كالڤن كولدج

(تم التحويل من كالڤين كوليدج)
كالڤن كولدج
Calvin Coolidge photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg
رئيس الولايات المتحدة ال30
في المنصب
2 أغسطس, 1923 – March 4, 1929
نائب الرئيس None (1923–1925)
Charles G. Dawes, (1925–1929)
سبقه Warren G. Harding
خلفه Herbert Hoover
29th Vice President of the United States
في المنصب
4 مارس, 1921 – 2 أغسطس, 1923
الرئيس Warren G. Harding
سبقه Thomas R. Marshall
خلفه Charles G. Dawes
48 حاكم ماساتشوستس
في المنصب
2 يناير, 1919 – 6 يناير, 1921
Lieutenant Channing H. Cox
سبقه Samuel W. McCall
خلفه Channing H. Cox
46th Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
في المنصب
6 يناير, 1916 – 2 يناير, 1919
الحاكم Samuel W. McCall
سبقه Grafton D. Cushing
خلفه Channing H. Cox
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد John Calvin Coolidge, Jr.
(1872-07-04)يوليو 4, 1872
Plymouth, Vermont
توفي يناير 5, 1933(1933-01-05) (عن عمر 60 عاماً)
نورثامتبون, ماساتشوستس
القومية American
الحزب Republican
الجامعة الأم Amherst College
الدين Congregationalist

كالفين كوليدج (4 يوليو 1872 - 5 يناير 1933)، الرئيس الثلاثون للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية بالفترة من 1923 - 1929. هو محامي جمهوري من فيرمونت.

تاريخ الميلاد والأسرة

ولد جون كالفين كوليدج الثاني في بلدة بلايموث في ولاية فيرمونت في 4 يوليو 1872 و هو الرئيس الوحيد الذي كان ولد في عيد الاستقلال الأمريكي. كوليدج كان الأكبر من الطفلين في أسرته التي كانت تأصلت من نيو إنجلاند. سلف كوليدج الذي كان إسمه جون كوليدج هاجر هن إنجلترا في تقريبا 1630 و استوطن في مستعمرة ماساتشوستس. معظم من أسلافه كانوا مزارعون لكن بعضهم كانوا مهنيين و سياسيين مثلا معمار تشارلز أليرتون كوليدج و دبلوماسي ارشيبالد كاري كوليدج و السيناتور آرثر براون و ناشطة سياسية أولمبيا براون. والده كان مزارع فهو عمل كمدرس و كان عدالة للسلام لفترة. والدته عانيت من مرض ما كان ربما درن و ماتت في 1885.

العائلة ومطلع الحياة

المولد وتاريخ العائلة

Coolidge as an Amherst undergraduate

مناصب سياسية محلية

مناصب في مجلس المدينة

مشرع الولاية ورئيس بلدية

Calvin and Grace Coolidge, about 1918.
كالڤين كوليدج وهو مشرع صغير

The 1913 session was less eventful, and Coolidge's time was mostly spent on the railroad committee, of which he was the chairman.[1] Coolidge intended to retire after the 1913 session, as two terms were the norm, but when the President of the State Senate, Levi H. Greenwood, considered running for Lieutenant Governor, Coolidge decided to run again for the Senate in the hopes of being elected as its presiding officer.[2] Although Greenwood later decided to run for reelection to the Senate, he was defeated and Coolidge was elected, with Crane's help, as the President of a closely divided Senate.[3] After his election in January 1914, Coolidge delivered a speech entitled Have Faith in Massachusetts, which was later republished as a book.[4] His speech, later much-quoted, summarized Coolidge's philosophy of government.

