جون كالهون

قالب:About-otherpeople قالب:Use American English

John C. Calhoun
Oil on canvas painting of John C. Calhoun, perhaps in his fifties, white shirt, black robe, full head of graying hair
7th Vice President of the United States
في المنصب
March 4, 1825 – December 28, 1832
الرئيس John Quincy Adams
أندرو جاكسون
سبقه Daniel D. Tompkins
خلفه Martin Van Buren
United States Senator
from South Carolina
في المنصب
November 26, 1845 – March 31, 1850
سبقه Daniel Elliott Huger
خلفه Franklin H. Elmore
في المنصب
December 29, 1832 – March 3, 1843
سبقه Robert Y. Hayne
خلفه Daniel Elliott Huger
16th United States Secretary of State
في المنصب
April 1, 1844 – March 10, 1845
الرئيس John Tyler
James K. Polk
سبقه Abel P. Upshur
خلفه James Buchanan
10th United States Secretary of War
في المنصب
December 8, 1817 – March 4, 1825
الرئيس James Monroe
سبقه William H. Crawford
خلفه James Barbour
عضو مجلس النواب الأمريكي
عن الدائرة 6th في South Carolina
في المنصب
March 4, 1811 – November 3, 1817
سبقه Joseph Calhoun
خلفه Eldred Simkins
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد John Caldwell Calhoun
(1782-03-18)مارس 18, 1782
Abbeville, South Carolina, U.S.
توفي مارس 31, 1850(1850-03-31) (عن عمر 68 عاماً)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
المدفن St. Philip's Church
الحزب Democratic-Republican (Before 1828)
Nullifier (1828–1839)
Democratic (1839–1850)
الزوج Floride Bonneau (ز. 1811)
الأنجال 10, including Anna Maria Calhoun Clemson
الوالدان Patrick Calhoun
Martha Caldwell
التعليم Yale University
Litchfield Law School
التوقيع Appletons' Calhoun John Caldwell signature.jpg

John Caldwell Calhoun ( /kælˈhn/;[1] March 18, 1782قالب:SndsMarch 31, 1850) was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina, and the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He is remembered for strongly defending slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics, which he did in the context of defending white Southern interests from perceived Northern threats. He began his political career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent of a strong national government and protective tariffs. By the late 1820s, his views reversed and he became a leading proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification, and opposition to high tariffs—he saw Northern acceptance of these policies as the only way to keep the South in the Union. His beliefs and warnings heavily influenced the South's secession from the Union in 1860–1861.

Calhoun began his political career with election to the House of Representatives in 1810. As a prominent leader of the war hawk faction, Calhoun strongly supported the War of 1812 to defend American honor against British infractions of American independence and neutrality during the Napoleonic Wars. He then served as Secretary of War under President James Monroe, and in this position reorganized and modernized the War Department. Calhoun was a candidate for the presidency in the 1824 election. After failing to gain support, he let his name be put forth as a candidate for vice president. The Electoral College elected Calhoun for vice president by an overwhelming majority. He served under John Quincy Adams and continued under Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in the election of 1828.

Calhoun had a difficult relationship with Jackson primarily due to the Nullification Crisis and the Petticoat affair. In contrast with his previous nationalism, Calhoun vigorously supported South Carolina's right to nullify federal tariff legislation he believed unfairly favored the North, putting him into conflict with unionists such as Jackson. In 1832, with only a few months remaining in his second term, he resigned as vice president and entered the Senate. He sought the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1844, but lost to surprise nominee James K. Polk, who went on to become president. Calhoun served as Secretary of State under John Tyler from 1844 to 1845. As Secretary of State, he supported the annexation of Texas as a means to extend the slave power, and helped settle the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain. He then returned to the Senate, where he opposed the Mexican–American War, the Wilmot Proviso, and the Compromise of 1850 before his death in 1850. Calhoun often served as a virtual party-independent who variously aligned as needed with Democrats and Whigs.

