقتحام الساحلي والتنقل بواسطة البحرية الأمريكية وحراسة القواعد البحرية داخل وخارج الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية ومن مميزات قوات المشاء البحرية الأمريكية انهم قادرين علي العمل برا وبحرا وجواً والانتقال عبرهم.

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Capabilities


التاريخ

الأصول

The United States Marine Corps traces its roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War, formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775, to raise two battalions of Marines. That date is regarded and celebrated as the date of the Marine Corps' birthday. At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded in April 1783. The institution itself would not be resurrected until 11 July 1798. At that time, in preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Marine Corps.[7] Marines had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797[8] for service in the new-build frigates authorized by the Congressional "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of 18 March 1794,[9] which specified the numbers of Marines to recruit for each frigate.

British and American troops garrisoned aboard Hornet and Penguin exchanging small arms musket fire with Tristan da Cuna in the background during the final engagement between British and American forces of the war.

The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates,[10] when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led eight Marines and 500 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke sword carried by Marine officers.[11]

During the War of 1812, Marine detachments on Navy ships took part in some of the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first and last engagements of the conflict. Their most significant contribution, however, was holding the center of General Jackson's defensive line at the Battle of New Orleans, the final major battle and one of the most one-sided engagements of the war. With widespread news of the battle and the capture of HMS Cyane, HMS Levant and HMS Penguin, the final engagements between British and American forces, the Marines had gained a reputation as expert marksmen, especially in defensive and ship-to-ship actions.[11]

After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a malaise that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth Commandant in 1820. Under his tenure, the Corps took on expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army.[11] Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy as a sister service to the Navy.[12] This would be the first of many times that the independent existence of the Corps was challenged.

U.S. Marines storming Chapultepec castle under a large American flag, paving the way for the fall of Mexico City.

Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service in the Seminole Wars of 1835, personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps (two battalions) to war. A decade later, in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City, which would be later celebrated as the "Halls of Montezuma" in the Marines' hymn. In the 1850s, the Marines would see further service in Panama and Asia, attached to Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the Far East.[13]

black & white photograph of six Marines standing in line, five with Civil War-era rifles and one with an NCO sword.
Five Marine privates with fixed bayonets, and their NCO with his sword at the Washington Navy Yard, 1864.

The Marine Corps played a small role in the Civil War (1861–1865); their most prominent task was blockade duty. As more and more states seceded from the Union, about a third of the Corps' officers left the United States to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps, which ultimately played little part in the war. The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas) performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces.[14] Blockade duty included sea-based amphibious operations to secure forward bases. In late November 1861, Marines and sailors landed a reconnaissance in force from the يوإس‌إس Flag at Tybee Island, Georgia, to occupy the Lighthouse and Martello Tower on the northern end of the island. It would later be the Army base for bombardment of Fort Pulaski.[15]

الحرب العالمية الأولى

monochromatic artwork of Marines fighting Germans in a forest
Georges Scott, American Marines in Belleau Wood, 1918

الحرب العالمية الثانية

الحرب الكورية

black & white photo of Marines using ladders to scale a seawall
Marine lieutenant Baldomero Lopez scaling the seawall at Inchon, September 1950


الحرب على الإرهاب

color photo of three Marines entering a partially destroyed palace
Marines from 1st Battalion 7th Marines enter a palace in Baghdad.


العملية حرية العراق

Bravo Battery, 1st Battalion, 11th Marines, a.k.a. the Beastmasters fight off Iraqi unit on March 26, 2003

Personnel

Leadership

Rank structure

المقالة الرئيسية: United States Marine Corps rank insignia


Commissioned Officers

US DoD Pay Grade O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10
Insignia
gold vertical bar
silver vertical bar
two silver vertical bars
gold oak leaf
silver oak leaf
silver eagle with shield clutching arrows
single silver star
two silver stars
three silver stars
four silver stars
Title Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General
Abbreviation 2ndLt 1stLt Capt Maj LtCol Col BGen MajGen LtGen Gen
NATO Code OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 OF-7 OF-8 OF-9

Warrant Officers

انظر أيضاً: Warrant Officer (United States)

Warrant Officers are primarily former enlisted experts in a specific specialized field, and provide leadership generally only within that speciality.

US DoD Pay Grade W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5
Insignia gold bar with two red squares gold bar with three red squares silver bar with two red squares siver bar with three red squares silver bar with a red line down the long axis
Title Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 5
Abbreviation WO1 CWO2 CWO3 CWO4 CWO5
NATO Code WO-1 WO-2 WO-3 WO-4 WO-5

Enlisted

US DoD Pay grade E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9
Insignia No Insignia single chevron single chevron with crossed rifles two chevrons with crossed rifles three chevrons with crossed rifles three chevrons up and one down with crossed rifles three chevrons up and two down with crossed rifles three chevrons up and three down with crossed rifles three chevrons up and three down with diamond three chevrons up and four down with bursting bomb three chevrons up and four down with star three chevrons up and four down with Eagle, Globe, and Anchor insignia flanked by two stars
Title Private Private
First Class
Lance
Corporal
Corporal Sergeant Staff
Sergeant
Gunnery
Sergeant
Master
Sergeant
First
Sergeant
Master Gunnery
Sergeant
Sergeant
Major
Sergeant Major
of the Marine Corps
Abbreviation Pvt PFC LCpl Cpl Sgt SSgt GySgt MSgt 1stSgt MGySgt SgtMaj SgtMajMarCor
NATO Code OR-1 OR-2 OR-3 OR-4 OR-5 OR-6 OR-7 OR-8 OR-9

Initial training

Every year, over 2,000 new Marine officers are commissioned, and 38,000 recruits accepted and trained.[14] All new Marines, enlisted or officer, are recruited by the Marine Corps Recruiting Command.