"Do the day's work. If it be to protect the rights of the weak, whoever objects, do it. If it is to help a powerful corporation, do that. Expect to be called a stand-patter, but do not be a stand-patter. Expect to be called a demagogue, but do not be a demagogue. Do not hesitate to be called as revolutionary as science. Do not hesitate to be as reactionary as the multiplication table. Do not expect to build up the weak by pulling down the strong. Do not hurry to legislate. Give administration a chance to catch up with legislation."
Have Faith in Massachusetts as delivered by Calvin Coolidge to the Massachusetts State Senate, 1914.[5]

Coolidge's speech was well-received and he attracted some admirers on its account.[6] Towards the end of the term, many of them were proposing his name for nomination to lieutenant governor. After winning reelection to the Senate by an increased margin in the 1914 elections, Coolidge was reelected unanimously to be President of the Senate.[7] As the 1915 session drew to a close, Coolidge's supporters, led by fellow Amherst alumnus Frank Stearns, encouraged him once again to run for lieutenant governor. This time, he accepted their advice.[8]

"Your assertion that the Commissioner was wrong cannot justify the wrong of leaving the city unguarded. That furnished the opportunity; the criminal element furnished the action. There is no right to strike against the public safety by anyone, anywhere, any time.  ... I am equally determined to defend the sovereignty of Massachusetts and to maintain the authority and jurisdiction over her public officers where it has been placed by the Constitution and laws of her people."
Telegram from Governor Calvin Coolidge to Samuel Gompers September 15, 1919.[9]

The following day about three-quarters of the policemen in Boston went on strike.[10]

Legislation and vetoes as governor

Governor Coolidge, laying the cornerstone at Suffolk Law School in Boston in August of 1920.

نائب الرئيس

انتخابات 1920

President Harding and Vice President Coolidge and their wives.

"Silent Cal"

The Vice Presidency did not carry many official duties, but Coolidge was invited by President Harding to attend cabinet meetings, making him the first Vice President to do so.[11] He gave speeches around the country, but none were especially noteworthy.[12]

رئاسة 1923–1929

Coolidge's father, John Calvin Coolidge, Sr.

Succession to the Presidency

Finishing Harding's term

Coolidge signing the Immigration Act and some appropriation bills. General John J. Pershing looks on.


انتخابات 1924

Electoral votes by state, 1924.
John W. Davis

السياسة الداخلية

Coolidge, reporters, and cameramen

During Coolidge's presidency the United States experienced the period of rapid economic growth known as the "Roaring Twenties." His economic policy has often been misquoted as "generally speaking, the business of the American people is business" (full quotation below, at left). Although some commentators have criticized Coolidge as a doctrinaire laissez-faire ideologue, historian Robert Sobel offers some context based on Coolidge's sense of federalism: "As Governor of Massachusetts, Coolidge supported wages and hours legislation, opposed child labor, imposed economic controls during الحرب العالمية الأولى, favored safety measures in factories, and even worker representation on corporate boards. Did he support these measures while president? No, because in the 1920s, such matters were considered the responsibilities of state and local governments."[13]

"It is probable that a press which maintains an intimate touch with the business currents of the nation is likely to be more reliable than it would be if it were a stranger to these influences. After all, the chief business of the American people is business. They are profoundly concerned with buying, selling, investing and prospering in the world."
President Calvin Coolidge's address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Washington D.C., January 25, 1925.[14]
Coolidge with his Vice President, Charles G. Dawes.


السياسة الخارجية

Coolidge's official White House portrait

إنتخابات 1928

President Coolidge signed a bill granting Native Americans full U.S. citizenship. Coolidge is shown above on October 22, 1924 holding a ceremonial hat.

الراديو والأفلام

A 1938 definitive stamp

أهم القرارات الرئاسية

Collection of video clips of the president

الحكومة

Coolidge's cabinet in 1924, outside the White House
Front row, left to right: Harry Stewart New, John W. Weeks, Charles Evans Hughes, Coolidge, Andrew Mellon, Harlan F. Stone, Curtis D. Wilbur
Back row, left to right, James J. Davis, Henry C. Wallace, Herbert Hoover, Hubert Work
المنصب الاسم الفترة
الرئيس كالڤين كوليدج 1923-1929
نائب الرئيس لا أحد 1923-1925
  Charles G. Dawes 1925-1929
وزير الخارجية Charles Evans Hughes 1923-1925
  Frank B. Kellogg 1925-1929
وزير الخزانة أندرو ملون 1923-1929
Secretary of War John W. Weeks 1923-1925
  Dwight F. Davis 1925-1929
Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty 1923-1924
  Harlan F. Stone 1924-1925
  John G. Sargent 1925-1929
Postmaster General Harry S. New 1923-1929
Secretary of the Navy Edwin Denby 1923-1924
  Curtis D. Wilbur 1924-1929
وزير الداخلية Hubert Work 1923-1928
  Roy O. West 1928-1929
وزير الزراعة Henry C. Wallace 1923-1924
  Howard M. Gore 1924-1925
  William M. Jardine 1925-1929
وزير التجارة Herbert Hoover 1923-1928
  William F. Whiting 1928-1929
وزير العمل James J. Davis 1923-1929