Later in life, Calhoun became known as the "cast-iron man" for his rigid defense of white Southern beliefs and practices.[2][3] His concept of republicanism emphasized approval of slavery and minority rights, as particularly embodied by the Southern states—he owned "dozens of slaves in Fort Hill, South Carolina".[4] Calhoun also asserted that slavery, rather than being a "necessary evil", was a "positive good", benefiting both slaves and slave owners.[5] To protect minority rights against majority rule, he called for a concurrent majority whereby the minority could sometimes block proposals that it felt infringed on their liberties. To this end, Calhoun supported states' rights and nullification, through which states could declare null and void federal laws that they viewed as unconstitutional. Calhoun was one of the "Great Triumvirate" or the "Immortal Trio" of Congressional leaders, along with his Congressional colleagues Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. In 1957, a Senate Committee headed by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Calhoun as one of the five greatest United States Senators of all time.[6][7]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ذكراه

Faded stamp image of Calhoun, saying 'Confederate states One Cent'.
John C. Calhoun postage stamp, CSA issue of 1862, unused
First series $1,000 banknote. Uniface. Inscribed "Twelve months after date".
Confederate First issue banknote depicting both Calhoun and Andrew Jackson (Act of March 9, 1861)


انظر أيضاً

المراجع

  1. ^ "Calhoun, John C." Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  2. ^ Coit 1950, pp. 70–71.
  3. ^ Miller 1996, pp. 115–116.
  4. ^ Ford 1988, pp. 405–424.
  5. ^ Wilson, Clyde. (June 26, 2014). "John C. Calhoun and Slavery as a 'Positive Good': What He Said". The Abbeville Institute. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  6. ^ "The 'Famous Five'". United States Senate. March 12, 1959. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  7. ^ "The "Famous Five" Now the "Famous Nine"". United States Senate. Retrieved February 13, 2017.