الزي

المقالة الرئيسية: Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps
color drawings of four Marines wearing various uniforms
Left to right: Utility Uniform, Dress Uniform, Service Uniform, and Evening Dress uniforms

الثقافة

المقالة الرئيسية: Culture of the United States Marine Corps

As in any military organization, the official and unofficial traditions of the Marine Corps serve to reinforce camaraderie and set the service apart from others. The Corps' embrace of its rich culture and history is cited as a reason for its high esprit de corps.[16]

color artwork of an Eagle, Globe, and Anchor over crossed American and Marine flags
Eagle, Globe and Anchor along with the US flag, the Marine Corps flag and the Commandant's flag

Official traditions and customs


Unofficial traditions and customs

cartoon of a bulldog wearing a Marine helmet chasing a dachshund wearing a German helmet, the poster reads "Teufelhunden: German nickname for U.S. Marines. Devil Dog recruiting station, 628 South State Street"
A recruiting poster makes use of the "Teufel Hunden" nickname.

Equipment

color photo of a Marine peering through the optics of a large rifle
Marine sniper using the M-14 Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR)

Infantry weapons

المقالة الرئيسية: List of weapons of the United States Marine Corps

The basic infantry weapon of the Marine Corps is the M16 assault rifle family, with a majority of Marines being equipped with the M16A2 or M16A4 service rifles (the M16A2 is being phased out). The M4 carbine, a compact variant of the M16, has also been issued.[17] The standard side arm is the M9 pistol. Suppressive fire is provided by the M249 SAW and M240 machine guns, at the squad and company levels respectively. In addition, indirect fire is provided by the M203 grenade launcher in fireteams, M224 60 mm mortar in companies, and M252 81 mm mortar in battalions. The M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun and MK19 automatic grenade launcher (40 mm) are available for use by dismounted infantry, though they are more commonly vehicle-mounted. Precision firepower is provided by the M40 sniper rifle and M82 anti-materiel rifle by Scout Snipers, while designated marksmen use the DMR (being replaced by the M39 EMR), and the SAM-R.[18]

الطائرات

المقالة الرئيسية: United States Marine Corps Aviation

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ "Marine Corps Almanac" (PDF). Concepts & Programs. United States Marine Corps. 2010: pp. 266–279. January 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  2. ^ "Armed Forces Strength Figures for October 31, 2010" (PDF). Military Personnel Statistics: Active Duty Military Strength by Service. U.S. Department of Defense. October 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  3. ^ "Reserve Force Figures" (PDF). The Continental Marine Magazine - Almanac 2010. Marine Forces Reserve. 2010. p. 9. Retrieved 27 December 2010. The Selected Marine Corps Reserve has approximately 39,600 Marines; the Individual Ready Reserve has approximately 60,000 Marines. 
  4. ^ Lejeune, Major General John A (18 April 1925). "Marine Corps Order No. 4 (Series 1925)". Commandant of the Marine Corps. United States Marine Corps History Division. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  5. ^ Loredo-Agostini, Sgt Heidi E. (30 July 2009). "Ready for the Corps: Marines recruit latest mascot from South Texas". Recruiting Station San Antonio. Castroville, Texas: United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  6. ^ Dobbs, LCpl Chris (25 July 2008). "Marine Barracks’ mascot, Chesty the XII, retires after more than 40 ‘dog years’ of faithful service". Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C.: United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 22 December 2010. 
  7. ^ U.S. Congress (11 July 1798). "An Act for Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps". 
  8. ^ Captain John Barry (9 February 1798). "Muster Roll of Officers, Petty Officers, Seamen, and Marines, on the Frigate United States". Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  9. ^ U.S. Congress (18 March 1794). "Act to provide a Naval Armament". NARA. Retrieved 16 May 2009. 
  10. ^ Richard Leiby, Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates, The Washington Post, 15 October 2001
  11. ^ أ ب ت Simmons, Edwin H. (2003). The United States Marines: A History, Fourth Edition. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-790-5. 
  12. ^ U.S. Congress (30 June 1834). "An Act for the Better Organization of the United States Marine Corps". Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2008. 
  13. ^ Moskin, J. Robert (1987). The U.S. Marine Corps Story. New York: McGraw-Hill. 
  14. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة ChenowethNihart
  15. ^ Elliott, Daniel T. (2008). "Archaeological Reconnaissance at the Drudi Tract, Tybee Island, Chatham County, Georgia" (PDF). Savannah, Georgia: LAMAR Institute Publication Series. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011. 
  16. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Estes
  17. ^ "Top Marine Glad to Have M16A4 Standard". Kit Up!. Military.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  18. ^ "M40A1 Sniper Rifle". USMC Fact File. U.S. Marine corps. Archived from the original on 25 February 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2008. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.

وصلات خارجية