التقاعد والوفاة

Coolidge addressing a crowd at Arlington National Cemetery's Roman style Memorial Amphitheater in 1924.

الهامش

  1. ^ Fuess, 111–113
  2. ^ Fuess, 114–115
  3. ^ Sobel, 80–82
  4. ^ Have Faith in Massachusetts: A Collection of Speeches And Messages by Calvin Coolidge, 1919, ISBN 1417926082.
  5. ^ Have Faith in Massachusetts, 7–8
  6. ^ Sobel, 90–92
  7. ^ Sobel, 90; Fuess, 124
  8. ^ Sobel, 92–98; Fuess, 133–136
  9. ^ Fuess, 226
  10. ^ The exact total was 1,117 out of 1,544. Russell, 113
  11. ^ Sobel, 210–211
  12. ^ Sobel, 219; McCoy, 136
  13. ^ Sobel, Robert. Coolidge and American Business. John F. Kennedy Library and Museum. Retrieved from 2006-03-08 version in Internet Archive on 2007-05-18. See also Greenberg, 47.
  14. ^ Hannaford, 42

المصادر

مصادر رئيسية

مصادر دراسية

  • Barry, John M., Rising Tide: The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 and How It Changed America (1997), ISBN 0684840022.
  • Brandes, Joseph, Herbert Hoover and Economic Diplomacy. (1962)
  • Ferrell, Robert H., The Presidency of Calvin Coolidge (1998), ISBN 0700608923.
  • Fuess, Claude M., Calvin Coolidge: The Man from Vermont (1940), ISBN 0837193206.
  • Greenberg, David, Calvin Coolidge, The American Presidents Series, (2006), ISBN 0805069577.
  • Hannaford, Peter, The Quotable Calvin Coolidge (2001), ISBN 1884592333.
  • McCoy, Donald, Calvin Coolidge: The Quiet President (1967), ISBN 0945707231.
  • Russell, Francis, A City in Terror: Calvin Coolidge and the 1919 Boston Police Strike (1975), ISBN 0807050334.
  • Silver, Thomas B., Coolidge and the Historians (1983), ISBN 0890890382.
  • Sobel, Robert, Coolidge: An American Enigma (1998), ISBN 0895264102.
  • White, William Allen, A Puritan in Babylon: The Story of Calvin Coolidge (1938), قالب:ASIN.
  • Wilson, Joan Hoff, Herbert Hoover, Forgotten Progressive (1975), ISBN 0316944165.

غيرهم

An academic conference on Coolidge was held July 30–31, 1998, at the John F. Kennedy Library to mark the 75th anniversary of his lantern-light homestead inaugural.

طالع أيضاً

وصلات خارجية

مناصب سياسية
سبقه
Grafton D. Cushing
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
1916 - 1919
تبعه
Channing H. Cox
سبقه
Samuel W. McCall
Governor of Massachusetts
1919 – 1921
سبقه
Thomas R. Marshall
نائب رئيس الولايات المتحدة
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923¹
شاغر
اللقب حمله بعد ذلك
Charles G. Dawes
سبقه
Warren G. Harding
رئيس الولايات المتحدة
August 2, 1923² – March 4, 1929
تبعه
Herbert Hoover
مناصب حزبية
سبقه
Charles W. Fairbanks
Republican Party vice presidential candidate
1920
تبعه
Charles G. Dawes
سبقه
Warren G. Harding
Republican Party presidential candidate
1924
تبعه
Herbert Hoover
  1. تحويل قالب:حكام مساتشوستس