Bibliography

Secondary sources


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Primary sources

للاستزادة

  • Boucher, Chauncey S.; Brooks, Robert P., eds. (1931). "Correspondence Addressed to John C. Calhoun, 1837–1849". Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1929.
  • Brown, Guy Story (2000). Calhoun's Philosophy of Politics: A Study of A Disquisition on Government. Mercer, Georgia: Mercer University Press.
  • Capers, Gerald M. (1948). "A Reconsideration of Calhoun's Transition from Nationalism to Nullification". Journal of Southern History. 14 (1): 34–48. JSTOR 2197709.
  • Calhoun, John C. (2017). Beck, Juergen (ed.). The Works of John C. Calhoun Volume 1. Jazzybee Verlag. ISBN 978-3-84967-688-9.
  • Calhoun, John C. (2017). Beck, Juergen (ed.). The Works of John C. Calhoun Volume 2. Jazzybee Verlag. ISBN 978-3-84967-689-6.
  • Calhoun, John C.. "Slavery a Positive Good" United States Senate (February 6, 1837).
  • Coit, Margaret L., ed. (1970). John C. Calhoun: Great Lives Observed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Excerpts from scholars.
  • Current, Richard N. (1966). John C. Calhoun. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  • Fitzgerald, Michael S. (1996). "Rejecting Calhoun's Expansible Army Plan: the Army Reduction Act of 1821". War in History. 3 (2): 161–185. doi:10.1177/096834459600300202.
  • Ford, Lacy K. (1988). "Recovering the republic: Calhoun, South Carolina, and the concurrent majority". South Carolina Historical Magazine. 89 (3): 146–159. JSTOR 27568041.
  • Grove, John G. (2014). "Binding the Republic Together: The Early Political Thought of John C. Calhoun". South Carolina Historical Magazine. 115 (2): 100–121.
  • Gutzman, Kevin (2002). "Paul to Jeremiah: Calhoun's Abandonment of Nationalism". The Journal of Libertarian Studies. 16 (3): 33.
  • Jarvis, Douglas Edward (2013). "The Southern Conservative Thought of John C. Calhoun and the Cultural Foundations of the Canadian Identity". American Review of Canadian Studies. 43 (3): 297–314. doi:10.1080/02722011.2013.819584.
  • Krannawitter, Thomas L. (2008). Vindicating Lincoln: Defending the Politics of Our Greatest President. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7425-5972-6.
  • Kuic, V (1983). "John C. Calhoun's Theory of the Concurrent Majority". American Bar Association Journal. 69: 482.
  • Lerner, Ralph. (1963). "Calhoun's New Science of Politics". American Political Science Review. 57 (4): 918–932. doi:10.2307/1952609. JSTOR 1952609.
  • McBride, Fred. (1997). "Strange Bedfellows: The Political Thought of John C. Calhoun and Lani Guinier". Journal of Black Political Research.
  • Merriam, Charles E. (1902). "The Political Theory of Calhoun". American Journal of Sociology. 7 (5): 577–594. doi:10.1086/211084. JSTOR 2762212.
  • Polin, Constance; Polin, Raymond (2006). Foundations of American Political Thought. Switzerland: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-7929-3.
  • Preyer, Norris W. (1959). "Southern Support of the Tariff of 1816 – a Reappraisal". Journal of Southern History. 25 (3): 306–322. doi:10.2307/2954765. JSTOR 2954765.
  • Rayback, Joseph G. (1948). "The Presidential Ambitions of John C. Calhoun, 1844–1848". Journal of Southern History. XIV (3): 331–56. doi:10.2307/2197879. JSTOR 2197879.
  • Read, James H. (2009). Majority rule versus consensus: the political thought of John C. Calhoun. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
  •  Smith, Henry Augustus Middleton (1911). "Calhoun, John Caldwell" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). دائرة المعارف البريطانية. 5 (eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Vajda, Zoltan (2001). "John C. Calhoun's Republicanism Revisited". Rhetoric & Public Affairs. 4 (3): 433–457. doi:10.1353/rap.2001.0056.
  • Vajda, Zoltán (2013). "Complicated Sympathies: John C. Calhoun's Sentimental Union and the South". South Carolina Historical Magazine. 114 (3): 210–230. JSTOR 23645453.
  • Walters, Jr., Raymond (1945). "The Origins of the Second Bank of the United States". Journal of Political Economy. 53 (2): 115–131. doi:10.1086/256246. JSTOR 1825049.
  • Wilentz, Sean (2008). The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
  • Wiltse, Charles M. (1948). John C. Calhoun, Nullifier, 1829–1839. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Wiltse, Charles M. (1951). John C. Calhoun, Sectionalist, 1840–1850. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Wiltse, Charles M. (1941). "Calhoun's Democracy". Journal of Politics. 3 (2): 210–223. doi:10.2307/2125432. JSTOR 2125432.
  • Wood, W. Kirk (2009). "History and Recovery of the Past: John C. Calhoun and the Origins of Nullification in South Carolina, 1819–1828". Southern Studies. 16: 46–68.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Wikimedia

مجلس النواب الأمريكي
سبقه
Joseph Calhoun
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 6th congressional district

1811–1817
تبعه
Eldred Simkins
مناصب سياسية
سبقه
William H. Crawford
United States Secretary of War
1817–1825
تبعه
James Barbour
سبقه
Daniel D. Tompkins
Vice President of the United States
1825–1832
تبعه
Martin Van Buren
سبقه
Abel P. Upshur
United States Secretary of State
1844–1845
تبعه
James Buchanan
مناصب حزبية
سبقه
Daniel D. Tompkins
Democratic-Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States¹
1824
خدم بجانب: Albert Gallatin (withdrew), Nathaniel Macon, Nathan Sanford
Position abolished
حزب جديد Democratic nominee for Vice President of the United States
1828
تبعه
Martin Van Buren
مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكي
سبقه
Robert Y. Hayne
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina
1832–1843
خدم بجانب: Stephen Miller, William C. Preston, George McDuffie
تبعه
Daniel Elliott Huger
سبقه
Daniel Elliott Huger
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina
1845–1850
خدم بجانب: George McDuffie, Andrew Butler
تبعه
Franklin H. Elmore
سبقه
Levi Woodbury
Chair of the Senate Finance Committee
1845–1846
تبعه
Dixon Hall Lewis
Notes and references
1. The Democratic-Republican Party split in the 1824 election, fielding four separate candidates.

قالب:SenFinanceCommitteeChairs

قالب:Clemson University

خطأ لوا في وحدة:Authority_control على السطر 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).